|of these articles is occupied with the today's Republic of Greece, for the history old Greece sees above all antique Greece, for late ancient times and the Middle Ages sees Byzantine realm, for the early modern times sees Osmani realm|
Wahlspruch: Eleftheria i thanatos/Ελευθερία ή θάνατος , („liberty or death “)
|office language||newGreek (Dimotiki)|
|system of government||parliamentary Republic of|
|head of the government||Kostas Karamanlis|
|surface||131,626 km ² |
|Number of inhabitants||11.100.000 |
|population density||of 84 inhabitants per km ² |
|gros domestic product/inhabitant||21,017 US-$ (2005)|
|currency||1 euro = 100 euro cent|
|time belt|| UTC +2 OEZ |
UTC+3 OESZ (March - October)
|national anthem||Ymnos pro tin eleftherian /Ύμνος προς την ελευθερίαν(„Hymn to the liberty “)|
|river||220 V ~50 cycles per second|
|portable radio standard||GSM to 900 MHz and 1800 MHz, UMTS|
|television standard||PAL, DVB-S, DVB-T|
Greece (Greek in former times/formally Ελλάς, Hellas, today/colloquially Ελλάδα, Ellada; official full form: Hellenic republic) lies in South-east Europe and is a Mediterranean neighbor. The Greek national territory borders on Albania, the Republic of Macedonia, Bulgaria and Turkey.
Table of contents
major item: Administrative arrangement of Greece
Greece is into 13 administrative districts (griech. περιφέρειες/periferies, Sg. περιφέρεια/periferia) arranged, those again into 51 prefectures (griech. νομοί/nomi, Sg. νομός/nomos)are subdivided:
- Districts on the mainland:
- districts on islands:
The region Macedonia in the north of Greece is not with the independent state To confound Macedonia, which is only called in Greece “former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia” (FYROM).
See also: To list of the cities in Greece
of the population of the Greek-orthodox church belong to religion nominal, on the largest partthe mainland the Autokephalen orthodox ore diocese of Greece with seat in Athens, on the Dodekanes and most monasteries of the autonomous monk republic Athos at the Ostzipfel of the peninsula of Chalkidiki with Thessaloniki the Ökumeni Patriarchat of Konstantinopel with seat in Istanbul. Similarly as in Ireland and Poland religious affiliation played a substantial role as identifier with the education of the Greek nation, serious admitting to religious rites is far common therefore under the orthodox population.
The orthodox church practices also substantialInfluence on the training system out, whereby the special position of the Greek-orthodox denomination is specified as “prevailing religion” in the Greek condition. Although you are awarded in the Vefassung not expressly the status of a national church, Greece becomes due to the close institutionalVerpflechtung of state and orthodox church in the constitutional right, just like e.g.Great Britain and Denmark, the category assigned by states with a national church. Thus the orthodox church is subordinate also partly to the state, for example must all bishops of the parliamentare confirmed.
Suggestions to introduce a more deeply going separation from state and church are so far increasingly on embittered resistance pushed on the part of that politisierenden orthodox church. Therefore seems under the current conservative government under Kostas Karamanlis rather the compromise of a “modernizationthe relations between state and church " to be aimed at.
Beside the Greek-orthodox population it gives among the citizens approx. 180,000 Muslims (above all Pomaken and citizens of Turkish descent), approx. 121.000 catholic Christians of the Greek and latin rite, *  thenabout 50,000 witnesses Jehovas, approx. 30.000 Protestant (usually evangelikale) Christians of different directions, and approx. 5,000 Jews.
The numerous Albanian immigrants in Greece are usually nominal Muslims, catholics or orthodox ones, but the predominant majority does not practice their faith.
