a cave is a natural underground cavity, which is large enough over by humans to be entered and than 5 meters is longer.
This usual definition of the term cave from the Speläologie (cave customer) differs a little from the colloquial use.
Caves are natural excludingCavities. Thus cave dwellings and other artificial caves are not such as mines and looking mines caves. Lately for it ever more frequently the term Subterranea is used, which is for underground derived actually from latin word, but one uses in this form so far usually in English.
Caves result to corrosion, as well as by mechanical processes such as decomposition, from geological processes, mainly by the chemical dissolution , called erosion, washing, tectonics and much more besides. Thus rock material is removed and removed, so that a cavity can develop. However there are also caves,already with the rock develop, so that no later evacuation is more necessary. One differentiates therefore primary caves, those with the rock develops from secondary caves, which develop later. One calls the Einsturztrichter over a broken in cave Doline.
Table of contents
kinds of cave
- classical caves: The Gangsystem is predominantly horizontal. They can be easily committed - most looking caves are of this type.
- Pit caves:Their Gangsystemis predominantly vertical. They can be nearly 800 meters deep as for instance the Aven Jean Nouveau. Well-known pit and looking caves e.g. are. the Laichinger depth cave and the Aven d'Ornac (Ardèche).
- River caves: These caves contain an underground river course. Admit are the eight kilometers long cross mountain cave (Krizna Jama) in Slovenia with 22 lakes and two among themselves lying water systems.
- Ice caves: are caves, in which thick ice sheets hold themselves the whole year over. A well-known looking cave is the ice giant world in throwing.
- Primary caves develop with the surrounding rock. To it belong:
- Lava caves and Lava tubes, which develop, if lava stream run after dying down an eruption empty. (e.g. Lofthellir)
- secondary caves result after the surrounding rock from lying or mechanical scooping out. To it belong:
- Wind erosion caves in deserts
- breaking caves e.g. Fillets at coasts, coastal caves
- swelling caves: With the contact with Sickerwasseranhydrite takes up water and is converted into gypsum. If that is to anhydrite because of the earth's surface, he can bulge. This cave form is extremely rare. Example: Saxonia stone at the south resin.
- Karsthöhlen or lying caves, these into vadose caves
- the actively vadose
- caves to be again distinctivecan, and by a cave brook to be flowed through, in which the cave formation is still active thus, or
- inactive vadose caves, which are pleased in the meantime drying and are to a large extent final with those the cave formation.
- phreatische caves are to a large extent filled with water. Many source caves are phreatische caves.
- By leaching out salt deposits cavities developed are designated as Kalkschlotte.
- the actively vadose
- Collapse caves (also gap caves), by erosion fall stone blocks into gaps, whereby it comes to the cave formation (e.g. in the Elbsandsteingebirge the herring cave in the devil reason).
the longest cave of the world is the giant cave in Kentucky, the USA with an overall length of approximately 563 km. The Voronya cave in Abchasien, Georgien is with 2164 meters the deepest well-known cave of the world. The largest cave area of the world is in the Sarawak - cave on Borneo. It is the so-called Sarawak Chamberwith an expansion of 600 m, 400 meters width and nearly 100 meters height. In the year 2004 massif became the Jama Velebita in the Croatian Velebit, which discovers so far deepest vertical direct pit of the world (513 m). The deepest cave of Germany is the giant thing (- 914m)on the Untersberg (Berchtesgadener alps/Bavaria). The longest cave of Austria is the Hirlatzhöhle with 95.240m length.
cave as motive
frequent caves emerge as motive in myths, dreams or fairy tales . After the analytic psychology in the tradition Carl Gustav youngit concerns here a special development of the so-called.Type of nut/mother ark.
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