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Hangeul (often also hangul written; 한글) is nowadays at most used alphabet in Korea. Contrary to the Chinese writing it concerns here an alphabet writing. Their structure follows certain principlesand can be called logical. It covers today 51 indications - 14 consonants, 10 vowels as well as 27 indications built up from the basic characters. In the original version many other indications were intended, those mainly the Transkription of Chinese words or the designation today in the Korean one no longer existing sounds (e.g. “f”) served. The Jamo Grapheme mentioned (“letter”) is summarized silbenweise, so that each syllable is located in an invisible square (see picture right). In this way is different syllables are formed.
Table of contents
of vowels, in each case with the mute Anlaut ㅇ
Hangeul attaches to that extent to thoseChinese writing on, each syllable in (square) a block is represented. Differently than however each of these blocks consists there of indications of consonants and vowels. A syllable consists at least of initials consonants (Anlaut) and a vowel, a final consonant (Auslaut)can follow. A special role takes the consonant ieung (ㅇ), which is mute as Anlaut. With it words are written, which begin expressed with a vowel. In rare cases there are also two Auslaute. Then a syllable follows also in the same wordmute consonants, the first Auslaut is spoken as Auslaut of the current syllable and second as Anlaut of the next. In other cases according to certain rules only first or more rarely also only the second Auslaut is expressed.
Vocal ones and consonants can already on the basis theirForm to be differentiated. While vowels consist of senkrechten (A, ya, EO, yeo, i) or horizontal (o, yo, u, yu, European Union) lines, the consonants have other forms such as circles, squares etc. Vocal ones are differentiated by smaller attaching, perpendicularly to them standing lines. The prominent consonant is compellingly necessarily and becomes with vowels with perpendicular basic line forwards and/or. with horizontal basic line over the vowel set. A locking consonant comes if necessary under the two preceding indications.
Together laws the vowels in the today's Standardsprache simply like their individual parts are not expressed, with exception of ㅢ, which is expressed in the word anlaut as Diphthong ㅡ + ㅣ. With ae (ㅐ) and e (ㅔ), which from the letters A (ㅏ) and i (ㅣ) and/or. o (ㅓ, as in open) and i (ㅣ) are compound, differ the discussion however; It corresponds practically to the German A and/or. e. Refrained from ㅡ and ㅣ to exist from all basic vowels and from the compound vowels ae and e variants, around a second smallLine are extended. These are expressed like the vowel with presented J. The form of o (ㅗ) is z. B. yo (ㅛ) as in yodelling. With the transcription of Korean words in latin alphabet (z. B. according to the rules that revised Romanisierung) the letter y are placed in front here.
The form of the consonants is to represent the respective position of the speech tools. Thus a n is written in Hangeul about like latin L (ㄴ) and symbolizes after (left) tongue showing above, like itthe tooth row knocks against. Complementary to it corresponds the indication of g/k to the angle, with which one would have to supplement above L to a square (ㄱ). Here the tongue with its back, rounded upward, pushes against the palate. Thus Hangeul is a rareExample of a country-wide used feature-based writing.
Many of the consonants exist in three variants: Normally, doubles and aspiriert. Thus for example ㄷ somewhat more softly than the t in mad one expresses, ㅌ with clear aspiration and ㄸ like the t in star, completely without aspiration. All asperierten vowels correspond graphically to the respective basic sound, which was extended by a small line. This comes from the h (ㅎ). Out ㄷ and ㅎ will ㅌ, out ㄱ and ㅎ will ㅋ, out ㅈ and ㅎ becomes ㅊ. Out ㅂ and ㅎ ㅍ , here is missing however the horizontal line in the center becomes. From the s (ㅅ) no asperierte form, and the n ( ㄴ) exist, r/l (ㄹ), to m (ㅁ), stumm/ng (ㅇ) and h (ㅎ) have neither a aspierierte nor doubled variant.
Nowadays ever more American and other western expressions arrive into the Korean language and with Hangeul are then described. Since thereby certain phonetic rules and abbreviation habits of the Korean language are considered (to have),a clear loud-pictorial representation of the word is not always given.
Hangeul was developed apart from other reforms 1446 by king Sejong. Whether it the writing create has or whether scholar is this in his order to have achieved,disputed. King Sejong recognized that with the Chinese indications were not to be reached an acceptable Alphabetisierung of the population. This presupposed studies often for many years. Hangeul was therefore particularly as comfortable and reliable writing for the low civil servants meant - the king and the yardwrote certainly further on Chinese. The new writing probably became around the 9. October 1446 in a document, which Hunmin Jeongeum publishes, - the exact day is unknown. This becomes in South Korea nowadays to 9. October with the legal holiday Hangeul day celebrated. In North Koreaan appropriate holiday finds to 15. January instead of.