Approximately a quarter of the surface of Greece is allotted to approximately 9841 islands, by which 167 is inhabited. The largest of it are:
- Crete (approx. 8,261 km ²)
- Euböa (approx. 3.657km ²)
- Lesbos (approx. 1,630 km ²)
- Rhodos (approx. 1,400 km ²)
- Chios (approx. 840 km ²)
- Kephalonia (approx. 780 km ²)
- Korfu (approx. 579 km ²)
- Samos (approx. 480 km ²)
- Lemnos (approx. 476 km ²)
- Náxos (approx. 432 km ²)
the antique Greece including the smallasiatic cities is called cradle of Europe, in particular due tothe civilization achievements (Greek philosophy, see also Platon, Aristoteles, Demokrit; Natural sciences, historiography, the Homer of attributed works etc.). After Rome Greece in the year 146 v. Chr. the Roman province, became it made 395 after the handing hurrying A component of the eastRoman and/or. Byzantine realm up to its fall.
since 1453 part of the Osmani realm came it starting from 1821 to the large rising of the people. As one of the most important mental Wegbereiter of this rising of the people is considered Rigas Velestinlis (1757-1798). In the battle of Navarino it succeeded to a European sea-armed force to achieve over the osmanischen fleet the upper hand. By the Londoner minutes of the 3. February 1830, of the Osmani realm to 24. April recognition, became Greeceindependent state explains. Thus Ioannis Kapodistrias up to its murder was a first head of state.
in the year 1832 then prince Otto von Bayern became as Otto I.Of Greece first (modern) king. However this state covered only the smaller partthe today's national territory. Thessalien was acquired 1881 , Crete 1908. Most islands as well as the north Epirus and northeast Macedonia of the today's state (with Thessaloniki) came only by the two Balkans wars 1912 - 1913 at Greece, as thatweakened Osmani realm no more opposite the Greeks allied with Serbia and occasional Bulgaria to maintain ground there could not.
After the First World War with the Entente allied Greece with approval of winner powers (people federation mandate) tried to use the Turkish defeat, overexcept of Bulgaria won the west also Osthrakien and at that time by the majority the area of Smyrna (today İzmir ), inhabited by Greeks, thrakien under its control to bring. A goal was the conversion of the Megali Idea (large idea), which of the Prime Minister at that time Eleftherios Venizelos with the expression “Greece of the two continents and five seas” as a goal with regard to foreign policy was concretized. But 1922 ended the Greek-Turkish war with a devastating Greek defeat in the smallasiatic disaster. In the contract of Lausanne 1923 becameradical population exchange agrees: Everything still in large parts of Turkey scatters living Greeks (with exception of the Istanbuler Greeks and some island Greeks) to Greece was driven out (about 1.5 millions), in response had to the 500,000 usually Turkish Muslims Greece to leave, alsoException of the Muslims in Thrakien. The refugee ratio in Greece after this war amounted to approx. 25%, substantially more than for instance in West Germany after the Second World War.
In the Second World War Greece under the dictator general Metaxas leaned an Italian ultimatum to the surrender off. (The day of the refusal, the 28. October 1940 today as national holiday, the so-called “no day”, is committed, since Metaxas is to have only sent a telegram with the word Όχι , thus no, at Italy.) thereupon becameGreece of Italy attacked, could strike however the Italian troops and until far behind the Albanian border back urge. Only by the military intervention of the German armed forces in April May 1941 over Yugoslavia and Bulgaria the Greek resistance was broken. Italy, Germanyand Bulgaria established a hard crew regime. Against the soon erstarkende partisan movement crew powers reached through several times war criminal in brutal way: In different places, among other things in Kalavrita and Distomo, the respective population of village of that became as “retaliation” for partisan assaults Armed forces or “special units” murder. The question about a remuneration from German side for these actions is to today again and again the subject of political discussion. The armed resistance proceeded mainly from the communist affected people release army ELAS. At the same time it gave in addition,rivaling royalistische partisans, who were supported by Great Britain. After military intervention of Great Britain to 5. December 1944 became the ELAS according to the agreement of Varkiza of 12. February 1945 disarms and demobilisiert.
