sound broadcasting, colloquially radio, was the first electronic mass medium, at first equivalently to broadcast, then in demarcation called to the television of technicians also radio-broadcasting. In Germany the regular program enterprise started in October 1923. Sound broadcasting can world-wide with one Radio to be received.
To table of contents
S. also major items: List of the radio broadcasting programs
sound broadcasting exists in Germany of the radio programs
- of the public broadcasting corporations after federal state law as in or multi-land services (HR, RBB, WDR and. A.)
- public body after federal state law with country wide spreading (Germany radio)
- broadcasting corporation of the Federal Law (German wave as foreign radio)
- private program offerers after federal state law (private radio)
- broadcast programs for the supply of the members of the allied armed forces (AFN, BFBS)
- ofGermany from sending foreign services of the USA and Russia (Voice OF America, voice of Russia, radio Free Europe/radio Liberty)
- not-commercial and/or free organizing (free/alternative radios/open channels/not-commercial local radio) after federal state law
- not certified (and thus illegal) Piratensendern
- (hist.) national broadcast (broadcast of the GDR)
beside it radio programs, which are radiated from foreign sending and places , can be received on long wave, medium wave and short wave as well as in the area close to the border also on very high frequency.
The classification makes already clear that the meeting of sound broadcasting in Germany due tothe broadcast sovereignty of the Lands of the Federal Republic always after federal state law takes place. This concerns both the public institutes and the private stations. The Germany radio does not represent an exception, although it is country widely spread, because it is indirectly a community project of all Lands of the Federal Republic, by it directly a project of the pool of broadcasting corporations and Second Channel of German Television is, whereby the pool of broadcasting corporations is a controlling body of the national broadcasting corporations and the Second Channel of German Television is legitimized by convention between the Lands of the Federal Republic. In the consequence federal radio politics with exception of the allying transmitters and the foreign service are not existence.
see major items: History of theSound broadcasting
of transmission paths
sound broadcasting one spreads:
- over antenna, S. Terrestrial transmission
- over cable system
- over communications satellite, S. Satellite radio (inclusive. DVB-S)
- over Internet
sound broadcasting is transferred:
thereby is thatsimilar procedures soon by the digital procedure to be replaced (see to similar one “SWITCH off”)
for the spreading of terrestrial radio transmissions are used different frequency ranges and different technical specifications are used:
|Broadcast band||type of modulation||wavelength||frequency|
|long wave broadcast (LW)|| amplitude-modulated radiation (TO) ||2.000-1.000 m||150-300 kHz|
|medium wave broadcast (MW)|| amplitude-modulated radiation (TO) |
or digitally radio Mondiale (DRM) (COFDM)
|600-150 m||500-2,000 kHz|
|short wave broadcast (SW/KW)|| amplitude-modulated radiation (TO) |
or digitally radio Mondiale (DRM) (COFDM)
|60-10 m||5-30 MHz|
|UKW broadcast (volume IIin VHF)||Frequency-modulated radiation (FM)||approx. 3 m||87.5-108 MHz|
|volume III (in VHF)||digitally radio (DAB) (COFDM)||approx. 2 m||174-230 MHz|
|L-band (in UHF)||digitally radio (DAB) (COFDM)||approx. 1 DM||1-2.6 GHz|
broadcasting stations of the long wave and medium-wave band occupywidth of 9 kHz (on the American continent 10 kHz), those of the high-frequency width of 10 kHz and those of the UKW range width of 300 kHz.
In the high-frequency also broadcasting is accomplished in the procedure of the single-sideband modulation. For its receipt one needs oneReceiver with a special demodulator. There is also To-compatible single-sideband modulation. It is however not used.
For digital radio transmissions, particularly digitally radio (DAB), among other things frequency bands are used, which found in former times only for television transmission use. Radio becomes digital today already in many parts of the world (and.A. also in Germany, Austria, Switzerland) parallel beside the existing UKW sending claimant and is qualitatively superior to these.
With digitally radio Mondiale (DRM) are used the frequency ranges by LW, KW and MW (those were amplitude-modulated operated so far) and with DRM only with a COFDM - digital modulatedSignal operated. So far similar to claimant transmitters change partially for certain hours of the daily on the digital modulation of DRM, whereby today already world-wide various programs are receiptable. DRM is not specified or licensed however for sending in the frequency range of UKW.
- portal: Sound broadcasting
- sound broadcasting in France, sound broadcasting in the USA, sound broadcasting in Spain
- list of the radio broadcasting programs
- POOL OF BROADCASTING CORPORATIONS conference of federal league
Web on the left of
Wiktionary: Sound broadcasting - word origin, synonyms and translations
- link collection (dmoz)
- on-line Internet radio streams (internationally)
- on-line Internet radio streams (German)
- pool of broadcasting corporations radio & free radios
- Radio EMS
- radio variety over satellite (addr, DVB, similar) among other things
- transmitter list UKW/MW/LW/DRM/DAB
- German broadcast archives
- German broadcast museum Berlin
- on-line portal for Freestreamradios
- amusing radio breakdowns in clay/tone examples