In Korea before and after Hangeul several writing systems were developed on basis of the Chinese writing - Hyangchal (향찰/鄕札), Gukyeol (구결/口訣) and Idu (이두/吏讀) -but differently than Hangeul none of these writings could become generally accepted. Also Hangeul became to in 20. Century inside as „woman writing “or in writing for people of low conditions of many scholars despises. The straight Potenzial to the Alphabetisierung of the simple population led however to the fact that Hangeulthe elite strong resistance encountered, which the native writing as inferior regarded. Hangeul was considered as writing of the Ungebildeten; its use was occasionally even forbidden. Only in 19. and 20. Century experienced itself it as symbol against Chinese and above all Japanese influencing control of an arrangingKorean nationalism a revaluation and became finally the dominating writing system of the Korean language. Into the 1970er years inside and in some text places this very day and however usually in a combination one writes, in which both Hangeul and Chinese characters were used.
Thoseexact discussion of old Hangeul postings is not restorable free of doubts any longer. One assumes seemed to consonant cluster - in the typeface they are present.
according to the legend came king Sejong to the conviction that his country will be powerful,if only more its subjects could read and write. In addition however a simpler writing than the Chinese writing was necessary. Sejong prepared such a writing, but he knew that he had to convince the people that this new writing was a gift of the sky. Soit went to honey with a brush and a pot fully into the palace garden and painted on the sheets with honey the new indications, fallen down by the plane tree trees.
On the next morning Sejong invited its fortune-teller to a walk in the garden. During the night insects hadthe parts of the sheets coated with honey eaten away. There now twenty-four sheets with the new letters lay. The fortune-teller noticed it and main header her up and said to the king.„Perhaps the Gods want to communicate to us somewhat. “It took the sheets and grübelte some weeks over it,to he a daily into the throne hall fell and inspires proclaimed: „The Gods sent us a writing, so that we can write our language. “King Sejong showed his admiration for the sense of sharp and instructed to publish the alphabet. And the people took this singular writingwith enthusiasm on.
long one before the development of the Hangeul alphabet was already printed in Korea with mobile letters made of metal.
- 1900 build itself I Won IC (이원익) from a western typewriter a Hangeul typewriter, the frequent use the changing over branch required and with thatnur langsam tippen lässt.
- i Won IC develops 1910 in Hawaii a new Hangeul typewriter.
- 1914 set the minister I Dae like (이대위) in San Francisco for the first time Hangeul in linotype.
- In November 1949 gong Byeong u (공병우) invents an efficient typewriter after two and a half years research, whereby it lessto the appearance of the writing pays attention as the possibility of fast tapping.
- At the 3. March 1950 is its 3 [SE] - beolsik - typewriter finished.
- 1982 become in South Korea the past standard keyboard allocation for teletype 2 [you] - beolsik also the standard for computer keyboards KS X 5003 as well as
- 1985 for typewriters. In the sameYear automates gong Byeong u in Philadelphia up to then by hand the 1980 of to mA-tae (안마태), claimant phototypesetting developed in Hollywood.
Further information to Korean keyboards under Jamo#Tastatur.
see also: Jamo
table of the Hangeul indications
the soundsthe Korean language are differentiated as follows:
- 아음; 牙音 A-eum; „Molar sounds “: The indication ㄱ (g) shows the tongue from the side, how it affects the Velum (the soft palate).
- 설음; 舌音 seol eum; „Tongue sounds “: The indications ㄴ (n), ㄷ (D), ㅌ (t), ㄹ (l) show - likewise from the side - like the tongue point the edge of alveolar affected.
- 순음; 唇音 sun eum; „Lip sounds “: The indications ㅁ (m), ㅂ (B), ㅍ (p) give outlined the lips from the front again.
- 치음; 齒音 chieum; „Tooth sounds “: The indication ㅅ (s), ㅈ (j), ㅊ (CH) - originally formed like a wedge/\ the lateral opinion of the Schneidezähne shows.
- 후음; 喉音 hueum; „Guttural sounds “: The round indication ㅇ, ㅎ (h) symbolizes a cross sectionby the throat.
|ㄱ||giyeok (기역 “giyeok “stands in the Anlaut for” g “in the Auslaut for” k “)|
|ㄹ||rieul (리을 - “stands rieul “in the Anlaut for” r “in the Auslaut for” l “)|
|ㅎ||hieut (히읗)||(consider the irregular discussion of the final sound ㅎ)|
|ㄲ||ssang giyeok (쌍기역 - “ssang “means” doubly “)|
|ㄸ||ssang digeut (쌍디귿)|
|ㅃ||ssang bieup (쌍비읍)|
|ㅆ||ssang shiot (쌍시옷)|
|ㅉ||ssang (쌍지읒) vowels|
|ㅞ||incoming goods (웨)|
|ㅡ||European Union (으)|
in former times was the writing in Korea under different, partial abschätzigen names well-known. Until farin 20. Century was used (neutral) the name eonmun (언문 , 言文 about “people language writing”), which was replaced gradually from hangeul. Also the designation became intermediate gungmun (국문, 國文; about “native writing”) used, today still in compositions meets. Eonmun and gungmun are probably similar to their counterpart hanmun (한문, 漢文; about “Chinese writing [language]”) formed.
