Haiti

République d'Haïti (frz.)
Repiblik D Ayiti (kreol.)
Republic of Haiti< /font>
Flagge Haitis Wappen Haitis
(Detail) (detail)

Wahlspruch: L'Union Fait La Force
(French for „agreement makes strong “)

office languages French, Haitian
capital haven outer Prince
system of government Republic of
president Boniface Alexandre (interimsweise)
head of the government Gerard Latortue (interimsweise)
surface 27,750 km ²
number of inhabitants 8.121.622 (conditions July 2005)
population density of 275 inhabitants per km ²
gros domestic product/inhabitant 468 US-$ (2004)
currency 1 Gourde = 100 cents
currency abbreviation
ISO 4217
HTG
time belt UTC -5 (no summer time)
Independence 1. January 1804 recognition by France, 1825, 1863 of the USA
national anthem La Dessalinienne
Internet TLD .ht
preselection +509
Lage Haitis in der Karibik
Karte Haitis

Haiti (frz.: Haïti; kreol.: Ayiti) is a State of, that the western part that Caribbean island Hispaniola constitutes and on the Dominican republic borders.

The name is from the language of the Tainos, which natives Hispaniolas come, and “hilly country” to mean.

Table of contents

population

in Haiti only a very small part of the births and deaths is officially registered. Therefore all numbers are based on estimations and projections. Standing the downNumbers are therefore extremely uncertain. Numbers, which are exactly indicated with the exception of the inhabitant, are pure fiction.

The life expectancy amounts to scarcely 53 years (2005). The infant mortality was in the year 1997 with 9,2%, the child number of deaths about 13,2%.The average annual population growth of 1990-1997 amounted to 1.9%. 1995 was 55% of the population illiterate.

The Haitian population divides itself in 95% black, 4.9% Mulatten and 0.1% white.

33% the Haitianer live in cities. The largestCities are (conditions 1. January 2005):Haven outer Prince of 1.234.742 inhabitants, Carrefour of 439,581 inhabitants, Delmas of 377,187 inhabitants, Cap Haitien of 134,815 inhabitants and Pétionville of 108,227 inhabitants.

history

major item: History of Haiti

in the decades,on the discovery in the year 1492 , the indigene Urbevölkerung of this island, the Arawaks (also Tainos called) followed the island Hispaniola by Christoph Columbus, was nearly completely exterminated. In late 17. Century finally became the island by African slavesagain-populated, which were used on the sugar plantagen.

1697 retired the western third of the island, which from then on Saint Domingue was called , at France to Spain . This area became in the process 18. Century for the richest colony of the French colonial empire. To 22. August 1791 came it under the guidance of Toussaint L'Ouverture and Jean Jacques Dessalines to a slave rebellion, which developed to a Zermürbungskrieg directed against the French troops. Even one from Napoleon to Saint Domingue envoy army was struck.Saint Domingue explained at the 1. January 1804 under the name Haiti its independence from France.

Haiti, the first independent republic of black ones and Mulatten, engaged itself in the abolishment of the slavery and supported also Venezuela, Peru and Colombia with theirIndependence fight among revolution leaders such as Bolívar and Miranda. Haiti schaffte unter Präsident Boyer - der das seit 1806 in einen mulattischen Süden und schwarzen Norden geteilte Haiti 1820 wiedervereinte - nach erfolgter Annexion des östlichen Teils der Insel (der späteren Dominican republic) 1822 also there the slavery off. By this commitment the USA and the European states felt threatened, on which they imposed sanctions against Haiti. Additionally to this impact led against the Haitian economy France demanded as returnfor the acknowledgment of the independence of Haiti in the year 1825 remunerations for former owners of plan day. These payments at a value of 90 million francs d'Or (which was to correspond to 17 billion euro according to estimations in today's currency) Haiti at France paid by many decades.

Since then Haiti became the poorest country of the western hemisphere, which is particularly attributed to smashing taken place immediately after independence large plan days and the distribution of the soil under the population, whereby the export of agrarian goods broke down. Several attempts,the productivity of the agriculture to lift (beginning with the “code Rural” of 1826), because of the out small and smallest plots existing agrarian structure failed.

Besides Haiti had to suffer during the largest part of its history under Gewaltherrschern and Kleptokraten.From 1915 to 1934 the country was occupied by the USA. To improve it efforts undertaken the infrastructure - special the education system -, but by prints of these reforms, which did not consider the customs and traditions of Haiti, were theseneither gladly seen nor successfully. Starting from 1957 the former country doctor Francois “dad Doc” Duvalier over Haiti prevailed; to the dictator it exerted itself 1964 . It became by the so-called “clay/tone clay/tone Macoutes” admits, an extensive trooptroop troop, the elements of a secret police anda racquet troop on itself united. Its son Jean Claude “baby Doc” Duvalier followed it at the age of 19 years in the year 1971 in the government. “Baby Doc” was driven out 1986 from the country.

