Large coalition

as large coalition one generally designates a coalition of the two largest parliament parties, which have together a strong majority in country or national parliament.

In long time the actually existing three-party system of the Federal Republic of Germany was the only possibility of oneLarge coalition between CDU/(CSU) and SPD, as was practiced it in the federation between 1965 and 1969. Therefore a coalition of these two parties is habitually still called large coalition.

In view of the strength of the left wing party (Party of Democratic Socialism) in the countries of the former GDR it comes here increased to coalitions between CDU and SPD, in which one of the two partner parties is only third-strongest Kraft in the parliament, so at present into Brandenburg (CDU a third-strongest party) andin Saxonia (SPD a third-strongest party with less than 10 per cent voice portion). In Saxonia-Anhalt draws after the election of the federal parliament of 26. March 2006 a further CDU/SPD coalition off, at which the SPD is only third-strongest Kraft in the state parliament.

In view of this changedInitial position in the new Lands of the Federal Republic the press agencies of strip packing and GERMAN PRESS AGENCY are moved away meanwhile to call the black-red and red-black coalitions in these countries large coalition.

n Austria one calls a coalition of ÖVP and SPÖ large coalition.

Table of contents

general

large coalitions are partly disputed, since they have according to opinion of their critics to large government power and due to their width too many compromises require,which can lead to political stop. On the other hand a large coalition creates the possibility of interspersing some urgently necessary reform projects also then if its accompaniments are felt the concerning than strongly negatively of, like e.g.Tax increases, subsidy or pension shortening. One (too)strong opposition would attack and would possibly prevent these projects alone for party-tactical reasons.
In Germany for example both the Christian liberals governments of the 1990er suffered years and the Red-Green government 1999 -2005 under the fact that in each case the people's party in the oppositionover the Upper House of Parliament successfully to block knew many law projects operated by the government. From this finally exactly that political stop resulted, for which frequently coalitions of two large parties are criticized.

Large coalitions are often formed as Notlösung, if itself due to the power equilibrium noneclear, world-descriptive founded majorities to form can. This applies particularly to countries without five-per cent hurdle with accordingly large party variety. A further reason for the education of large coalitions are crises with regard to foreign policy or general political. So many states had large in each case coalitionsin the two world wars, for example Great Britain. A further motive are defense movements against aggressive small or edge parties, which in 20. Century several times to large coalitions in Austria led.

Germany

large coalition 1966-1969

in that Federal Republic of Germany gave it on federal level 2005 ago only once a large coalition. The reason for it is appropriate for the following, long time in the stability of the parliamentary democracy and from it the lasting, three-party system.

The first large coalition came off, after those beforesince governing coalition from CDU /CSU and FDP broke 1961 by the fact that the CDU/CSU wanted to contain the developed budgetary deficit and those ever more largely becoming indebtedness by a tax increase in the household 1967. The FDP was not in addition ready and steppedfrom the coalition. After the resignation of the FDP Ministers the CDU/CSU, as remaining only alternative, took up negotiations with the SPD , whereupon at the 1. December 1966 the large coalition was closed.

The government of the former Prime Minister Baden-Württembergs was led Briefly George Kiesinger, which replaced the luckless Federal Chancellor Ludwig Erhardt. Vice-chancellor and a minister of foreign affairs the past governing mayor of Berlin (west) and SPD chairman Willy Brandt became.

The large coalition was faced with during its legislative period three large tasks. First of allthe reorganization of the maroden household and the containment of the national debt as well as the fight of the first recession after 1945.

Secondly the still existing interference rights of the allied ones should be replaced into the sovereignty of Germany. These demanded in addition the Verabschiedung of in such a way specified Emergency acts, in order the security of their in Germany stationed troops ensures to know. For the necessary change of the condition a two-thirds majority was in the Bundestag necessary. Particularly to it the spirit separated, there it the government during a national state of emergency nowwas possible to set fundamental rights temporarily repealed. The Ausserparlamentari opposition (APO) took up this topic and made for its displeasure over it on the road air. Nevertheless the APO was not alone a product of the large coalition. It gave itselfand limited their name due to the hardly existing opposition in the German Bundestag not to Germany to observe but many western industrialized countries at this time about the Verabschiedung of the emergency acts, the phenomenon of the revolting youth excited itself but was (so for instance the USA and France). The topic spectrum resembled each other in all these countries.