Geul“Writing” is from the Chinese 契 developed (gyeol → geol → geul), however no more than sinokoreanisches word is treated, thus never “契 “, but always with hangeul written.
“Han” can be interpreted as Partizipialform of the centralKorean adjective hectar “much”; han geul would leavein this case with “large writing” or “large writing” translates themselves.
Alternatively one can understand han as “Korean”. Han geul one could understand then as “Korean writing”, similarly too südkor. han guk “Korea” (“Korean country”). The Ethnonym han is not Chinese origin; there the Chinese it however earlyfrom trunks of the Korean peninsula to their designation took over, it as sinokoreanisches word one treat now (Hanja:韓). It was however never usual to write the word “hangeul ” in Korean texts with Hanja.
In North Korea the writing is called chosŏn'gŭl (조선글) or uri kŭl (우리글).
Chosŏn is as han old Ethnonym, to whose posting with Sinographemen, which at that time in Eastern Asia usually-used writing, which indications were used 朝 cho and 鮮 sŏn, the sound of the word in the language of those copying, which it designated. Chosŏn is often translated with “morning silence”, which however not the original meaning of the word is, but is based only on the other meaning of the Grapheme in the Chinese one, with which the Ethnonym was written.
우리클 “our writing” is called literally translated and is similarly to that North Korea niches 우리말 “Korean” (literally “our language”) in an educated manner. 클 probably is a variant described of the above ko.
other writings in Korea
the Chinese characters, in Korea than Hanja (한자, Korean reading for the Chinese term Hanzi) designation, become onlyuses still rarely. Many from Chinese coming terms are however in their discussion and to it in their posting in Hangeul identical and can only by the context be differentiated. Hanja have however only one meaning, therefore the Hanja indications become occasional with important words inClips behind the respective word in Hangeul set, or the text consists of a mixture of Hangeul and Hanja. On visiting cards one finds the names in Hangeul and Hanja, around the meaning of the Names clearly nearly always sets. Hanja in North Korea no more become officialused, in practice it however still occurs.
The distinction of Hangeul and the Hanja and/or. the Chinese writing is also without knowledge of the language possible, since Hangeul of the described, firm form follows, Chinese indications however from radicals exist, also in the compositionare different.
The writing can be transferred by means of the revised Romanisierung or the McCune Reischauer into latin writing. The revised Romanisierung is usual since 2000 in South Korea, McCune Reischauer is outside by Korea still very common and in a variant in North Korea is used. The McCune Reischauer Romanisierunguse some special characters and are considered as more complicated. The transcriptions show the Korean language however more inaccurately, in addition Korean words become usually quite long. Therefore they are usually used only when western designations or with Korean terms in western texts.
Most south Koreans know Hangeul, thosestarting from the primary school taught latin writing as well as a large number after the latin writing taught Hanja to only read flowing and write. Many Koreans can read Hanja clearly better than writing. Differently than for example in Japan, where the Hepburn system could be established, only few Koreans control onethe systems to the Romanisierung; many tend to spontaneous Romanisierung without evident systematics; also one is often taken as a basis the scientific Romanisierungen, at which however strong changes are then made, in order to adapt it to the needs or technical conditions of the user; see for this z. B.McCune Reischauer#Sonderzeichen.
Ita variant gives the writing, with which the individual letters carry more morphophonemische information. This system is called Chosŏnŏ sinch'ŏlchabŏp (조선어신철자법, about “new orthography of the Korean one”).
- Young key Kim Renaud(OD.): The Korean alphabet. Its History and Structure. Honolulu, University OF Hawai'i press, 1997.ISBN 0824817230
- Young yes Beckers Kim: Korean for beginners. Goettingen, edition Peperkorn, 2005. ISBN 3929181584
- Florian Coulmas: The Blackwell Encyclopeda OF Writing of system. Oxford, Blackwell Publishers, 1999. ISBN 063121481X
- Ross King, Jae HoonYeon: Elementary Korean. Bad clay/tone, Tuttle Publishing, 2000.ISBN of 0-8048-3614-0
Web on the left of
- http://www.schrock.net/tim/hangul/computer/ - Hangeul under Windows type
- http://www.korea.net/korea/kor_loca.asp?code=A020302 (English) - articles over Hangeul
- http://www.willi-stengel.de/hangul.htm Hangeul, the key to the culture of the Koreans. Reported and. A. of the suppression of the Korean writing under Japanese crew.