Hanse (old high German Hansa “group, attendants, crowd”) - also German Hanse or dudische Hanse, lat.: HANSA TEUTONICA - the name for between center the 13 is. Century (establishment: 1254) and in the middle 17. Century existing combinations German Buyers with the goal of being able to represent their economic interests particularly abroad better. From it the standard ware of the Hanse developed, in which the Hanseatic cities united and their interests in relation to other nations as well as the emperor represented. The colors thatHanse were white and red. These colors also today still are in the Stadtwappen of many Hanseatic cities.
In the times of their largest expansion almost 200 sea and Binnenstädte of Northern Europe were united in the Hanse.
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the Hanse was over long time a politicalTo lead power of first rank, which succeeded it, without own sovereignty - their members remain in each case under the rule different, lay and church Gewalten - even victorious wars. Beginning and end of the Hanse are difficult to determine.
Already before the official union there were - for instance since that 11. Century - German buyer cooperatives, which were abroad privileged. The first cooperative of this kind is 1157 in London occupies documentary. In this united Cologne buyers and acquired a property, to the Stalhof. This address was exterritorial.
In Visby on the island Gotland developed in the year 1161 a Gilde, the community of the German Gotlandfahrer.It was a union of individual buyers of same origin, same right habits and similar commercial interests from the northwest of Germany, of Lübeckern and from foundations of a town at the Baltic Sea. Visby was promoted to a turntable in the Baltic Sea trade with highway circuit to Luebeck. This Gilde thatBuyers from the holy Roman realm, who swore themselves mutually to assistance, should become the germ cell of the Hanse.
As further combinations the Peter yard than competition to the Scandinavian Gotenhof and the Tyske Brygge in mountains developed in Nowgorod around 1200. ThisCooperatives resisted together dangers and from their view unauthorized requirements, for example from the basic Ruhr right and the law of wreckage. The Hanse developed of the original Kaufmannshanse later to the Städtehanse, with which cities formed a mutual federation.
Memberthe Hanse could be or become a city in three way. Up to the center of the 14.Jh. the cities grew by the participation of their buyers at the hansischen trade into the community. Since the center of the Jh. the cities placed formalPetitions in error or photograph. Often the smaller cities took a third path into the Hanse, by being able to be taken up without special formalities of one of the larger cities. A special case remained the rheinische Neuss, the 1475 due to imperial privilege inthe rank of a Hanseatic city one raised.
The Hans characteristic was lost through disuse of the privileges, through freiwilligen withdrawal from the community or through the formal exclusion of a city (Verhansung), to that with serious offences against the principles and interests of the community ofthe city meeting to be made could. To the questions, on which no clear answers can be given, also the question belongs, since when there is the Hanse at all. There is no Gründungsdatum of the Hanse. It developed, grew. Not even thoseContemporaries seem to have had clear conceptions over it. When the advice of the city Bremen turned 1418 in a controversy with Hamburg to Cologne, for a copy of the establishment document of the Hanse asked, answered the Cologners, they would have in vain after thatdemanded writing van the fundatacien the Duytz hensze searched, however would further-look for and to the Bremern the desired copy would send, as soon as they had become fündig. Philippe Dollinger with the reestablishment gives the actual beginning of the Hanse and/or. the reconstruction of Luebeck in the year 1159 on. An important condition for the emergence of the Hanse was the Ostkolonisation, the development of the Baltic Sea area, the establishment of Luebeck and the education of the Gotländi cooperative.
the general Hans day was the highest line and resolution committeethe Hanse. The first Hans day took place 1356, the last 1669.
Hans floor took place depending upon need, usually on invitation of Luebeck, the 1294 as caput et principium omnium (head and origin of all) designated is and as hovestad the Hansein 14. and 15. Jh. one confirmed several times. Besondere Rechte gegenüber Höhle Städten der Hanse konnte Lübeck aus dieser Funktion jedoch nicht herleiten.