The Second World War went into Greece quasi directly intothe Greek civil war over, which emerged soon as deputy war of the two political poles: The Greek communists, who had carried the main load of the partisan fight against the crew regime of the German armed forces, tried now, only halfheartedly supported from the Soviet Union andat first also Yugoslavia (see map with range of Yugoslav requirements against Greece:1) to attain the rule over the released Greece discovered however primarily royalistische Gegenwehr, which v.a. by Great Britain and the USA generously one supported. Contrary toto the communists the seizure of power in Greece did not succeed to all other Eastern European states however: In on both sides with extreme hardness, also opposite the civilian population, led civil war the communist federations were back-pushed ever more after northwest. The end of the support throughYugoslavia sealed finally the end of its military power.
Reason for the meager support by the communist “brother states” was a secret treaty at the edge of the conference of Jalta 1945: Churchill and Stalin had there an influence relationship from “90% west to 10% east”for Greece agrees; this was felt later of many Greek communists than “Soviet betrayal”, since one had been only a farmer victim Stalins. Since this time there are two communist parties in Greece (Greek “KKE” for Κομμουνιστικό Κόμμα Ελλάδας, lat.: KommunistikoComma Elladas, dt.: A communist party of Greece): disillusioned ones at that time formed the “inland KKE”, the further line-faithful Stalinisten the “foreign country KKE”.
1967 seized a military regime under Georgios Papadopoulos power , while its numerous oppositional was locked up, tortured, murdered or floated in the exile, in reaction to liberalisation tendencies among them the composer Mikis Theodorakis (so-called. Obristenputsch). The Cyprus adventure of the junta led 1974 to the collapse of the dictatorship and to the return to the democracy under Konstantin Karamanlis.
1981 became Greece member of the EEC. The economic and social modernization became by the highEEC auxiliary funds (among other things for the agriculture) promoted, but the distance to the more developed EEC states remained existing.
In view of the circulations in former Yugoslavia starting from 1989 Greece tried a its own to play per-Serbian role with regard to foreign policy often in clear demarcation of EWG/EUand NATO. Although this self-willed line with regard to foreign policy may be due in their emergence also to economic connections to the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (also as transit country on the main traffic axle to Western Europe), it is coined/shaped in its further development by two main factors: A)the quite material fear of violent surface covering border modifications on the entire Balkans and b) of the use latently in Greek linking present nationalism than mass mobilization means by the PASOK government under Andreas Papandreou. Such an operation of the nationalism on the part of the politicalLink for reasons of own political surviving places before the background of the economic failure of the 1981 of the PASOK announced democratic socialism and political paging in Eastern Europe also a parallel unique for the Western European policy to the development to that a linkingin Yugoslavia. The used nationalistic Rhetorik developed in particular by the name controversy with the Republic of Macedonia very strong self-dynamics, by nearly all political forces as well as nearly from the entire spectrum of the press was taken over, coined/shaped of Greece per-Serbian attitude in the Bosniaand Kosovokonflikt and made possible among other things also the active interference of the orthodox church into the political life. The damage of Greek economic interests by the proclaimed embargo against the Republic of Macedonia, their diplomatic nonacknowledgement and the locking on the traffic axle afterWestern Europe lying Serbian-Croatian border might however at later time a mitigating influence have played. Only in recent time also a public break of the political parties of the Serbian nationalism takes place. An exception places to nationalistic rights beside the communist party(KKE), which to the death of Slobodan Milosevic (2006) for its person to the expression brought its sympathy, explained, the European Union was the exclusive guilty one to collapses Yugoslavia, and thus a further Greek political strange thing represents.
In recent timebecame under the government Simitis also steps relaxing the Greek-Turkish relationship, in addition, the relations with the neighbour states increasingly on the Balkans undertaken, those become economically interesting for the Greek foreign trade and for foreign investments.
thoseTransformation of Greece from a agriculturally coined/shaped country to an industrial company carries out itself for the seventies. The portion of the agriculture of the gross national product sank continuously, even if it constitutes still another substantial part of the resource of the country.
