High School

of these articles concerns itself with the school type High School; for further meanings see to High School (term clarifying)

a High School (latinisierte form of the Greek γυμνάσιον) is a resuming school.

In the Federal Republic Germany exists the High School in the context of the three-membered educational system. Other school forms (e.g. Occupation high schools, etc.) use the designation gymnasiale upper stage. With the designation higher one school was in former times meant excluding the High School; today closes ugs. Designation also different school forms. The earlier „Mädchengymnasium” was called Lyzeum.

In that GDR (1949 - 1990) did not give it a High School - at its place gave it the extended high school (EOS).

In Switzerland the High School in some cantons is designated as canton school, in others however High School. Französischsprachige of cantons call the High School Gymnase, Collège (Kollegium) or rarely still Lycée (Lyzeum), as it means in France. See canton school.

In Austria the part of the allgemeinbildenen higher school ( AHS) becomes, which human fan has as emphasis, when High School marks. Besidesthere is the material High School and the wirtschaftskundliche material High School, with which the differences are however not very large in the individual emphasis.

Liechtenstein maintains the of Liechtenstein High School.

In France the so-called Lycée leads to the Baccalauréat, which for most different scientificTechnical as well as vocational activities are published. In France have therefore approximately 40 per cent of the work-active population such a conclusion. The special at the French system is that the Baccalauréat despite gymnasialer training a university graduation actual becomes the final examinationsof the university led, and a very good and/or. very bad existence of the examinations larger consequences for the later study has.

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in the old Greece was gymnásion a place of physical and mental training forthe male youth, whereby the physical aspect was the center of attention however. In the High Schools naked one trained, which still in the origin of the word of “gymnázesthai” (= with naked body do gymnastics) becomes clear. see also: Gymnastic)

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Modern times


the beginnings of elevated instruction were in the Middle Ages monastery and city schools. These were usually church mechanisms and served above all the training of beginning priests. In Protestant areas became with the reformation in 16. Century frequently also these schools to latin schools transforms. The school supervision changed thereby to the national princes or the advice of the city. Principal purpose of the education remained further the acquisition of Latin Sprachkenntnisse.

Only in 18. Century also modern languages and natural sciences becameSubjects of instruction at school.

oldest High Schools in Austria

the oldest High School of Austria is the European High School in complaint ford, which was created 1552. The secondaryoldest High School is in Vienna the academic High School in the first district (based 1553).In the year 1573 into the Steiermark the academic High School in Graz one based. When elite school applies absolutely that for 1746 of the Roman-German empress (HRR) Maria Theresia created Theresianum, which admits also as a Theresiani academy is. Due to of minority rightsthere is a Slovenian High School in complaint ford since 1957.

oldest High Schools based in

educational systems

the beginning and the length of the training in a High School hangsfrom the respective educational system .

In Germany the High School in most Lands of the Federal Republic begins with the class 5 (Sexta), in Berlin and Brandenburg at expiration of the six-year primary school. In Lower Saxony there was an orientation stage the year ago 2004 inClass 5 and 6, however since that the 1. August 2004 was abolished.

The regular duration of the training at a High School up to the Abitur amounts to usually nine school years (conclusion 13. Class stage) (in some eastern Lands of the Federal Republic 8 school years, conclusionClass 12). Since the school year 2004/2005 the possibility became open in nearly all Lands of the Federal Republic, the Abitur also after the 12. Class to acquire (eight-year old High School). In Rhineland-Palatinate there is that since the Abitur class 2002 after a shortened school timeAbitur after 12.5 years total school time.

Depending upon school financing or personnel expenditure carrier becomes between national, local and private (also: church) High Schools differentiated. Of the private and/or. church High Schools do not lead nationally recognized to the Abitur examination, nationally approved against it. Due to the school financing lawshowever all private High Schools are financed to approximately 85% from public funds.

see also:


after the specialized profiles one differentiates between traditionally that

  • Humanisti High School (short Hg) with emphasis with the old languages (Greek, latin)
  • newlinguistic High School (NG) with emphasis with the new languages (in former times also Athenäum called) - see also bilingualer instruction. Sometimes also depending upon first foreign languagewith NGE (English), NGL (latin) or NGF (French) shortened.
  • Mathematical-scientific High School (MNG, in former times: Material high school or upper six-form high school, in Austria material High School, in Bavaria since 2003: Scientific-technological High School (NTG) is directly informed intensively, there mathematics in all specialized profiles)

frequent is thatmathematical-scientific and again-linguistic profile combines. In some Lands of the Federal Republic (for example North Rhine-Westphalia) this partitioning is waived official and lives at the most to that extent away, as if some tradition schools in the context of the generally binding regulations their own profile maintain, for example only latin as the first foreign languageoffer. In other Lands of the Federal Republic the specialized profiles are filled by different hour boards with lives. In Bavaria are Humanisti and newlinguistic High School into the linguistic High School combined.

