Large African Grabenbruch

the large African Grabenbruch is enough from Syria in Asia to Mozambique in southeast Africa (elevator profile: NASA
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The large African Grabenbruch (English. Great rift Valley) is caused an enormous geographical and geological Naturdenkmal of East Africa and southwest Asia, by the Rifting and the movement of the African ones and Arab tectonic plates during the last 35 million years. It was designated by the discoverer John walter Gregory, after which it is also sometimes called Gregory rift.

Table of contents

expansion

the Jordan ditch as part of the large African Grabenbruchs, admission from space

the large African Grabenbruch is approximately 9000 kilometers long from its northern end in Syria up to its southern end in Mozambique. The width of the valley varies the depth from few hundreds to several thousand meters between 30 and 100 kilometers.

The northernmost part rifts forms the valley of Jordan, which Jordan ditch, in which the river flows by the lake Genezareth to the dead sea. Southward that continues to form the Wadi Arabah to rift and then the gulf of Akaba and the Red Sea.

At the southern end of the Red Sea a bypass formed. The gulf of Aden forms the eastern continuation - before rift opened, was connected the Arab peninsula with the horn by Africa - from here it becomes part of the midocean back of the Indian ocean. Southwest the disturbance forms now the entire Great rift Valley for the continental East Africa niches ditch of its impressing extents its names originally got. In the Afar triangle the ditch divides first the geologically old äthiopische high country into the high country lain northwest southeast from Abessinien and the Somali Hochland lain.

separation into two parts

in East Africa separates the valley into eastern rift and western rift.

The western part or Western rift is called in its northern part also Albert rift, which continues in Kivu rift and in Tanganjika rift. It accompanied of some the highest African mountains and mountains, Virunga volcanos, Mitumba mountains and Ruwenzori mountains, and contains some the deepest seas of the world (among other things deep up to 1,470 the Tanganjikasee meters). The Viktoriasee, the third biggest lake of the world, is likewise regarded as part rift of the Valleys, although it lies today between the two branches of the system.

In Kenya the valley is deepest in the north of Nairobi. Since there is no discharge for the water here, are only flat the formed seas and have a high mineral content. By evaporation of the water salt lakes and salt deposit places form. Lake Magadi consists for example of soda (Natriumcarbonat), Lake Elmenteita, Lake Baringo, Lake Bogoria, and Lake Nakuru are strongly alkaline and Lake Naivasha need fresh water supply, in order to receive its biological variety.

the future

rift the Valley develops itself further: in some millions years will the eastern Africa probably from the remainder of the continent abgespalten to be and a new own land mass form.

The tectonic activity, which formed rift the Valley, weakened the earth's crust along their borders. The area is therefore volcanically and seismically active. The volcanos Mount Kenya massif , the Kilimandscharo , Karisimbi , Nyiragongo , Mount Meru and Mount Elgon as well as the Crater of the Highland developed in Tanzania. The oils Doinyo Lengai - volcano is still active and the only Natriumcarbonatit - volcano of the world.

Anthropologi finds

rift the Valley is a rich source of the anthropologischen discoveries, particularly in the Olduvai ravine. The rapid erosion of the high countries filled the valley with sediments, which offer good preservation conditions for fossils. Thus some bones were found by different Hominiden - kinds. Particularly smelling pool of broadcasting corporations and Meave Leakey made many discoveries in this region.

A further well-known Hominiden Fundpunkt is the Middle Awash - region in the Afar triangle so mentioned. From this area originates among other things “Lucy “, which nearly completely received skeleton of a Australopithecus afarensis, which was discovered there 1974 by Donald Johanson.

effects on the weather condition

today of the research as safe it is accepted that the fast elevation of mountains lying in north south direction was considerably in the development of the upright course of the human ancestors involved. Due to the high mountains clouds could not reach any longer East Africa unhindered, what led to it that the originally existing rain forest made place for lack of supply of an increasingly in humidity dry Savannenlandschaft, at their edges the first two-legged „going attempts “ the Hominiden took place.

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