Are cultivated preferablyfor the export products, like wine , intended tobacco and olives. The most important cultivation areas for wheat are Thessalien, west Thrakien, Böotien and Macedonia. In the meantime again put goals of extending the cattle breeding led to a strengthenedCultivation of barley, corn and other fodder plants. For the cultivation of fruit and vegetable the soil of Greece is suitable, then prosper grapefruit, Soja, Avocado and also asparagus.
Due to topographic conditions long time became on thatUse of agricultural machines does without. This changes with the intensification of the agriculture more and more. On the other hand still the very small average cultivated area per enterprise stands.
The Viehwirtschaft does not cover further by far the internal requirement. Forestry is insignificant.Due to the situation of Greece here fishing is a substantial base of life since generations. The sponge fishery meaning in former times lost however nearly completely at meaning and is today only suitable for the trade with souvenirs.
Greece has a set of Bodenschätzen, which are not very productive however after past realizations. One wins above all marble, manganese, magnesium, bauxite, baryte and in smaller quantities of gold and silver. Also are occurrences at bitumen, copper, Molybdenum, ocher and nickel admit. Also in the Ägäis oil and natural gas were found.
An important source of income forms the tourism, since thatConstantly was up to to seventies.
1992 and 2000 the portion of the public expenditures for the health service
to 7. March 2004 took place in Greece a change of government. The conservative party Nea Dimokratia (lp) replaced the socialist party PASOK governing so far . To 8. March 2004 assigned president Konstantinos Stefanopoulos the leading candidate of the conservative Kostas Karamanlis the formation of a government.Already one day later, to 9. , He presented his new government crew to March 2004. The new minister of foreign affairs he appointed the diplomat Petros Molyviatis. This is considered as a specialist to the Cyprus question. The negotiations over the reunification of the island failedhowever by the refusal of the Annan plan by the Greek Zyprioten at the end of of April 2004.
The new Greek government has 19 Ministers, under it two women. Karamanlis explained besides the preparations on the olympic plays in August 2004 as the top-priority case, there its government teamin this regard at large time and action pressure was. The negotiations over a reunification of Cyprus, led with the help of the UN, failed, why at the 1. May 2004 only the Greek part of the Mediterranean island of the European union joined. The new government becomesaim at after press reports of a far approximation with Turkey. The Turkish Prime Minister Recep Tayyip Erdoğan was one of the first politicians, who congratulated to Karamanlis to its victory.
The two largest parties Nea Dimokratia and Pasok control the Greek policy since 1974,besides also the communist KKE plays a substantial role. The allocation of seats in the Greek parliament, the Vouli clay/tone Ellinon, looks at present as follows: Nea Dimokratia - 165 PASOK - 117 KKE - 12 SYN - 6
relating to domestic affairs standsGreece before numerous challenges. These are appropriate essentially in the ranges of the budgetary policy and the consolidation still dramatically for deficit eras of the national budget and the fight of unemployment, those despite the constant noteworthy economic growth of the last years still on highLevel remains with at the same time substantial price increase. In the year 2004 the debt conditions amounted to 109.3% at the gross domestic product, with which Greece is the most highly indebted country within the European Union.
A further unresolved problem is the substantial influx of foreigners, above allfrom illegal, cheap, in the agriculture needed workers mainly from Albania, Romania and Bulgaria. Together with the criminality rate within the range of the Eigentumsdelikte - in the past a negligible size -, rising at the same time, this surrounding field favours social tensions and promotes thoselatently strange-hostile tendencies in the population, who sees both phenomena in a causal connection.