Thirdly was the goal of the large coalition of introducing the Mehrheitswahlrecht according to English or US-American model so that after elections always a party had the absolute majorityand one is no more dependent on coalition negotiations. This projects failed however to end to SPD, after the FDP, whose parliamentary surviving it concerned thereby, andiente itself it as potenzieller coalition partners for the next legislative period. In this connectionthe CDU/CSU with the FDP over-threw itself. It strove instead for the coming election to the Bundestag the however government with an absolute majority under Federal Chancellor Kiesinger, a vehement proponent of the Mehrheitswahlrechts, on.

Thus existed - of most only as temporary solution regarded- „Reason marriage “from CDU/CSU and SPD also only up to the next choice in the year 1969, with which the CDU/CSU missed the absolute majority however. Thus SPD and FDP under Federal Chancellor Willy Brandt educated the first social liberal coalition on federal level.

The large coalition was not unusually popular, but mastered it urgently lining up problems in this time.

large coalition since 2005

at the 11. November 2005 came it to the agreement on the final wording of the coalition contract. Thusthe Federal Republic of Germany has a large coalition on federal level for the second time. The Party Congresses of SPD and CDU/CSU agreed with large majority the treaty system.

After the preferred election to the Bundestag 2005 of 18. September 2005 did not know a coalition alliance desired those absolute majority achieve. Neither a civil liberal coalition from CDU, CSU and FDP still another red-green alliance made of SPD and alliance 90/Die the Green reached the majority of the Bundestag mandates. After short exploratory discussions, the categorical refusals of the FDP to a traffic light coalition, the SPDand of alliance 90/Die the Greens to a coalition under tolerating by the left Party of Democratic Socialism stood all indications on black-red.

Crucial influence with the coalition negotiations beside Angela Merkel above all Franz Müntefering was attributed to the SPD chairman at that time. Not least it was itto owe that the SPD could win the renouncement Gerhard Schröders of the chancellorship with the negotiations over the department distribution some the most important Ministries and be recompensed thus expensively let themselves. After the defeat with the tuning in the Federal Administration over thatnew Secretary-General of the party Müntefering did however without the presidency of the SPD, which Matthias place-hit a corner took over, thereby also for the SPD the coalition contract to 18. November signed. Matthias place-hit a corner led the SPD in the large coalition however only briefly,since it laid down to 10.04.2006 for health reasons its office.

Concerning the occupation of the ministerial positions were there repeats changes, sees in addition cabinet Merkel.

To 18. November was signed the coalition contract by the chairmen of the three parties, to 22. November 2005 wurde Angela Merkel zur Bundeskanzlerin gewählt und die anderen Minister des Kabinetts Merkel ernannt.

Web on the left of

large one Coalitions on regional level

on the level of German Lands of the Federal Republic are to be found more frequent large coalitions. At present there are five large coalitions: In Brandenburg, Bremen, Saxonia, in Saxonia-Anhalt and in Schleswig-Holstein.

Baden-Wuerttemberg

Berlin

Brandenburg

Bremen

Hessen

Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania

Lower Saxony

Rhineland-Palatinate

Saxonia

Saxonia-Anhalt

Schleswig-Holstein

work on []

Thuringia

Austria

so far gave it in Austria large coalitions from the conservative ÖVP and social-democratic SPÖ between 1945 and 1966 among to the conservative Federal Chancellors Leopold Figl (until 1953), Julius Raab (1953-61), Alfons fermenting brook (1961-64) and Josef Klaus (1964-1966). During this time they had also the majorities for constitutional laws.

From 1987 to 2000, there were SPÖ ÖVP coalitions among social-democratic chancellors Franz Vranitzky (1987-97) and Viktor climate (1997-2000).

Switzerland

Switzerland possesses, differently than most other democracies, no competition, but a concordance democracy. Their characteristics are above all:

  • Not it consists Swiss government of a coalition alliance of several parties, which in the parliament an opposition faces, butconsists proportionally of members of all larger parties, which represent together approximately 80 to 90% of the constituency (see also:Magic formula).
  • The policy of the government is only for each individual case supported by the parliament parliamentary groups of the government parties,so that these larger parties in the government and in the opposition are at the same time.

German Reich

in the Weimar Republic became alliances of SPD, strip packing, center (occasionally also with the BVP) and DVP asLarge coalitions (Weimar coalition) designates.

Wiktionary: Large coalition - word origin, synonyms and translations


 

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