Gustaf of creating gene

Gustaf Heinrich Arnold of creating gene (* 22. December 1899 in Duesseldorf; † 7. October 1963 in Manila), son of Arnold stroke ore and Emmy of creating gene, was an important German actor, director and a director.

Table of contents

livesand work


according to desires of the father begins Gustav (change of the way of writing of the first name 1925) 1917 commercial teachings. Three months later it is drawn to the military and breaks then the teachings off, around itself into To try play. It makes first experiences as an actor in a front theatre, whose leader already becomes he 1918, and which continues to exist also after the war - now however under the name mountain theatre Thale -. It received play instruction with thatDirectors/conductors of the Düsseldorfer of Schauspielhauses Louise Dumont and Gustav lime tree man.


short commitments at the urban stages stand for Hamburg at the beginning of Gründgens' career half (play time 1920/21), at the united urban theatre Kiel (play time 1921/22) and at the citizen of BerlinTheatre in the commander road (play time 1922/23).it goes to 1923 to the chamber plays to Hamburg. In this time it learns a broad repertoire at classical and contemporary pieces to control and steps 1924 there for the first time public-effectively as a directorup, among other things with the production of the piece of “Anja and ester” of Klaus man. Klaus man and its sister Erika man play the main roles together with creating gene and Pamela Wedekind. Creating gene marries Erika 1926, the marriage already becomes 1929 again divorced. In second marriage it was married from 1937 to 1946 with the actress Marianne Hoppe.


1928 goes creating gene to max of Reinhardt to the German theatre into Berlin, where it arises until 1933 and oftenalso even direction leads. It would not only like to be limited to the theatre, starting from 1929 tries it both opera direction and Kabarettauftritten. At this time it plays also Filmrollen. One of the most well-known appearances from thisTime is the role of the Schränkers in M - a city looks for a murderer. (Of this role under the direction of Fritz long was said often, it takes the appearances and the speech style of the later realm propaganda Minister Joseph Goebbelsin front - nevertheless such statements mean nearly more over the time and the director than over the interpreters of a certain role.)

1932 begin creating gene on the Prussian national theatre in Berlin to work. One of its first roles is those of the Mephistopheles in Goethe's fist. Here it begins to develop the classical black-and-white mask, one nowadays identified with the term “Mephisto”.

general manager

its relationship to the national socialism appears zwiespältig. On the one hand remains creating gene in the country and works in propaganda films how“Also, on the other hand one he in addition, such films turn ohms of Krüger “like “dance on the volcano”, which is considered as one of the regime-most critical films in the National Socialist time. Klaus of man key novel Mephisto of 1936 describes the career Gustaf Gründgens' (inBook as “Hendrik yard gene” clearly identifiably) in the third realm extremely critically; the novel remains today forbidden therefore also on objection of creating gene `adoptive son, Peter Gorski, in Germany until. Nevertheless New edition in the Rowohlt publishing house appeared in the year 1981. On it are basedFilm over creating gene, “Mephisto”, was filmed 1980 by István Szabó with Klaus Maria Brandauer in the main role. However it is testified that creating gene for threatened colleagues (for example Ernst Busch) successfully it occurred. It rises in the LV realm to the career leaders steeplyupward. From 1937 to 1945 he is a general manager of the Prussian national theatre and makes for him and too uses oneself that Hermann Göring knows to extract as a Prussian Prime Minister the theatre from the realm Minister for public enlightenment and propaganda Joseph Goebbels, that allare subordinated to remaining theatres. Göring appoints creating gene the Prussian Council of State, after data of creating gene, around an arrest - e.g. by Goebbels - to make dependent on the agreement of the Prussian Prime Minister (Göring). Otherwise was the title, therethis body never in action stepped, connected with no work, offered for it however a substantial representational allowance.

In addition creating gene is a much considered film director. As Joseph Goebbels to 18. February 1943 the total war proclaims, announces themselves creating gene - probably asironical gesture of the protest - voluntarily to the front, by Hermann Göring however already in the spring 1944 to Berlin one back-instructs.

post-war period

from 1945 to 1946 is it in Soviet detention. In the context of the Entnazifizierung it becomesfrom many colleagues relieves (and relieves for his part among other things the Mrs. von Hermann Göring, the actress Emmy sun man, as well as Veit Harlan, the director of the film Jud sweet, to which as one of the worst Nazi propaganda films is considered). Decisive forits dismissal from the detention becomes the intensive effort by Ernst Busch, creating gene during the Second World War by its intervention with Göring before the Galgen saved. Shrubs could take themselves revenge thereby for its rescue.