Special profiles have

  • the European High School with emphasis on languages, three foreign languages are taught, fourthpossible music High School (MuG
  • ) is sport High School sociological
  • High School
  • (SWG) Wirtschaftswissenschftliche High School
  • (WWG ) as obligation to vote subject

as well as

in contrastto instruction in the High Schools the specialized high school with the conclusion of the specialized university-level graduation is occupation-referred often more in line with standard usage and more strongly.


the gymnasiale Bildungsgang is divided into

the classes 5-6 has a special status, which is to facilitate the change between different school forms as in some Lands of the Federal Republic as orientation stage.

According to predominant nomenclature the secondary school I is divided into

  • lower level(Classes 5-7) and
  • central stage (classes 8-10).

The classes 7-10 central stage were called the High School deviating in Lower Saxony, only with class 7 began at least so long. With respect to Austria one differentiates likewise only lower level (5-8) and upper stage (9-12). In Hessen against it are called in officialWrite the text the classes 5-10 central stage, since the term lower level is regarded as German translation of “primary stage”. In Hamburg the lower level extends traditionally of the 5. - 6.Klasse, to it follows the central stage.

Who the 10. Class of the High School successfully locks,for it an external examination of a six-form high school acquires be put down. in some Lands of the Federal Republic apart from the authorization for the attendance of the upper stage (upper stage-ripe) also the middle graduation of the six-form high school (middle ripe ones) without further final examination, in other Lands of the Federal Republic must.

ThoseSecondary school II forms the gymnasiale upper stage; it is out-arranged as course system.

The upper stage contains beside the 11. Class also the Kollegstufe, in which the pupils can put their emphasis on a main and a Nebenfach. This two fan becomealso with special attention in the Abitur examination queried. Main advantage of the emphasis setting is for most pupils the logging-off of a foreign language or a natural science. In Rhineland-Palatinate one already calls the upper stage Mainzer study stage, into as characteristic the achievement courses starting from class11 begin and at 11/2 Abitur enter. There are here three achievement courses by those one to the Abitur on basic course is gradated.

Designations of the class stages

at the German High Schools become the class stages 5 to 13 (and/or. 12) the High Schooldescending latin number words names, whereby from the conclusion class one counts.

this counting method becomestoday however no more at all High Schools does not practice.

Austrian High School

the High School is arranged into two sections with in each case four years:

  • Lower level (5. to 8. School stage)
  • upper stage (9. to 12. School stage)

in a High School both under becomesand upper stage offered, in an upper stage material High School only the upper stage. Both under and upper stage are arranged into classes. The numbering of the classes begins usually with each school again, i.e. the 5. School stage in the High School corresponds to the 1. Class.

The crossing of the hauptschule into a High School is possible, if the pupil visited the fan German, mathematics and living foreign language in the best Leistungsgruppe and all other fan with “satisfying” (3) or better were judged.

In the 5.School stage is usually taught as the first living foreign language English. In the human and again-linguistic profile this becomes in the 7. School stage by a second foreign language supplements (latin, Italian or French) or one selects oneself that school branch, more on mathematicsand refers the natural sciences (material High School). The lower level of the material High School corresponds to the hauptschule to a large extent from the subjects.

At the beginning in all branches a further language is offered to the upper stage - a second language in the material High School, third in again-linguistic andhuman High Schools. It acts usually around the languages French, Italian, latin or Spanish, in the human High School oldGreek. Starting from the 10. The pupils in addition own emphasis can set school stage. In addition they must invest a limited hour contingent into obligation to vote articles.

Inthe 11. and 12. The pupils and pupil can decide school stage usually additionally between the subjects “musician drawing” and “Bildneri education”. This decision is important, if one wants to maturieren in one of these articles. In that subject, which one does not select,one can make also no Matura.

A special form High Schools of the school type represent „to work boarding school “(material High School with training relating to crafts) in Austria, which obtain parallel handicraft training in the gymnasialen upper stage. (Like e.g. the work boarding school Felbertal and the Evangelist High School with work boarding school in Vienna).

The note scale in Austria covers five notes: very well (1), well (2), satisfying (3), sufficient (4), not sufficient (5).

worth knowing

Gymnasiallehrer become in Austria (until 1918 also in the German Reich) usually with “professor “addressed, although this designation strictly taken pragmatisierten (verbeamteten) teachers is reserved. This address was for a long time still also in Bavaria usually (“Klassprofessor”), however after 1968 gradually went down.

Into the 1960er years were efforts under way the normal AHS on nineTo expand years. This was accomplished also two years. This project was then again given up however.


  • in Germany gives at present it to 3,139 High Schools (15 less than in the previous year) with 2.32 million pupils (32,000 more than in the previous year).(Federal Statistical Office, conditions 2003/04)
    • in 61.209 classes (Federal Statistical Office, conditions 2002/03)
    • with 155.100 teachers (of it approx. 49% women)
  • in Austria give it to 327 High Schools, material High Schools and upper stage material High Schools [
work on] see

also to Gymnasiallehrer

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Wiktionary: High School - word origin, synonyms and translations

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