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The Gurkha is one of many Nepalese Ethnien. Admits became it as a soldier in the service of Great Britain. While some attribute their origin to Rajputen as ancestors, the designation changed over in the meantime also to population parts of Tibetan and Burmese origin. After them Gorkha, a principality is designated and/or. today's district in central Nepal.
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Gurkhas as mercenaries
after the victory over Nepal received by the protectorate contract from 1816 the right to Great Britain, for its own and the Indian army from the local trunks mercenary to recruited. The Gurkhas was considered to being sufficient SAM as tough and and fought in many parts of the Empire, in the 1. World war z. B. also in the contactor ditches of the Champagne.
in 2. World war about 50,000 Gurkhas in the Indian army served and approx. 10.000 in British divisions, under it also two battalions paratroopers. They were feared the Kukris with their Krummdolchen, as loudless close fighters and were among other things in North Africa, Italy, Malaya and with the Chindits in Burma in the use. Ten Gurkhas were distinguished with the Victoriakreuz.
After Indian independence 1947 four of the ten regiments remain at the British army, parts of the Gurkha spline brigade were stationed in Hong Kong. The Gurkhas myth revived 1982 in the Falkland War again.
Until today no cases are well-known in the British Streikräften, in which against Gurkha because of disciplinary misdemeanours one determined.
emergence in the before-colonial Eastern Asia
the homeland of the Gurkhas is Nepal, a country at and in the Himalaya, which the inhabitants of this mountains Hima (snow) call Alaya (homeland). The name originates from the Sanskrit. The today's Kingdom of Nepal is an independent state and the only Hindukönigreich of the world. The differences in height in Nepal are the largest world, the Annapurna - mountains rise to over 8000 m, the Pokharatal are on only about 800 m, and before the actual mountains lowlandses with only 100 m lie ü.n.N., the Terai. This very day one says in Nepal, „one goes to Nepal “, if one goes to Kathmandu. The whole state developed from this valley, when 1769 expanded the Gurkhas their rule since this valley. Earlier history is against it partially sagenumwoben and/or. unknown.
The first really seizable settlers, who left their traces, were the new air, who established an advanced culture there as first. They gave also the name to the country, and they survived all dominant dynasties. From 1480 to 1768 the Malla of the three kingdoms prevailed in Nepal, after king Yaksha Malla divided his realm among his three sons.
Under the many small states in the west a principality at this time, which was created by Rajputen fled from Udaipur in India, a Kriegerkaste , developed. The capital of this kingdom was called Gurkha. After this city one called the inhabitants of this principality Gurkhas. From Gurkha to Kathmandu there is only 100 km, and so there was war with the Malla kingdoms. The large Gurkhaherr Prithivi Narayan Shah (1742-1775) attacked the Malla as the first, yet the war persisted 25 years continuously, until the Gurkhas conquered the Kathmandu valley 1769 finally. By the constant state of war, in which the Gurkhas was, and by this victory and the mixture with the likewise very martial inhabitants of Kathmandu, the Gurkhas became very powerful and attacked several neighbour states, since their Kraft no more was in the internal fights in Nepal bound.
After an extremely violent war 1789 Sikkim was conquered, after several wars against Tibet and different Indian states fell 1794 Kumaon and choice to the Gurkhas. It did not succeed to the Kriegern nevertheless to keep itself durable in Tibet and after which first Tibetkrieg had to vacate it there in terms of figures strongly superior Chinese armies of the Mandschu the field. In the south against it they discovered with their expansion urge at the same time northward the advancing Englishmen. These brought a large number of Indian troops up, and together with their own soldiers it succeeded to the Englishmen in the Gurkha war 1814-1816 to drive the Gurkhas out from the lowlandses of India. In peacetime of Segauli the borders were specified from Nepal, which changed since then no longer substantially. Nepal became a close of allied England and the Englishmen was allowed after this peace treaty Gurkhas for their fights to hire. The Englishmen set up the number of the Gurkhas at the beginning of 3 Gurkha battalions, increased however soon, since one assumed they were more loyaler than Indian Sepoytruppen.
