Gough Whitlam

Edward Gough Whitlam (* 11. July 1916 in Melbourne, Victoria) was the 21. Prime minister of Australia. Its term of office lasted from 5. December 1972 up to the 11. November 1975. Of 8. February 1967 up to 5. December 1972, as well as of the 11. November 1975 up to 22. December 1977 he was the opposition leader. So far he is an only Australian prime minister, who was relieved by the governor general of its office.

Gough Whitlam is to today one of the most disputed political personalities of Australian history. Also retrospectively this leads still to heated debates between proponents and opponents of its politics. A emotion-free view of its term of office as prime ministers as well as the circumstances of its removal from office seems to lie further in far distance.

the time before he prime ministers became (until December 1972)

Gough (spr. goff) Whitlam became in Kew, a wealthy quarter Melbournes as a son of Frederick and Martha Whitlam, geb. WAD dock, born. Grew up it however in Sydney and starting from that 12. Lebensjahr in Canberra.

In the age of 19 years it, again to Sydney, took up an art study , which it could lock 1938. Hernach began it its law studies, which it interrupted however from 1941 to 1945, in order to serve at the royally Australian Air Force in the Second World War. It in this time begun as a navigator in one in the Northern Territory stationed relay. Still during the war he married 1942 Margaret Dovey, with which he should have later three sons and a daughter. After it already engaged itself actively during its office hours for the Australian laboratory party ( ALP), it joined her after its dismissal from the military service in the year 1945 officially. It terminated now also its law studies and became 1947 as a lawyer with court certified.

1947 it began for the first time on local and on regional level to elections in new south Wales , could not as a candidate however not succeed. Only with by-elections it won to 29. November 1952 the electoral district Werriwa and thus a seat in the state parliament. Soon thereafter, to 17. It drew February 1953 then for the first time into the Australian house of representatives .

In the meantime it was also, since school times already admits for instructionness, eloquence and its razor-sharp understanding an outstanding personality of the ALP become. Besides it was recognized as one of the best political speakers and Debattierer at that time, who as one of the few could take up it from the opposition in the parliamentary exchange problem-free with the gewieften prime minister Robert Menzies.

Thus it became to 7. March 1960 to deputy chairmen of the party of the ALP. he stood as a candidate to 1963 unsuccessfully against Arthur Calwell around the party presidency. After this gets the parliamentary elections again in the year 1966 after 1961 and 1963 as Oppositionskanditat, now against Harold lost, Gough Whitlam him could beerben 1967 in the party presidency.

After it 1966 due to its refusal of important points by program of the ALP, as for example the nationalization of the industry, which Verweigerung of national funds for church led schools, or which politics one were excluded „white Australia “almost from the party, could it now profound internal-party reforms accomplish and positions, as the straight mentioned drop. With these reforms, which naturally controversies caused within the party, it could näherbringen its party and its program in the long run beside the past voters from the working class now also to voters from the central layer.

When one of the first Australian politicians it used the possibilities by the use of the television as communication medium is offered, for itself and its election campaigns fully out. First it won two by-elections and then with the parliamentary elections of 1969 of further 17 seats, so that it gets the choice victory over Harold only around 4 seats missed. As an opposition leader it exerted itself among other things for the abolishment of the military service, as well as the retreat of the Australian armed forces from the Viet Nam war . Also it visited 1971 the People's Republic of China and promised there to use itself for its national acknowledgment by Australia.

the time as prime ministers (December 1972 until November 1975)

after Harold Holts still John fermenting clay/tone and William McMahon followed peculiar death 1967 as prime ministers, before Gough Whitlam the elections of 2. December 1972 for itself to decide could do and to 5. December 1972 as prime ministers of Australia was sworn in. This was the first choice victory of the ALP after 1946 under prime minister Ben Chifley.

Gough Whitlam began to convert immediately thereby its reforms. In the time of 5. December 1972 to 18. It together with Lance barn pool of broadcasting corporations the complete government placed and led December 1972 in each case 13 that altogether 26 Ministries. This time is generally well-known as “The Ministry OF two”. Which he could state not immediately a full cabinet is because of the time-consuming party-internal choice procedure, to which traditionally the Ministers of the ALP must undergo. Only starting from 19. It governed December 1972 with a complete cabinet.

During its reign it had always a comfortable government majority in the house of representatives, not however in the senate, where it always on an opposition voice from that liberally party (LP), the Country party (CP) or the Democratic laboratory party (DLP). In addition it came that after 23 years in the opposition, administration and bureaucracy in relation to the new government of Gough Whitlam necessarily as helpful did not prove. Also still many state parliaments were controlled by its political opponents. Last the latter was this situation a substantial factor, although by far not the only one, which led to its removal from office.

Nevertheless Gough Whitlam could implement many changes and reforms into that scarcely three years as prime ministers:

  • Abolishment of the death penalty on federal level
  • final abolishment of the White Australia policy
  • summoning national of the Aboriginal Consultative Committee
  • stabilization of the equal rights of women, as well as appointment of women into high administration and legal positions
  • improvement of the unemployment relief as well as the introduction of assistance for alone-educating parents
  • introduction of language teaching programs for not English-speaking Australians
  • increase of government grants for education and art mechanisms
  • reduction of the right to vote on the age of 18 years
  • abolishment of the British system of the medal nature
  • unification of the different military authorities in a Ministry
  • abolishment of the military service
  • dismissal of the trust territory of Papua New Guinea into the independence from Australia to 15. Septembers 1975
  • admission of diplomatic relations with the People's Republic of China

further changes and proposed reform were rejected however repeated by the senate and could not not be accomplished. This constellation and two large scandals, which concerned its government directly, led in October 1975 to the fact that the opposition under its new leader Malcolm drill could justify their refusal to discharge a new household by the senate controlled by it. This blockade made the government Whitlam incompetent to act. It decided nevertheless Gough Whitlam against new elections, in order to create political clarity. Other political solutions did not seem possible, so that the situation cements itself.

At the 11. November 1975 finally relieved the governor general at that time Sir John Kerr, Gough Whitlam of the office and used the opposition leader Malcolm drill up to the holding of new elections as provisional prime minister. Besides it permitted it to Malcolm drill to new elections both the house of representatives to dissolve as well as the senate. Both, the removal from office and the authorization for the dissolution of both parliamentary chambers are classified until today as constitutionally most doubtful. A such procedure had not to no more given it before, as well as since then. Which motives caused the governor general to this procedure, is today unsettled until.

Still on the same day the senate approved of household and one day later the minority government under Malcolm drill was used. The following elections to 13. Decembers 1975 led to an overwhelming majority for Malcolm drill.

the time after he prime ministers was (starting from November 1975)

Gough Whitlam was now again opposition leaders and the ALP led to the parliamentary elections to 10. December 1977. Since it and its party had to accept a similarly destroying defeat with these elections against prime minister Malcolm drill as in the year 1975, it stepped to 22. December 1977 as party chairmen back. To 31. July 1978 it gave up finally also its mandate for the house of representatives.

Starting from 1978 it held several Gastprofessuren until it 1983 by prime minister Bob Hawke as the Australian Ambassador with the UNESCO in Paris was appointed. This office exercised it altogether three years. Starting from 1985 it was also member in various commissions, and/or. created and led different donations. Since 2000 he takes part actively in the mechanism of a Whitlam of institute in the University OF Western Sydney.

Gough Whitlam is also a trailer of the movement, which has the Republic of Australia as a goal. For this goal it sat down 1999 in the apron of the appropriate referendum of 6. November 1999 together with its old adversary Malcolm drill actively, as prominent.



 

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