See also: Political parties in Greece
ally often stands for foreign policy the course with regard to foreign policy of Greece in European Union and NATO contrary to that. The Prime Minister of the 90's Andreas Papandreou applied with its recurring nationalistic Eskapaden as Enfant terrible in the European Union. The anti-Americaism and the difficult relationship of Greece to its neighbours, verwurzelte deeply in the population, as well as deep coinages outmake of Greece for history foreign policy a complex topic.
To that extent the gradual reconciliation and those are better and better becoming relations with the former ore enemy Turkey a revolutionary step. Greece is considered as one of the largest proponents of an European Union entry Ankaras. Even if GreecePosition to the Cyprus conflict is clear, then the refusal of the Annan plan loaded the relationship to Turkey not substantially. The relationship to Albania, with which the actual state of war only 1987 was terminated, can be regarded meanwhile as balanced, the contacts too Sofia and Bucharest are very good. With Bulgaria the opening of 3 new border crossings was agreed upon.
The diplomatic relations with the northern neighbour Macedonia is in the development and the view is positive. The relationship remains however because of after howforwards unresolved name controversy loaded, again Macedonia strengthens by the USA in November 2004 after acknowledgment of the republic.
The relations with Serbia is traditionally very good. Serbia is still considered as centuries-old only allying, which one has on the Balkans. Thosethroughout per-Serbian attitude in the Yugoslavia war and those decidedly closed rejecting attitude against the NATO bombardment on Serbia 1999 loaded however the strained relationship to NATO, even if Greece stresses officially its alliance loyalty.
beside the griechischsprachigen population of majorityexist some ethnical and linguistic minorities as well as groups of immigrants. Since Greece does not seize such subpopulations statistically, all data are based for the number of their members on estimations and can vary depending upon political intention strongly.
as ethnical minorities can be designated the following subpopulations:
mainly in the administrative district the Thrakien residents 100.000-140.000 Pomaken, Muslim Roma and Turks are recognized on the basis of the Lausanner of peace treaty of 1923 together as Muslim minority and enjoysome special rights, like school teaching in Turkish language, use of school books from Turkey (in accordance with. bilateral agreements), Koranschulen, autonomy in affairs of the family right etc. In the last decades increasingly an assimilation found to that approx. 30.000 as Pomakisch the well-knownRhodope dialect of the Bulgarian speaking Muslim Pomaken to the group of the Turks instead of. These distinguish themselves sharply from the very heterogeneous group romani and türkischsprachigen Muslim Roma, although the latters are inclined likewise to call itself as Turks.
After oneNumber of official and semi-official Repressalien against the Muslim minority during the 80's formed this at the beginning of the 90's, also with active support from Turkey, nationalistic party formations. These were occasionally represented by 2 delegates in the parliament, which however throughthe introduction of a 3%-Hürde was prevented. Up-to-date 1 delegate of the conservative people's party Nea Dimokratia originates from the Muslim minority.
Points of conflict with the Greek state exist in the up-to-date forbidden designation of associations using the adjective „Turkishly “and the request,the prominent clergymen (Muftis), z.Zt. when officials are appointed by the state to determine by elections.
Beside the Muslim Roma also numerous Christian Roma resides (calls Athinganoi or Tsinganoi ) , those to parts in completely Greeceare assimilated by the population of majority, to parts however also under conditions of extreme social demarcation live, i.d.R. with the degree accompanies to your recognizability as Roma.
on the basis of the result of the moderate ethnical party Ouranio Toxo (rainbow) with thatElections to the European parliament in the year 2004 can be proceeded from an absolute minimum number with 6.000 ethnical Mazedoniern in the region Macedonia (2.400.000 inhabitants). Main objective of the politically active part of this subpopulation, which maintains partially connections to the Republic of Macedonia, is those(currently limited) promotion of the Macedonian language and culture, the official consideration of the Macedonian one in the educational system and the abolition of the legal regulation to the return of civil war refugees, which ethnical Macedonian political refugees from the Greek civil war (1946-1949) the return refuses. (To the groupthe local Macedonian dialect likewise speaking ethnical Greek S. far down.)
as linguistic minorities know speakers of the following languages and/or. Dialects to be designated, which reject a separate ethnical identity:
- Aromunisch, spoken of the groupthe Aromunen or also Vlachen mainly in the area of the administrative district Thessalien in central Greece. Their number became on up to approx. 100.000 active and 300,000 passive speakers estimated, whereby these data might be clearly too highly seized.