Gurkhas under British colonial rule
ways of the bitter poverty and population of over, and because one did not have a valve for the accumulated energies between two great powers (Mandschu in the north and England in the south), hired themselves of a great many Gurkhas in the service England. In the second half 19. Century came it to internal fights for power, from which the family Rana came out as a winner. That only 28jährige general Jang Bahadur Rana (1846-1877) vogue itself after a blood bath specialsame - the well-known excrement massacre - to the king up. The next hundred years prevailed now the house Rana and Jang Bahadur Rana was the first Hinduführer, which found the way to Europe, it visited 1850 London. It could escape the threatening loss of its caste, because he had entered the impure soil of Europe, because it let special cleaning rituals invent particularly for it.1854 came it again to the war with Tibet in the north, and 30,000 Gurkhakrieger ran over the hostile armed forces in Tibet in a short and very successful war, since they had new English weapons now. Nepal could dictate as a favourable peace treaty and received tribute payments as well as special rights as e.g. Exemption from duty.
employment in the world warsWhen the First World War broke out, the British were dependent on each assistance. For the first time after the September Oy rebellion they hired again larger numbers from Gurkhas, and at the end of the war 114,000 Gurkhas fought and thus nearly the entire war-suited male population on the side of England.
Two Gurkhas won thereby the Victoriakreuz, Kulbir Thapa and Karna Bahadur.In the years before the Second World War the Gurkha troops in many places of the British Empire kept its rule upright, since England was very weakened by the war. During the Second World War the number of the assigned soldiers rose to 250,000, it altogether 45 battalions was set up, which were used particularly against Japan.
employments after 1945
after the war it came into Nepal to substantial changes. Until 1951 the whole country was as it were in the Middle Ages stands remained. When India became independent of the British crown then, thereby the alliance between the Ranas and the Empire was shaken. At the same time the Indian wanted to win in Nepal at influence and to attain a just as good relationship to Nepal, as it had before England. Therefore the Ranas was fallen and the time now already over 100 years of the lasting military dictatorship ended to 15. February 1951 with the assumption of power by king Tribhuvan beer beer-came Shah. This descended from the old Gurkha kings. Under its rule the modernization of Nepal began. Abroad the number of Gurkhas, in the war, had been constant much too highly, the country was technically and socially backward and by its martial efforts for a strange power exhausted. The wealth, which had come by the pay payments into the country, had benefitted mainly the family Rana. 1955 mounted then Tribhuvans son the throne. He was a convinced democrat and tried therefore also the country within limits to democratize. 1962 it introduced a new condition.
When India became independent, the still existing Gurkharegimenter between India and England was divided. The Englishmen received five Gurkha infantry battalions, to 2, 6, 7. (actually of two battalions consists) and 10. These carry in each case the name Gurkha Rifles. In addition there are supporting units, like own remote alarm units and transportation units. The six Gurkha battalions remained in the service of India fought soon against Pakistan in the Kashmir conflict and worked also there. Also in the war against China the Gurkhas stood on Indian side. Since also Nepal was not interested in a further south expansion of China, by Nepal still further troops for the Indian were turned off. In the following wars against Pakistan 1965 and 1971 was always all Indian Gurkha units involved.
On the British side the Gurkhas fought in the colonial wars, which followed after the Second World War. Since they had worked in such a way as jungle fighters, and because many of the rebellion areas lay in the Tropics, they had to do much. All units fought in Brunei, Indonesia, in Malaysia and Sarawak. Gurkhas were used also for the first time on a blue helmet mission on Cyprus, even if only in small number. With the fights for Sarawak it succeeded to a Gurkha, RAM Bahadur Limbu, 13. To win Victoriakreuz for its people in one century. Shifted after the decay of the British world realm the largest part of the British Gurkha units into a camp with Hong Kong, there stood up to the dissolution and delivery to the Chinese the Gurkha Field Force, which had finally the size of a brigade with four battalions. A Gurkha battalion instead with Aldershot in England stations and there as paratrooper unit trained. Today it is part of the 5th air mobile brigade.
