Gregor Mendel

Gregor Mendel

Johann Gregor Mendel (* 22. July 1822 in Heinz village, circle Troppau in Austrian Schlesien (today local part of Vražné with Neutitschein, Tschechien); † 6. January 1884 in Brünn (today Brno, Tschechien)) were Augustinermönch and natural scientist.

Thosemost of its publications treat meteorological topics. He was inspired bee breeder and examined the transmission of characteristics with peas. It discovered the rules of the transmission and therefore often also as a father of the genetics is designated.

Table of contents

personal record

Mendel was born as an only son of Anton and raisin Mendel. It had an older and a younger sister. Already as a child it helpedin the parental garden when improving the fruit trees and in the garden of the village school he bred bees. In its youth he worked also as a gardner.

Although parents did not have money, in order to finance its training reasonably, it visited the High School inTroppau. Here it began to breed bees. It visited 1840 - 1843 philosophical Institut in Olmütz. Because its sister had done without her inheritance, it could lock the training 1843 with very good notes.

On recommendation of its physics teacher, the Paters Dr.Friedrich Franz, he became 1843 monk with the Augustinern in Brünn, Austria Hungary (Gregor is its medal name). Thus it could itself to load without its parents financially and concentrate without constant concerns around its maintenance, completely on its scientific interests.

1844-1848studied it theology at the Brünner theological institute. Still before the conclusion it was geweiht 1847 to the priest. A place was provided for it as an auxiliary teacher at the local High School.

After failed teaching profession examination Cyrill Napp, the abbott of the monastery made possible for it, of1851-1853 a study at the University of Vienna. He worked among other things at professor Christian Doppler, the discoverer of the Doppler effect. From this Mendel acquired its mathematical talents. It concerned itself also with Zoologie, Botanik, paleontology and chemistry.

it turned 1853 afterBrünn back and worked on the Brünner state six-form high school as an auxiliary teacher.

it began 1854 on recommending its professors and its colleagues in the monastery to examine variants with plants. It used the garden of the monastery, over with a selection of suitableTo accomplish sorts of the pea of crossing experiments. It regarded characteristics of the Erbsenpflanzen and - seeds, which were to be differentiated clearly, for example red or white-flowering peas, such with yellow or green seed etc. It crossed, by it the Pollen of the race on thoseScars to the other race brought. With this old technology it examined many seedlings unusually. From 355 artificial fertilizations it pulled 12,980 hybrid plants and could so secured results of the rainful fragmentation of the characteristics show.

it stepped 1856 again toTeaching profession examination on and could again not successfully lock these.

Between 1856 and 1863 he cultivated roughly 28,000 Erbsenpflanzen. 1862 it created the “natural scientist association Brünn” with other friendly natural scientists from the environment. From its experiments two general “laws” followed, thoselater than Mendel laws admits became. After its appointment as the abbott he had to dedicate however hardly still time extensively its attempts and adjusted himself these therefore to a large extent.

1868 he became an abbott of the monastery in Brünn. Therefore it had those1853 accepted place at the state six-form high school give up. There it was 14 years active and as if moderate and very popular teacher estimated. He said that these years luckiest its life had been. 1869 it published the essay “over somefrom artificial fertilization won Hieracium hybrids ".

In its last years it was complicated into a tax litigation with the state. In the spring 1883 got sick Mendel at a renal disease, which led to a general water craze. Mendel deceased to 6. January 1884 in Brünn.


retroactive is assumed that Mendel did not accomplish its attempts in such a way as described. The experiments would have been too aufwändig. Besides it is accepted that those probably came statistically to exact results by omitting the deviating data. These blemishesdo not diminish however by any means the meaning of its realizations, it thereby if necessary the further study of the area blocked itself.

Only 16 years after its death, at the beginning 20. Century, its research of Hugo de Vries, Carl Correns became and Erich Tschermak independently rediscovers. Still later, in the 1920er and 1930er years, its work became the basis of modern evolution biology and became than Mendel laws generally admits. Are its activities than Meteoroligist and Bienenzüchter admit less. OverThe latter all recordings were unpublished destroyed. It had even 50 peoples with bees of all continents.

Meaning Mendels for the genetics

Mendel succeeded it, by crossing attempts also breed forms of peas clean-race-triumphed themselves, only in few hereditary factors (genes) differentiate to describe the leaving laws. With the realization that the genetic total information of an organism consists of individual genes it was weakened, objections by opponents of the selection theory. These had stated that characteristics by “mixing transmission” in the run that, developed againGenerations would disappear thinned out and.


although itself Gregor Mendel much with peas busy, it did not rank these by any means among its favourite plants. Like many of its contemporaries 19. Century was very much done it of Fuchsien, since early 19. Centuryincreased from south and Central America as well as from New Zealand and selected a Fuchsienblüte for its coat of arms was introduced, when he was selected 1868 to the abbott of his monastery.


  • Gregor Mendel: Against communism and socialism, in: Reports k.k. Mährisch Schlesi societyto the transport of the building of fields, nature and regional studies 57 (1877), S. 6-8.
  • Gregor Mendel, Erich von Tschermak Seysenegg: Attempts over plant hybrids. 2 papers 1866 and 1870, German publishing house, Frankfurt/M. 2000, ISBN 3-8171-3121-6


  • Dietmar Grieser: Great moments of the science. Austrian genius ofGregor Mendel to Lise Meitner, Heyne, Munich 2001, ISBN 3-453-17854-8
  • Robin M. Henig: The monk in the garden. The history of the Gregor Mendel and the discovery of the genetics, argon publishing house, Berlin 2001, ISBN 3-87024-528-X
  • Roger clear one: Gregor Mendel. Father OFgenetics, Enslow Books, Springfield, N.J. 1997, ISBN 0-89490-789-1
  • Rolf solder ago: Wegbereiter of the genetics. Gregor Johann Mendel and August pointing man, German publishing house, Frankfurt/M. 1990, ISBN 3-8171-1130-4
  • Jiri Munzar: Gregor Mendel's first, up to now unpublished paper over meteorology, in: ProceedingsOF the Gregor Mendel Colloqium, June 29 - July 3, 1970, Moravian museum, Brno 1971, S. 185-187

Web on the left of

  • {{#if:
| | * Literature of and over Gregor Mendel in the catalog of the DDB



  > German to English > (Machine translated into English)