- Arvanitisch, a dialect of the toskischen Albanian, mainly spoken in the area of the administrative district Epirus in northwest Greece as well as of isolated subpopulations in the remainder of the country. While further high attention is given to the care of vlachischer and arvanitischer traditions and folklore, the number of active speakers takesthe appropriate dialects generation-causes constantly off.
- Macedonian, in its as Slawomakedonisch, Slawisch, Entopia („local dialect “) and before the name controversy Macedonia also as Makedonitisch designated dialect, spoken in the area of the region Macedonia in north Greece, mainly into and around the prefectureof Florina. Contrary to the speakers of the same, for their part also dialect called Ägäis Macedonian ( S. feeling as ethnical Mazedonier. further above), this group rejects the use of the term „Macedonian “in the ethnical sense, whereby itself the entirePopulation of the administrative region Macedonia, independently of it, whether she speaks the local slawischen dialect, Makedonen in the sense of a regional, not ethnical identity calls.
- Russian, spoken of Rückkehrern from the area of the former USSR, their background in many respects alsothe subpopulation designated in Germany as Russian-Germans is comparable to that.
groups of immigrants
the largest in Greece residents groups of immigrants are:
- Albanian (approx. 240.000)
- Russian and Ukrainer (approx. 60.000)
- Bulgaren (approx. 30.000)
- Romanian (approx. 20.000)
- Pakistanis (approx. 17.000)
- Egyptian (approx. 10.000)
- Poland (approx. 10.000)
(the above number data are based on the number of requests for a residence permit and the number of the foreigners under social security. There it immigrants without residence permit and/or. , Are they do not consider social security as minimum numbers to be understood.)
Similarly as in Great Britain, all Greek and foreign citizens, who are active in Greece, enjoy health service in the Greek health system a national insurance protection. The physician can select between the service in the public range or a private practice; both variants togetherare not possible. The supply can be divided in two categories:
The primary supply of the national insurance, whereby here unequal conditions exist with the medical services in cities, urban peripheral areas and rural districts. In the urban centers is the primarynational medical supply clearly better than on the country, because there are well organized health centers, which are visited by the insured ones of all ranges for their treatment. The secondary private supply, like one it usually in private practices as well as the capitalsthe governmental districts and in the cities of the larger islands finds. The medical supply of the islands taken up by numerous tourists is noticed mainly by individual, freely practicing physicians, by private health centers with usually very good specialist equipment, as well as by country doctors.
The national supply is not whole on Central European conditions (v.a. concerning special OI procedures), while the private supply has Central European standard. No presenting of the personal patient booklet is necessary partly even in emergencies, if the patient is not stationarily treated. This applies toall persons, who are in Greece.
The smaller municipalities and villages, particularly on the islands and in the interior, have often at all no organized fire-brigades. Here the population is dependent with fires, accidents and other emergencies on over-local assistance.Particularly in the rural areas it comes in the summer again and again to heavy Waldbränden and shrub fires. This force of nature is to a large extent unprotectedly delivered the population concerned, and also the over-local assistance is often only the proverbial drop on the hotStone. Also with everyday employments such as traffic accidents and house fires often any longer much is not to be saved, if the over-local assistance arrives finally. The ESEPA is one nationally recognized relief organization, those in these areas guards bases around there the population activelyto help.
the Greek Eisenbahnnetz was neglected in large sections single-railed and in the past decades strongly. In the 90's with modernization work it was begun whereby among other things the centerline Athens Thessaloniki substantiallywas improved, the distance from Thessaloniki to the Macedonian border was electrified and the 2004 open Athener rapid-transit railway to Korinth were developed, which led to a considerable rise of the transport numbers. While on the distance Athens Thessaloniki average-stays the course the fastest land transport means is, findsitself the metric Peloponnesstrecke further on the technical conditions of a museum course.