In the Falkland War 1982 that came 1. Battalion of the 7th Gurkha Rifles to the employment. It was advanced as reserve for the British paratroopers at haven Stanley, did not come however any longer to fighting. That had two reasons: First of all the Gurkhas had been used quite late only, therefore the Argentinier was zermürbt and the war already ended already shortly thereafter. Secondly the Argentine media had spread true horror fairy tales over the Gurkhas. When the Gurkhas should be used against some Argentine units, these resulted before. The Gurkhas was allegedly not straight content thereby.
After the Falkland War the discussion arose in England whether one should afford this Relikte from the past at all still further. Finally the major task is the peace employment and the Gurkhas is from its attitude and its abilities simply any longer does not decay. In addition they caused additional costs, while one would have turned around enough own British troops for all tasks. The discussion arose again with the delivery of the crowning colony Hong Kong, with which according to opinion of many British the Gurkhas would have lost its right of existence, at least had the Gurkha off Fieldforce to England to take. Also in the second Gulf War for the first time again Gurkha units were used, had however hardly enemy contact since the Falklands, about what some Gurkhas even weighted.
Gurkhas were inserted into small groups also into Bosnia as well as temporarily in the Kosovo and into east Timor. One promised oneself by it an enormous combat reinforcement. In the third Gulf War it came again to a larger employment for the Gurkhas, but not all units were replaced, and apart from some smaller skirmishes and shootings they were complicated into few engagements, which is connected also with the relatively calmer situation in the “British part” of the Iraq.
In Nepal meanwhile a ever worse security situation prevails, is coined/shaped from fights of Maoistic rebels against government troops. On both sides are Gurkhas.
1995 some companies of the Royal Gurkhas regiment (RGR) assigned in Bosnia as part of the IFOR, together with units of the Queen's Gurkha of signal (Gurkha remote alarm unit) and the Queen's Gurkha transport regiment.
As is the case for all units of Europe the portion of the Gurkhas continued to rise always in support echelons, while the combat troops were gone back.
Members the “Singapore policy Force Gurkha Platoon”
Starting from 1990 the British army had an increasing recruiting problem for British federations (with the Gurkhas the opposite, too many applicants) and therefore by the Royal Gurkhas regiment different companies from this federation was extracted and to other British federations assigned, in order to maintain their numeric strength and combat capability.
It is not like that the fact that one wants to make the British units thereby more powerful how was here already maintained, but that simply and simply British recruits are missing.
Therefore Gurkhas company way serve not only with the RGR but also at the 1st battalion The Royal Scots, the 1st battalion The Princess OF Wales Royal regiment (PWRR), and the 2nd battalion The Parachute regiment (2 PARA) the latters are the well-known airborne Gurkhas.
Additionally two further companies were set up to 1994/95 for training purposes in Sandhurst and at the School OF Infantry in Brecon and but the combat troops were continued to diminish. These companies were set up to 1995 in the Infantry training Centre in Wales.
1997 was used large parts of the 1st PWRR into Zaire and with them also the attached Gurkhas.
1998 was the Gurkhas of the RGR again in Bosnia active and 1999 was parts of the 1st RGR and the airborne Gurkhas with the first British troops in the Kosovo. The 5th airborne brigade had to master thereby a difficult operation, it should an airfield secure, on which few minutes had landed before Russian paratroopers. It came in the consequence nearly to an argument between the Gurkhas and the Russian.
Meanwhile the second battalion of the Royal Gurkhas regiment was spent from Brunei after east Timor and operated there under Australian command.
