the Habilitation is the highest academic examination, in which outstanding achievements in scientific research and universitärer teachings must be proven. Usually a crucial condition is the previous graduation, with which the ability was occupied for scientific working. During the preparation that Habilitationsschrift is the Habilitand usually as an academic advice on time or busy as scientific coworkers at a university or a research establishment. A compelling condition for the Habilitation is this however not (see. on the other hand Juniorprofessur). By the Habilitation is the applicant its special capability too more independently more scientificallyResearch and teachings prove. With the Habilitation becomes the proof of the training capability - facultas docendi and/or. venia legendi - furnished. The Habilitation or equivalent outstanding scientific achievements is a possible condition for the appointment as a university professor. Successful completing of a Juniorprofessur is thaton an equal footing.

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in academic history is the Habilitation a mechanism of the “modern times”. In times of the medieval universities and firstGerman universities 18. Jh. the Habilitation was to a large extent unknown. The graduation had here the value of the highest academic training; in such a way specified disputatio was the rule.

In the time of Luther for example, when theology was still the determining discipline at the universities, defendedone its doctor theses with the Disputation and became then Doctor theologiae. One put its theses out in the “neighbouring” university towns, as to the Wittenberger Schlosskirchtür. This “black board” was the invitation to the Disputationen. Who wanted to come, was added, whereby always one particularly loadedwas, in order to disputieren with the candidate. This Disputationen was also mostly published, interestingly enough not of the candidate, but of the examiner. To the fact it is interesting that whole reformation history would probably be not conceivable, if Luther had been not constantly loaded to any Disputationen, with which he itsTeachings to specify learned. However one also invited to Disputationen, if one were already a doctor.

Only with the time the Habilitation entwicklete itself at the German universities from disputatio. The designation Habilitation can from again latin “certificate of competency”, constructing from central latin habilitare (=make sent, make able), to be derived. From the high Middle Ages to the reformation a doctor had the right to teach at all abendländischen universities; this right was called ius the ubique docendi.

In the German-speaking countries as well as in some European countries (Hungary, Poland, Slowakei and others) is the Habilitationthe condition for a call as university teachers, but no longer absolutely compellingly (then “the Habilitation appropriate” proofs are required). In the Middle Ages the training activity began first informally after acquisition of the academic degrees of the Lizentiaten and the Magisters within the Artistenfakultät or the doctor into thathigher faculties. The designation Habilitation is usual in the academic range since 1684, but only 1819 were issued in Prussia the first Habilitationsordnung by William of Humboldt as department chief for Kultus and instruction in the Prussian ministry of the Interior (1809 - 10).


thoseConditions for the Habilitation, in Austria federally uniform regulated, are fixed in Germany in the context of the Landesgesetze in the Habilitationsordnung each university and cover as precondition the graduation, then the Habilitationsschrift (opus magnum, lat. “large work”) or several scientific publications more outstandingQuality (cumulative Habilitation). Further are usually a verbal examination with a specialized lecture before the faculty, following more in detail scientific discussion in form of a colloquium, also than Disputation designated, as well as a public lecture. The educational-didactical suitability is usually proven by a course of studies-referred training meeting.

The doctor degreecan in most Lands of the Federal Republic after successful Habilitation around the additive having IL (habilitata/habilitatus) to be extended (in the GDR in former times sports club for scientiae, lat. “the science”). In such a way the Habilitierte receives the title of a private lecturer (PD) and/or. in Austria of a university lecturer, if itas a training representative of a university is active. The associated training power can be extracted and be rested expire during nonusage from the training activity, can when obligation adverse holding back with foreign activity. Habilitation and training power justify however no service relationship and no claim on reason of a service relationship. Usually one may care for after final Habilitation for his part graduate student and Habilitanden and examine.

At scientific universities them were in Germany to end 20. Century in most subjects (except engineering sciences and artistic subjects) a compelling condition for the appointment for the university professor. As condition for appointment are however under thatInfluence of the anglo-saxon education systems in the meantime equivalent achievements recognition, which are furnished at home and abroad in the context of the activity as a junior professor or in other scientific institutions.


of the applicants hands a written request for permission to the Habilitation under indication of the subject orField of activity, for which he wants to attain the training capability, (Habilitationsgesuch) with the Dekan of the responsible faculty of the selected university. Are to be attached to the Habilitationsgesuch usually:

  1. the Habilitationsschrift or equivalent scientific publications in in each case five copies,
  2. the explanation that the Habilitationsschrift and other submitted scientific work of the applicanteven and without others than the aids indicated in it made as well as those were marked literally or contentwise taken over places than such, with joint work the indication, on which the cooperation of the applicant extends,
  3. a listing of the scientific publications of the applicant, after possibility under attaching ofSpecial editions. Research results, which are present in form published yet, can be submitted supplementing in manuscript form.
  4. a personal record, which gives information over the personal and vocational career/development,
  5. suitable proofs of the conditions (doctor degrees and scientific activity), in particular the doctor diploma, the thesis and a representationthe past scientific training activity,
  6. an explanation over any earlier Habilitationsgesuche at other universities and over their results,
  7. three topic suggestions for the scientific lecture as well as three topic suggestions for the sample lecture; the topic suggestions can be amended up to the decision over the acceptance of the Habilitationsschrift of the applicant,
  8. oneExplanation that a certificate of good conduct after § 30 exp., which can be sent to the responsible faculty. 5 federal central register law at the responsible reporting authority one requested.

A suggestion can be attached to the Habilitationsgesuch over three possible consultants. The suggestion does not justify a requirement on consideration. Documents are in written formto submit and must be authorized by the applicant under in writing or officially certified.


the training authorization - venia legendi (from latin permission to read [D. h. to teach]) - for a certain subject one lends. A condition for the training authorization is the training capability- facultas docendi -, which is lent after past right by the Habilitation. The distinction of training capability and training permission is for example in Bavaria by the university teacher law regulated or by the country-specific legislation.


who habilitiert or by an equivalent qualificationthe private lecturer appointed is, can usually also at another university venia legendi on the basis of a shortened procedure (Umhabilitation) acquire.

outside of Germany

the Habilitation is also in Austria, Switzerland, France and inunite Central European countries as for example in Hungary, Poland, Slowakei and Ukraine, Russia usually.

Into most countries is not the Habilitationsverfahren well-known or was abolished. Within the international range becomes the publication list in such a way specified, scientific circumstances and research results on extensive publications,preferred in internationally regarded technical periodicals, value put. This publication list (English.publication cunning) usually divided into Articles, Reviews, PAPERs and Books.


  • the history of the private lecturer - a sociological study for the largeoperational development of the German university of AlexanderShrubs, Stuttgart 1959
  • “50 years Habilitation of women in Germany. A documentation during the period of 1920-1970 " of Elizabeth Boedecker and. Maria Meyer Plath, 1974
  • career opportunities of the scientific new generation of the management economics at universities of Eduard Gaugler and. Bernhard Luig in: Wirtschaftswiss. Studies 1978
  • Habilitationswesen: Development since1960. Habilitationsstatistik 1976-1977, Bonn bath Godesberg 1979
  • career opportunities of future Habilitanten in the subject economic science of Manfred Borchert and. Harsh ore Gülicher, in: Wirtschaftswiss. Studies, 1979
  • Habilitationsstatistik 1978-1979 by Wolfgang Kali, Bonn 1980

see also:

Habilitationsschrift, Umhabilitation, professor, Juniorprofessur, new generation researcher.



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