|of these articles treats the celebration Halloween. For the film series with the title Halloween see Halloween (films).|
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for the origin of Halloween gives it different explanations.
One of these explanations sees a celtic origin. It refers in addition to originally at the night of the elften Neumondes of a yearly the celebrated celebration of the celtic New Year celebration Samhain, which was as beginning of the dark season a celebration for the dead ones at the same time. The divinity responsible for the dead ones permitted the souls of the deceased of the respective yearly to return on this day. In order to calm and bad spirit repel it, victims were brought, spells and magic practiced. Historically or archaeologically there is however no referring to any celtic dead God or any ritual named “Samhain”. Admit are the names of approximately 350 celtic divinities. A “SAM Hain” does not belong to.
Also in celtic dictionaries no “Samhain” is mentioned. According to McBain's Etymological Dictionary OF the Gaelic LANGUAGE meant “samhuinn” (so the Scottish gälische way of writing) “Hallow tide” (holiday), meant is “end of the summer”.
After Oxford English Dictionary (OED, expenditure on CD-ROM, Oxford University press 1999) is Samhain the first day November with the old Celts, on this day celebrated it the winter beginning and at the same time New Year, according to its calendar (first indicated source 1888 J. Rhys Lect. Orig. & Growth Relig. as illustr. by Celtic Heathendom v. 518) The old celtic calendar began at the 1. November, thus was the last day Octobers at the same time the last day in the old year.
The catholic church shifted all-holy in the year 835 from first Sunday to Whitsuntide on the 1. November. In a common opinion by the catholics this date was consciously selected, in order to set a Gegenpol to the heidnischen festivenesses; however there are for it no vouchers. All holy all this was celebrated first in Italy, while the customs are authentic many later around Halloween only.
From all holy all this anyhow the name Halloween developed - compound up from the English linguistic usage universe Hallows Eve (OED: 1556 “Halhalon evyn” Chron. Grey Friars), of eve (evening, „previous evening “) and hallow („holy “).
It is however not to be excluded that Halloween has both Christian and celtic roots. Since the celtic peoples of the British islands belonged to first in Europe, those the Christian faith accepted - at that time still without obligation -, are a demarcation of the roots of such customs from today's viewpoint very difficult.
At all-holy after catholic custom for the deceased one gebetet (first for those, which lived after Christian teachings exemplary, then in addition, (all souls): for all deceased). With it the conception connects itself that it may be issued the souls thereby in the the other world better (that its agonies in the purgatory are facilitated).
In many catholic countries there was probably back the people faith going on pre-Christian conceptions that between all-holy (1. November) and all souls (2. November), which day, on which for the deceased one gebetet, is to be penetrated the partition between the world of the living persons and the world of the dead ones particularly easily. A christianisierte variant of it is the faith for example spread in Ireland that the dead ones would return in these days again from the purgatory, in order to go into their houses and to ask the members around their Fürbitte. Differently than today the new day began in former times not around midnight, but in the evening. (The fact that Christmas begins with the holy evening goes among other things likewise on this tradition back.)
thereby there were in principle two ideas, how was to be dealt with it: All kinds of Leckereien made the one to the dead ones available, on that her gladly and for short time on earth should return. So one wanted to keep the contact upright also after death from relatives to them. From this a large celebration developed, with campfire and fixed meal. Due to the turn of the year one meditiert and one made predictions for the next year: It concerned war, peace, politics, harvests and diseases. Others were afraid that the dead ones wanted to return to the life and seize in addition possession of the living persons wanted. Therefore they tightened as terriblly as possible at this night and disguised themselves, so that the dead ones and spirit pass them and them not when living persons recognize. The masks and linings served thus for the deterrence.
Both ideas can be not really agreed with Christian conceptions, make however Allegorien possible on the fight between property and bad. To that extent also a connection with Christian nearly at night customs is not to be excluded; also before Christmas there was a 40-tägige in the Middle Ages chamfering time.
The symbols typical for Halloween are devil, ghosts, Dämonen and bone men; Witches with pointed hats, those on brooms ride with a black cat on the shoulders; Gnomes and dwarves; Owls, spiders and Vampire. Witch with brooms and cat typical Kürbis ghost Jack O Lantern with cat witch with brooms and cat particularly scooped out Kürbis re-designed to the lantern applies in the USA as synonym to this day. One calls the lantern “Jack O' Lantern”. In accordance with a legend lit Kürbis came to this name, because hoof-forge named Jack O., which was a correct Raufbold and drunkard, a pact with the devil was received. The devil promised Jack, it for seven years to the best hoof-forges in the country to make, if he his soul to him sell. Jack consented to the pact and hung to the indication its again-acquired Könnens up scooped out and from the inside lit Kürbis at the entrance of its Schmiede. As in many legends and stories, in which humans sold their soul to the devil, it took a bad end with Jack. Its punishment was to be drawn for all times with its Jack O'Lantern by the world.
today there it connected with all-holy, Halloween in former times only in catholic areas of the British islands remained was celebrated, particularly in Ireland. From there it came with the many Irish emigrants into the USA and belonged there to the folklore of this group of peoples. However it was taken over due to its attractiveness soon also the children of other immigrants and developed to an important people celebration in the USA, particularly into that predominantly from white one settled areas.
From the USA the custom of the Halloweenfestes came then - strongly commercialized and often changed - back to Europe.
Halloween applies in some today's witch cults as more importantly, because allegedly charm-strong holiday. With the increasing popularity of the celebration therefore in the last years the criticism became louder on the part of some Christian churches - in particular evangelikale Christians in the USA dissociate themselves very sharply from Halloween. Repeated it was pointed out that with the celebration abuse could be committed by sowing anise tables combinations and will. However the call Halloweens has itself to be one night in the spirit, witches and Feen particularly actively is, only in the course of the European romance 19. Century and strengthens in 20. Century develops.
It is partly feared that Halloween domestic tradition celebrations (e.g. in Germany the sinking March in celebration) displaces. On the other hand Halloween, by an increasing number of trailers in Germany, is regarded than preferred beginning of Karneval, Fastnacht and carnival.
war of the worlds
to Halloween 1938 became of CBS the radio play “war of the worlds “from Orson Welles after the novel of H. G. Wells sent. It led to panic reactions at the public, since many confounded it with the reality.
- Dewald, Markus Celt: Kürbis, cults small culture history of Halloween. Thorbecke, Stuttgart 2002, ISBN 3799501061
- Lisa Morton, The Halloween Encyclopedia (McFarland & company) 2003 (English)
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