Already 1946 stand creating genethe stage, first still in the Russian sector of Berlin. From 1947 to 1955 he is a general manager in Duesseldorf, first the urban stages, then the Düsseldorfer of Schauspielhauses; the record version of its Düsseldorfer production fist, the 1954with the German Grammophon on 3 speech plates , are considered many appear as birth of the today's hearing book. Starting from 1955 creating gene Generalindendant of the German Schauspielhauses is in Hamburg, where he considered much classical and modern productions shows, a high speech culture maintainsand important actresses and actors around itself collects and coins/shapes.1960 it adapts its Hamburg fist - production (with which it gastierte for example also in Moscow) for the film, with wants Quadflieg in the role fist and itselfin the role of the Mephisto, in the mask, which had not changed for the thirties. This (also on the television) film shown becomes large public success.

the end

to the summer 1963 it terminates surprisingly its directorshipat the German Schauspielhaus and goes on a voyage round the world. To 7. October 1963 it poisons itself on this voyage round the world in Manila (the Philippines) with sleeping pills; whether it concerned around an accident or (probably rather) Suizid, becamenever clarified.

It wrote its relevant legacy on an envelope: “I believe, I took too many sleeping drugs, feel somewhat amusing I, let me out-sleep. ”

Creating gene burial place lies on the Ohlsdorfer cemetery in Hamburg, close by of theMain entrance and in direct proximity to the grave IDA Ehres, the Prinzipalin that Hamburg chamber plays.



  • a city stands for head (1932, also actor, production manager and Liedtexter)
  • finances of the Grand Duke (1933, alsoFilm script cooperation)
  • Kapriolen (1937, also actor)
  • the step of the way (1938/39, also manufacture leader)
  • two worlds (1939, also manufacture leader)
  • peace man brook (1940/41; artistic overhead line; also actors and manufacture leader)
  • fist (1960; artistic overhead line; also actor)


  • I glaub' nevermore to a Mrs. (max realm man, 1929/30)
  • Va Banque (Erich washhit a corner, 1930)
  • Hokuspokus (Gustav Ucicky, 1930)
  • Danton (Hans Behrendt, 1930/31)
  • fire in the opera (Carl Froelich, 1930)
  • Yorck (Gustav Ucicky, 1931)
  • M - oneCity looks for a murderer (Fritz long, 1931)
  • Luise, queen of Prussia (Carl Froelich, 1931)
  • the countess of Monte Christo (Carl Froelich, 1931)
  • the robbery of the Mona Lisa (Geza of Bolvary, 1931)
  • participant answers not (Marks of Sorkin,In such a way Rudolf Kat, 1932
  • ) Liebelei (max of Ophüls, 1932/33
  • ) Le tunnel/ the tunnel (Curtis Bernhardt, 1933
  • ) the beautiful days of Aranjuez (Johannes Meyer, 1933
  • ) ended a love (Karl Hartl, 1934)
  • black hunter Johanna (Johannes Meyer, 1934)
  • The inheritance in Pretoria (Johannes Meyer, 1934)
  • Pygmalion (Erich angel, 1935)
  • the girl Johanna (Gustav Ucicky, 1935)
  • a Mrs. without meaning (Hans stone-hope, 1936)
  • dance on the volcano (Hans stone-hope, 1938)
  • ohm of Krüger (Hans stone-hope, 1941)
  • The glass water (Helmut Käutner, 1960)

as Gustaf of creating gene

  • gab's only once (feature with hurrying of kind of document; Geza of Bolvary, 1958)
  • Jørgen Roos shows Hamburg (documentary film, Jørgen Roos, 1961)
  • Gustaf of creating gene (TV-documentary film, 1963)
  • Joachim emperor: “… Iremind me ". 2. Gustaf of creating gene (TV-documentary film, 1989)
  • the Prinzipal - the legend Gustaf of creating gene (TV-documentary film, 1989)

see also

of pictures

theatre photos of Gustaf of creating gene lying of1935-1963 completely predominantly of the important theatre photo countess Rosemarie Clausen, for 1947 to 1951 also of Lieselotte Strelow forwards.


Gustaf of creating gene, complete sound archives. Plays of radio plays Monologe speeches chanson (20 CDs), the Audiothek 2004

work on []


  • Heinrich Goertz, Gustaf of creating gene. With self certifications and picture documents, Reinbek (rororo) 1982 (rororo Bildmonografie)
  • Carl Zuckmayer: Secret report (dossier about German artists, journalists and publishers in the “third realm”), hrsg. of Gunther nickel and Johanna Schrön, Goettingen: Barrier stone 2002, S.153 f.
  • Carola star, to landing on water the life. Gustaf of creating gene and Marianne Hoppe, (Kiepenheuer & Witsch) 2005, ISBN 3462036041 (Biografie)

Web on the left of

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| | * Literature of and over GustafCreating gene in the catalog of the DDB



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