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the term primary school covers in Germany starting from end of the 1960er years the schools come out from the lower classes of the elementary schools, those of children of the classes 1 to 4 (only in Berlin and Brandenburg Kl. 1 to 6) to be visited. This covers age stages of approximately 6 to 10 years and/or.12 years. Before and in the Kaiser era the primary school in the German linguistic area elementary school , a designation, was called which held itself to today in English as Elementary School.
Usually in the primary school so far class classes were formed. Current political trends in individual Lands of the Federal Republic howHowever 2 aims to North-Rhine/Westphalia at the mechanism of class-spreading input stages of the classes 1 and, in which then children from both classes are to be informed together. Also so-called combined classes can be formed with small number of students per class, which summarize successive classes. So far it gives to thatLands of the Federal Republic still so-called basic school districts (also train parishes). These districts are to work against a Gettoisierung of the primary schools. In North Rhine-Westphalia 2006 the basic school districts is waived, i.e. parents can decide freely, into which school them their children to send. At this abolition it is criticized that the social selection processforced and one advanced.
In the primary school are to be obtained fundamental learning and work forms as well as mathematical, linguistic and sachunterrichtliche knowledge, which the foundation of the resuming education on hauptschule, six-form high school, High School or comprehensive school to put. Besides are also aesthetic, cultural and often also religious topicsThes subject of instruction.
Usually there is a chief instructor, who informs this class the whole basic school time through or in the two-year change in a set of subjects for each grade. This thereby justified that it is important for children in the basic school age, a firm reference personto have. Criticism hieran is practiced frequently for two reasons: On the one hand basic school teachers are usually only trained for two subjects of instruction, whereby in the remaining subjects both knowledge and specializeddidactical knowledge to them can be missing. On the other hand there is a strong connection between the methods of teaching of the teacherand successes in learning of the pupils. The fact that usually about the whole basic school time a teacher strength informs predominantly can have substantial negative consequences for the pupils in the case of a badly informing teacher or personal adjustment difficulties of teacher and pupil.
Common learning of children of all performance levels is regarded mostly as positive. After the PISA test can be interpreted in such a way the fact that this applies also to the secondary school I began a general debate in Germany toReform of the German educational system. Among other things also an expansion of the primary school was demanded on the sixth or ninth/tenth school year. New food received this demand by further studies. Thus the international basic school read investigation IGLU study determined that basic pupils and basic pupils fared internationally very much better thanthe 14jährigen. Successively the second IGLU study, the land comparison of the second PISA study and the long-term investigation of the AWO study determined that regularly pupils and pupils with non-academic or parents financially bad-placed received a lower school career recommendation despite equally good achievement by the instructors. The conference of Secretary of cultural affairs saw thereupon only action needin the sensitization of the instructors, not however in a change of the very early selection.
the contentwise spectrum in the specialities mathematics, German language and special instruction:
- writing in given
- readable way Orthographie and written
- mode of expression (dictation and essay) learn a reading
- somethingcan basic operations of arithmetic
- in the range of numbers 1 to 1,000,000 memorieren.
- Bases of geometry
- learning the time
- of orientation over physical, chemical and biological bases on the basis everyday circumstances (“why an apple falls to soil, if I release it?” “Why the candle goes out, if I a glassover it invert? ““What happens in my body, if I break myself open and bleed the knee? ”)
- spatial and z. T. historical orientation of the populated area (approx. 20 km periphery)
- graphic bases (draw) in addition, free expression
- music (Singstimme, Orff' instruments)
- road safety training (in the 4. Class with thatBicycle examination)
- learning democratic and social authority and the basic principles of the democracy (choice of the class speaker; Tunings over common activities; Arbitration of arguments and conflict resolution etc.)
in some countries also a religiously coined/shaped value education
as “Primary Schools” (primary school) one designates the schools, which in Great Britainby children at the age of five to eleven years to be visited. One directs special attention thereby on the instruction of mathematics and English/language. Afterwards the so-called second training with eleven follows and/or. twelve. Usually these schools are nationally promoted.
Web on the left of
- 3500 basicschoolon the left of
- Training aids for basic school teacher
- basic school federation
- basic school market
- position paper of the federation education and education to the primary school, of 16. November 2002
- information of the trade union education and science among other things to basic school topics
- educational pictures for the primary school.
- Medium formation in the primary school: Information, instruction examples and Downloads for the application of PC, photo, video, audioin the primary school; National medium center RP, Koblenz