Many regions are not opened by the Eisenbahnnetz. Z.Zt. the following distances are in enterprise:
- Athens Thessaloniki (with the branches Oinoi Chalkida, Leianokladi Stylida, Palaiofarsalos Kalampaka and Larissa Volos)
- Agioi Anargyroi Patras Kalamata (with the branches of the rack railwayDiakofto Kalavryta and Pyrgos Olympia)
- Agioi Anargyroi Tripoli Kalamata (with the branch Argos Nafplio)
- Thessaloniki Edesa
- Thessaloniki Eidomeni (Macedonian border)
- Thessaloniki Ormenio (Bulgarian border) (with the branches Strymonas Promachonas (Bulgarian border) and Pythio Turkish border)
- to airport - Athens - Korinth (Athener rapid-transit railway)
- Athener underground (3 lines)
see also Organismos SidirodromonEllados (Greek railways - EYE)
culture and society
major item: Philosophy of the antique ones
major item: Greek language
major item: History of art of Greece pictures: Water colors
major items: Greek kitchen
major item: Greek literature
major item: Greek music
major item: Viticulture in Greece
|1. January||New Year's Day||Protochroniá|
|6. January||of three kings||Theofánia/Fóta|
|6. March||rose Monday||Kathari Deftéra (clean Monday)||corresponds kath. Ashtray Wednesday, beginning of the Fastens|
|25. March||national holiday||Evangelismoú (Maria Verk.)||Independence day (1821)|
|21. April||Karfreitag||Megáli Paraskeví (large Friday)|
|24. April||Ostermontag||Deftéra tou Páscha|
|1. May||day of the work||Protomaiá (first May)|
|12. June||Whitsuntide||AgíouPnévmatos (the holy spirit)|
|15. August||Maria Ascension Day||Kímisi tis Thetókou|
|28. October||national holiday||Epétios tou Ochi (day “no”)||national holiday (1940)|
|25. December||1. Weihnachtstag||Christoúgena (Christi birth)|
|26. December||2. Weihnachtstag||Fassika|
sound article 4 paragraph 7 of the Greek condition to “titles of nobility or rank designations are lent nor recognized Greek citizens (...) neither. ”
|Wiktionary: Greece - word origin, synonyms and translations|
- Bötig, Klaus: Greece: Mainland and Peloponnes, DuMont: Cologne 1996, 396 S., ISBN 3-7701-3456-7
- Mueller, Michael (Hrsg.): Greece. Travel guide, Michael Mueller publishing house: Attains, 8.Aufl. 2002, 768 S., ISBN 3-9232-7860-8
- Josing, Wolfgang: Greece - mainland, Nelles publishing house: Munich 1994, expenditure 2004/2005, 256 S. ISBN 388618-342-4
- Steven W. Sowards: Modern history of the Balkans. The Balkans in the age of the nationalism, BoD 2004, ISBN 3-8334-0977-0
- history of Greece
- Greek language
- Greek mythology
- antique Greece
- Byzantine realm
- Liste of important Greeks
- Liste of Greek islands
- Wikipedia name convention newGreek
Web on the left of
|Wikiquote: Greek proverbs - Quotations|
- Wiki portal Greece
- Greek message in Berlin
- land and travel information of the Foreign Office
- the myth Greece over the centuries
- open directory Project: Greece
- agrarian sector and agrarian structures in Greece
- Greek museums
- of tourist boards in Greece
- bibliography Greece
- German-language one Greek daily paper
- GreekMinistry of the culture (English)
- data & facts to Greece
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coordinates: 38° 18 ′ 4 " N, 23° 44 ′ 28 " O