In the year 2000 C were company of the 2 PARA, which one attached for this employment to the 1 PARA, in Sierra Leone and were there the first British troop in Freetown and the tip of the spear of the whole action. The Gurkhas pushed thereby with enormous speed forward, because they were on fights out, initially was the operation a pure NEO action, successes of the Gurkha company and the general situation made then from it a PSO.
On June 2000 the entire 1st RGR a parade held 6, whereby His Royal Highness, The Prince OF Wales removed the parade. Then the battalion was shifted from Church Crookham after Shorncliffe in Kent.
Meanwhile the Gurkhas on the Balkans was replaced by two companies, which are attached to the 1st PWRR and the The Royal Scots. In the following year alternated the 1st RGR the 2nd RGR in Brunei, while the 2nd RGR shifted after Shorncliffe. With this change an extensive maneuver in Belize was undertaken.
In the year 2001 then C were company (the most frequently assigned Gurkha company at all) in Macedonia as part of the TFH.
In December 2001 then C company with the 2nd PARA went off to Afghanistan. In the spring 2002 was it at the troops, which reached Kabul as first. The last Gurkhas was in 19. Century been in Afghanistan, when the British tried to conquer the country. Nevertheless the Gurkhas arrived good with the Afghans and to its large joy also at fights was entangled.
In February 2003 parts of the Queen's Own Gurkha logistics regiment, which Queen's Gurkha of signal and the Queen's Gurkha Engineers stations in the middle east, in order to cause with the other troops military threatening potential there against Saddam Hussein, became. The appropriate Gurkha combat troops drew then with the 1st battalion Royal Irish regiment and as part of the 16th air Assault brigade also to the gulf and participated with these units then also in the later following war.
in March 2003 was used a company of the 2nd RGR again in Sierra Leone, in order to strengthen the there federations of the operation Keeling. And of 2003 on 2004 parts of the 1st RGR were replaced in Bosnia. A company of the Gurkhas, which is attached to the 1st battalion The Highlanders, was stationed on the Falklands.
one ignored Gurkhas in the today's
British army only 1866 to organize recruiting the Gurkhas and to specify criteria for the attitude. Recruiting remained today nearly alike for this time until. The so-called Gallah barrier Ahs pulls thereby Nepal through and looks out for suitable candidates. This Rekrutierer is former Gurkha NCOs and works on Provisionsbasis, i.e. they are paid after the amount of the recruits found by them. After there was substantial criticism of the UN in the last years to the fact that, already 14 - until 15-jährige among the recruits are one pays attention a great many young person today to the fact that a minimum age is kept of 17. The Gurkhas must commit itself for at least 15 years, it shows however still, or already, very much more applicant than places.
the brigade of the Gurkhas does not have lack of recruits. Each year are available approximately 270 places in the British Gurkha units, that face since the last years already 25,000 applicants in one year out completely Nepal. Most come still from the trunks of the Magar and Gurung in the west of the country. It is still usually that already grandfather and father in the British army served, the sons exerts then for reasons of the tradition particularly. Since with the pay and the pensions these families have also a better nutrition and way of life, the sons are then also often physically again superior.
Nowadays the traditional attendance of the recruiting officers of the Galla Wallahs take place locally only, in order to inform potential applicants and them at the application at the center in Pokhara help, as at us the military service advisors. Only recruits, who fulfill the already high basic requirements, become at all the Vorausscheidungen, which one calls “Hill Selection” certified. This takes place each year in the autumn. One examines above all the health, the Fitness and for some time also the mental abilities. Those those exist come then to “cent ral the Selection” to Pokhara.
The first test concerns itself there with English knowledge and basic operations of arithmetic. The best in this test come then as PRT = potential Technician Recruits to special training, which them then far to the Queen's Gurkha of signal or the Gurkha Engineers leads. Then a further exact medical investigation comes, with which surprisingly many fall through because of to high blood pressure and above all Tuberkuloseproblemen. This concerns above all recruits from particularly poor or remote areas. Thus also the descendants of Gurkhasoldaten arrive again more easily into the same service, since they are more rarely ill.