A constitutional reform 1987 closed after a Putschalready soon a military government on. Haiti seemed draw a deep breath to be able, when 1990 Jean Bertrand Aristide, to which many hopes attached, with overwhelming majority were selected to the president. But already 1991 became Aristide of the Brigadier General Raoul Cédras from thatOffice geputscht.1994 could return Aristide as a result of an US-American intervention to its office and 1996, to expiration of its term of office, which hand office over at its close gone away René Préval. UN - Mandate, under which Haiti since 1995 stood, ran 1997 .

2000 took place disputed parliamentary elections, which the party Aristides won. When Aristide won the Präsidentenwahl also over 90 per cent of the voices also, reproaches became loud that the elections had been manipulated. Aristide, the former hope carrier, itsOffice 2001 began, left 2004 the country. While the opposition and also the USA, as well as France represented the position, Aristide had gone to these voluntarily into the exile, speaks of a Putsch and still regards themselves as legitimate Pa simmering ducks of theCountry.

Haiti applies according to an estimate of the “South German newspaper” from the year 2005 meanwhile beside the Congo, Somalia and Chad as state in ruins. The island becomes at present of an interim government under Boniface Alexandre as president and Gerard Latortue asPrime minister administers. The planned Präsidentenwahl was shifted again at the end of November on January 2006 and now on February. 35 candidates applied for the office for president. In the capital haven outer Prince prevails the state of emergency. Kidnappings, shootings, armed robberies and drug trade are onthe agenda. The UN is in Haiti with approximately 10,000 blue helmets in use; There at the beginning of of 2006 committed the kommandierende general of the UN-troops Urano Teixeira Matta Bacellar Suizid.

politics

major item: Haitian policy

administrative arrangement

Haitiis divided into ten sections. These are (in parentheses the capital):

  • Artibonite (Gonaïves)
  • Centre (Hinche)
  • Grand'Anse (Jérémie)
  • Nippes (Miragoâne)
  • north (Cap Haitien)
  • north Est (away de Liberté)
  • north Ouest (haven de Paix)
  • Ouest (Haven outer Prince)
  • south (Les Cayes)
  • south Est (Jacmel)


economics

in the colonial age was considered to Haiti as one of the richest countries of the Karibik. Around the acknowledgment of independence by the former colonial power France tooreach, had however Haiti by high liabilities “to redeem itself”. These payments, those nearly whole 19. Through century persisted, exceeded the Leistungskraft of Haiti by far. Together with political instability and mismanagement of many years this led to the fact that itself Haiti to the poorhouseAmericas developed.

Since the fall of Jean Bertrand Aristide is the economy of the country in a heavy crisis. But first signs of the normalization showed up to 4. For the first time again the banks opened March 2004, because in haven outer Prince. The trade association of Haiti estimatesthe developed damage of unrests on more than 100 million euro. The German post office gave the promise to support Haiti with the structure of a modern postal zip code system. A large problem of the state is the high degree at corruption. It occupiesone of the lowest places in the statistics of the Transparency international.

culture

languages

the two host languages of Haiti are the Haitian and the French language. The latter has v. A. as secondary language and education language largerMeaning. Excluding religious meaning the language has Langaj (also Langay or Haitian Voodoo Culture LANGUAGE). The languages of the indigenen Indians became extinct.

religions

67% the inhabitant are catholic or Protestant; Voodoo - cults are with approximately 70%the population spreads (conditions 1999).

further topics

  • Baka (spirit) (Haitian spirit)
  • La Dessalinienne (national anthem)
  • Voodoo (religion)
  • football: 1974 qualified itself Haiti surprisingly for the football WM in Germany. Sensational way went the “football dwarf” in the first play against vice-world championsItaly in guidance, was subject however at the end and could not not get over the first round.
  • Music: The internationally most well-known Haitianer is probably Wyclef Jean and “Pras” (Prakazrel Michel), who made together with Lauryn Hill as The Fugees career.
  • Also thosefamily roots of the Multi Intrumentalistin Régine Chassagne (Arcade Fire) hand back until Haiti. It fled with its parents in the 60's to Chicago, in order to escape the regime of dictator Duvalier.
  • To the album Funeral of Arcade Firebelongs a song named „to Haiti “, which describes the situation under the dictatorship Duvaliers.

literature

  • C. L. R. James, The Black Jacobins: Toussaint L'Ouverture and the San Domingo revolution (1938, Vintage, ISBN 0679724672), German: The blackJakobiner. Toussaint L'Ouverture and the San Domingo revolution. Berlin 1984.
  • Martin Ros, Night OF Fire - The Black Napoleon and the Battle for Haiti, DaCapo press, New York 1993, ISBN 0962761389

Web on the left of

Wiktionary: Haiti - word origin, synonyms andTranslations


coordinates: 19° 6 ′ N, 72° 20 ′W

 

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