Large master (chess)
international large master (abbreviation GM, in former times IGM) is since 1950 a title lent by the world chess federation FIDE on lifetime, which can be lent highest of the FIDE. The title of the chess world champion one must fight for.
In the chess composition the title becomes large master onComposers assign, if sufficient many of their chess compositions in FIDE albums were published. Also in the release from chess compositions it gives appropriate standards with release tournaments for the title to large masters. A large master - title is assigned also in remote chess.
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around international large masters to become, one must fulfill at least two large master standards so mentioned, by one in international tournaments in each case one of the priority of the tournament (so-called. Category) dependent percentage at points reaches (according to a Eloleistung of at least 2600) and in addition oneInternational valuation number (so-called.Elo number) of at least 2500 points to exhibit must. There is also a separate large master title for the generally more weakly playing Mrs. (abbreviation WGM or dt. FGM), to whose award around 200 Elopunkte smaller requirements apply.
of the titles large masters (English Grandmaster) became informally already in 19. Century uses, first to 18. February 1838 in the chess column of the newspaper Bell's would run. Officially the title was lent for the first time by Zar Nikolaus II., with it the five winners of the strongly occupied tournamentin sank Petersburg 1914 distinguished: Emanuel Lasker, José Raúl Capablanca, Siegbert Tarrasch, Alexander Aljechin and franc marshal.
stairs the number of chess large masters world-wide of 24 at present in the year 1950 to 1972 on 88, then are there due to ever easier the title acquisition become in the last years already over eight hundred carriers of this title. Most large masters live in Russia (156), in Germanythere are 61 players with GM title (conditions: January 2006). There because of this large amount of (so-called. Title inflation) its value decreased/went back, calls one players of the world point with a Elo number above a mark of 2700 Elo points today informally also superlarge master (super GMs).
The record as recent title carriersheld many years Robert James Fischer, who became at the age of 15 years, 4 months and 1 day large master. Meanwhile holds this best performance Sergej Karjakin, which obtained its last necessary title standard at the age of 12 years and 7 months.
See also: List more well-knownChess player