Various physical tests, as the first the usual PFT of the British army, follow to which no special hurdle represents. In addition however then different additional performance requirements and above all a Nepalese speciality, the Doko come - run.
The Doko is a large basket, which one can carry on the back, and which is used in Nepal for the transport of goods of all kinds, since large parts of the country are unexplored and it only paths give, which go up usually completely straight slope. On such paths now the recruits 2.5 miles run uphill, the basket filled with stones. A goal is it to come as fast as possible highly. Already who remains standing only once, likewise rejected like someone, which is too slow. By the Vorausscheidungen and by those very strict selection already before this run creates however the overwhelming majority of the applicants the demanded minimum performance. Between 1990 and 1995 only 3 candidates in the Doko run fell through (source: Soldier of magazines). Tabbing, a short word for tactical advance ton battle is particularly important to the Gurkhas. With it forced marches with complete equipment are meant, after which the soldiers must prove then when shooting and in exercises that they are still combat-effective.
the successful recruits are then sworn in, by affecting the British flag in a ceremony. Afterwards they are flown to England, where they begin with the basic training. This takes today 9 months and takes place at the Infantry training battalion in Catterick. To the normal military training still language training in English and behaviour rules come. Special value on the purposeful single shot one puts, and the Gurkhas goes for years ever more frequently on the range compared with in former times.At the end of the basic training the Gurkhas is then assigned to the respective units, for special elite within its troop, like for example the airborne Gurkhas, must exist one then still further tests.
The recruits must be at least 17 years old today, after a complaint of the UN over recruiting practice in Nepal. In former times the minimum age 15 was, the new border did not come however not inconveniently, the younger ones created the physical requirements, which had been increased, no more. As age limit 22 is considered, usually over 20jährige however upward is not to no more taken. The recruit does not have to be large also still at least 5 foot 2 inch and may a minimum weight not fall below, a gross weight gives it not, with the physical requirements of the selection and also unfortunately with the emergency in Nepal gives it really over-weighty recruits, so that the problem does not place itself.
After the delivery Hong Kongs one changed the classical recruiting methods and the training again somewhat. The recruits go to the recruiting center in the Pokhara valley. After very strict investigations the best recruits are selected there and sent to England or after Brunei for training. The today's training takes 10 months at the piece, and then the Gurkhas straight is considered times as Gefreite with basic training existed as it were. Today also still training for peace missions is added.
at the 1. July 1994 was folded up diminished however at the same time the 2nd King Edward's VII Own Gurkha Rifles (The Sirmoor Rifles ) and the 6th Queen Elisabeth's Own Gurkha Rifles and the 7th Duke OF Edinburgh's Own Gurkha Rifles to a larger federation thereby numerically. The new federation is the Royal Gurkha splines regiment. (RGR)
It consisted initially its list following of three battalions, however in the context of further savings to two battalions was reduced. The 1st battalion RGR stands in Church Crookham in Hampshire, the 2nd battalion RGR in Brunei, where it serves this at expense of the Sultans of Brunei as an additional troop. In the last years it was in-patriated that the 1st RGR recruits itself particularly from Gurkhas from the west of Nepal, the 2nd RGR however particularly from Gurkhas from the east of its settlement area.
The current RGR had 2004 a strength of 1,480 Gurkha Rifles in two battalions to ever 740 men. It is thus numerically more strongly than the usual British infantry regiment, the same applies to the battalion. The reason is as mentioned, that the troop consisted initially of three battalions. Each battalion has three companies and each company consists of again three courses with own headquarters. The A and B-company are with MILAN - guidance rockets and similar weapons equipped, the C-company consists of storm pioneers.
To the RGR, the actual combat troop, still further companies of the federations mentioned above, mostly only one company, temporarly also two come.
