name:Thành Phố Hà Nội
meaning:“Within the rivers”
region:Delta of the red river
surface:921 km ²
number of inhabitants:3.083.800 (2004)
nationalities:Kinh, Hoa
situation in Viet Nam

Hanoi (vietn. Hà Nội, chin.河内) is thoseCapital of the socialist Republic of Viet Nam and has a number of inhabitants of 1.431.377 in the actual city as well as 2.580.312 in the dye (conditions 1. January 2005).

Table of contents


Klimadiagramm Hanoi
climatic diagram Hanoi

the city is to about 60 km because of the entrance of the red river (Sông Hồng) in its fruitful delta, far away from the delta into the gulf from Tonking.

The climate is subtropically - monsoon with damp-hotSummers and mild-dry winters. The yearly precipitation sum amounts to 1,682 mm; eight months are humid, four arid.


After Ho-Chi-Minh-city (Saigon) Hanoi is the most important industrial city of Viet Nam.


The-Huc-Brücke am Hoan Kiem-See
The Huc bridge at the Hoan Kiem lake
"Hanoi" - Hotel
“Hanoi” -Hotel

For Hanoi, which is oldest still existing capital of Southeast Asia, the year of the foundation 1010 occupied.

In the year 866 the Chinese seaweed dynasty establishes a citadel for the consolidation of its crew on the west bank of the red river named Đại La, the king Lý TháiTổ, which chooses founders of the Ly-dynasty, in the year 1010 to its Residenzstadt and „“ („ascending Drache “ ) calls Thăng Long.

Numerous legends and legends umranken Hanois history.

After a legend king Lý Thái Tổ believes with his searchto a fruitful level for its seat from the nebulas of the red river a golden kite rising into the sky to have seen, whereupon it calls its new residence „Thăng Long “(„ ascending Drache “).

In the course of the centuries Hanoi becomesrepeated by invaders conquered, in the meantime its function loses as capital and is several times renamed.

During the Ho-dynasty (1400 - 1407) Hanoi carries the name Đông Đô (eastern capital), during occupation by the Chinese Ming dynasty is called the cityĐông Quan (eastern gate), the Le-kings call it 1430 in Đông Kinh (eastern capital) over, from which the Frenchmen of late Tongking derive.

During the Nguyễn dynasty (1802 - 1945) Hanoi loses its status as capital and must these at Huếtransfer, remains however administrative center of the north.

Since the Drache is to remain reserving Huế as symbol of the imperial power of the capital, the city is again renamed. The Nguyen - emperor Minh Mang (1820 - 1841) gives it in the year1831 their current names: Hà Nội - which „city within the rivers “, which nothing else calls a geographical situation.

1873 are conquered Hanoi by the Frenchmen. From 1883 to 1945 Hanoi is administrative centre of the colony French Indochina. The Frenchmenestablish a modern administrative city south of alto Hanoi, spread, right-angled to each other lying, baumgesäumte avenues with opera, put churches, public buildings and luxury mansions on, destroy in addition, large parts of the city, fill up lakes and channels or make these smaller; Emperor palaces and citadelmust likewise yield.

From 1940 to 1945 Hanoi is Japanese occupied with the largest part of French Indochinas and Southeast Asia.

Blick auf einen Stadtteil Hanois - Nguyen Chi Thanh Straße
View of quarter a Hanois - Nguyen Chi Thanh road

to 2. September 1945 calls Ho Chi Minh in Hanoi the democratic one Republic of Viet Nam (North Vietnam) out.

The vietnamesische national assembly decides to 06. January 1946 to let Hanoi become again the capital of the democratic Republic of Viet Nam.

Between 1946 and 1954 the city is scene of violent fights between Frenchmen and Viet Minh (Indochinakrieg). During the Viet Nam war Hanoi is heavily bombarded by the Americans. The first American bomb attacks on Hanoi take place 1966, the last at the end of of 1972. However to Christmas 1972 Rolling Thunder “40.000 zerbomben during the American operation „t explosive the city and destroy them to 25 per cent.

Since the reunification of the country 1976 Hanoi the capital is whole Viet Nam.

See also: History of Viet Nam

objects of interest

a column Pagode
Hồ Chí Minh Mausoleum


  • Susan Sontag: Journey after Hanoi. Reinbek 1969. Rowohlt. 86 sides.
  • Thai Binh: The art of theWater puppet theatre. Leipzig 1985.
  • Georges Boudarel/Van Ky Nguyen: Hanoi 1936-1996. 1997. ISBN 2862607193.
  • Mason Florence: Hanoi (1999). Lonely planet Guide. 192 sides. ISBN 0-86442-799-9.
  • William S. Logan: Hanoi - Biography OF A town center.Seattle 2000. University OF WashingtonPress. 304 sides.ISBN 0-86840-443-8.
  • Philippe Papain: Histoire de Hanoi. Paris 2001. Fayard. 404 sides. ISBN 2-213-60671-4.
  • Michael Waibel: Town development of Hanoi: With consideration of the transformation of the 36-Gassen in the city of area since beginning of Doi Moi. ThesisUniversitäet Goettingen 2001. 288 sides.
  • Rita cutter Sliwa: Cities in paging: Restructuring of Berlin, Brussels, Hanoi, Ho Chi Minh city, Hong Kong, Jerusalem, Johannesburg, Moskau, pc. Petersburg, Sarajewo and Vienna. Berlin 2002. Reimer. 361 sides. ISBN 3-496-01245-5.
  • Georges Boudarel: Hanoi - town center OF the rising dragon. 2002. ISBN 0742516555.

Web on the left of

coordinates: 21°2' N, 105°51' O

Viet Nam
Flagge Vietnams

northwest | Northeast | Delta of the red river | Northern coastal region | Southern coastal region | Central high country | Southeast | Mekong delta

of large cities

Cần Thơ | Đà Nẵng | Hải Phòng | Hà Nội | Hồ Chí Minh city


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