Besides those has British Army the Queen's Gurkha Engineers, a further engineer unit. The portion of the pioneers with the Gurkha troops is today high therefore relatively. The QGE consists of the 69th Gurkha Field Squadron and the 70th Gurkha Field support Squadron. Both are part of the 36th Engineer regiment and stand with Maidstone in Kent.
In the year 2004 the former communications unit 246th Gurkha signal Squadron was reorganized. The today's 250th Gurkha signal Squadron consists of 250 soldiers and is part of the 30th signal regiment. A further Gurkha signal Squadron is set up straight than part of the 21st (air support) signal regiment.
The Queen's Own Gurkha logistics regiment consists of headquarters, the 28th Squadron and a training unit. While most Gurkha units are in terms of figures somewhat stronger than their British Pedants are smaller this regiment and consist of only 164 soldiers. It is located into the novel bar rack in Colchester.
to the other federations attached Gurkha units count finally also the 10th airborne Gurkhas. 1996 were again set up it as the first Gurkha Fallschirmjägereinheit, after it had given in the Second World War many Gurkha to paratroopers. The air landing troops had remained there with the independence of India. Today the Gurkhas educates the famous C-company of the 2nd PARA, which exhibits the strength of one of the usual companies of the RGR with three courses. It was used in the last years in Afghanistan just like in the Iraq. The C-company is not explain-measured a special-purpose force.
British Gurkha units of 1947-1994
- 2nd King Edward VII's Own Gurkha Rifles (The Sirmoor Rifles) (1994 combined into the Royal Gurkha Rifles)
- 6th Queen Elizabeth's Own Gurkha Rifles (1994 combined into the Royal Gurkha Rifles)
- 7th Duke OF Edinburgh's Own Gurkha Rifles (1994 combined into the Royal Gurkha Rifles)
- 10th Princess Mary's Own Gurkha Rifles (1994 combined into the Royal Gurkha Rifles)
- The Queen's Own Gurkha logistics regiment (2001-heute)
- Gurkha Army service Corps (1958-1965)
- Gurkha transport regiment (1965-1992)
- Queen's Own Gurkha transport regiment (1992-2001)
- Queen's Gurkha Engineers (1977-heute)
- Gurkha Engineer training Squadron, Royal Engineers (1948-1951)
- 50th (Gurkha) Engineer regiment, Royal Engineers (1951-1955)
- Gurkha Engineers (1955-1977)
- Queen's Gurkha of signal (1977-heute)
- Gurkha of signal (1948-1949)
- Gurkha Royal of signal (1949-1954)
- Gurkha of signal (1954-1977)
- Gurkha Provost company, Royal Military policy (1949-1957)
- 17th Gurkha Divisional Provost company, Royal Military policy (1957-1969)
- 2nd Gurkha Parachute Battalion (March November 1945)
- 3rd Gurkha Parachute Battalion (March November 1945)
- 153rd Gurkha Parachute Battalion (1941-1945)
- 154th Gurkha Parachute Battalion (1942-1945)
- Gurkha Independent Parachute company, Parachute regiment (ca.1960-1970)
current units of the Gurkha brigades
- 1st and 2nd of asking valley ion, The Royal Gurkha Rifles
- A (Gallipoli) company, 1st Battalion, The Highlanders (Seaforth, Gordons and Camerons)
- C company, 2nd Battalion, The Parachute regiment
- The Queen's Gurkha Engineers
- The Queen's Gurkha of signal
- Queen's Own Gurkha logistics regiment
- The volume OF the brigade OF Gurkhas
- Gurkha company, 3rd Battalion, Infantry training Centre Catterick
- Gurkha company (Sitang), Royal Military Academy Sandhurst
- Gurkha company (Mandalay), Infantry Battle School Brecon
- brigade OF Gurkhas training team
- Gurkha LANGUAGE Wing, Catterick