On the Hans day all questions, which the relationship of the buyers and cities among themselves or those, were treatedRelations with the trade partners abroad concerned. After the idea the resolutions should be obligatory on all members.
But the Hans day did not possess the cities superordinate Zwangsgewalt. The implementation of the resolutions depended on the good will of the cities; however init was appropriate for their discretion to carry resolutions of the Hans daily or own ways go. They felt therefore also bound only if the resolutions with the own local interests covered themselves, otherwise one refused it their co-operation, e.g. the refusal of Dortmund,itself that 1367 in Cologne closed war alliance of the wendischen, Prussian and some Netherlands cities against the Danish king Waldemar IV., so consequence-fraught for the history of the Hanse. to attach. In a letter to the advice final messengers met in Luebeck the city placedfirmly, it supported and does not want the wars of the sea-side towns ever that not to still do. 1388 left the remaining Hanseatic cities, even the westfälischen, Dortmund turned around alone, as its sovereignty in the large feud on the play andit by the met armies Cologne archbishop and the count of the Mark was threatened. There are similar examples zuhauf.
The bloom time
between approximately 1350 and 1400 stood the Hanse as northEuropean great powerthere.1356 united a loose standard ware standing under the line of Luebeck officially to the federation van the düdeschen hanse. The German Hanse was not rather freely organized also after this official establishment, had a condition and no membership lists, no durableindependent Finanzgebarung or official.
About 70 cities, further 130 formed their core were loosely associated. Thus the sphere of influence of the Hanse expanded over an area, that from Flanders until Reval was enough and the entire Baltic Sea area untilto the Finnish sea bosom covered. Most important not-urban member was the German medal.
In such a way reached supremacy of the Hanse in north and Baltic Sea excited above allthe resistance of Denmark: 1361 came it in the first Hans OD to Mark war to the fight against the Danish king Waldemar IV., which wanted to limit the rights of the Hanse. The originally only economic interests serving federation received by against the threat of theDane king closed Cologne Confederation to 19. November 1367, which united the cities to the war alliance with Sweden and Norway against Denmark, also high political meaning. The victorious exit of this second Hans OD to Mark war brought the Hanse with the peace of Stralsund 1370an unusual powerful position. The king choice in Denmark dependent made on the agreement of the Hanse. (This option was not noticed however of the Hanse.)
The attempt of the Danish king of Erich VII., Scandinavia from dependence to loosen and the introduction of the Sundzolls, led 1420 to 1435 to a recent war, intoagain was subject to Denmark and the 1435 with the peace by Vordingborg one terminated.
Fall of the Hanse
the power loss of the Hanse began with the Erstarken of the nationalwonderful Territorialgewalten in the Baltic Sea area, by the cities the interests of the governing princeswere subordinated. Another, later reason was the discovery America, which expanded the Baltic Sea west lake (North Sea), dominating so far, trade now into overseas areas. Not the Handelsvolumen of the Hanse in the actual sense decreased/went back, probably developed howeverpowerful competitors, that weakened the meaning of the Hanse for the individual cities - and buyers -.
Already 1441 had to recognize the Hanse the economic equal rights of the Dutchmen, after Brügge arise as most important Kontor of the Hanse with Antwerp a powerful competitorwas and the Netherlands additionally with the Danes as the “masters of the Sunds “had allied themselves. Besides disagreement between the cities developed over handling the Dutchmen: While the wendischen cities by the Erstarken of the Dutch trade more stronglywere threatened and to an irreconcilable policy pushed, knew the German knight medal, Cologne and the livländischen cities their own interests with a konzilianteren policy better to live accordingly.
The peace of Utrecht (1474) terminated the 1470 common Kaperkrieg begun of the citiesthe Wendi and Prussian quarter against England and the Privililegien of the Londoner Stalhofs and the hansischen cloth trade secured.
The final fall of the Hanse began 1494 with the locking of the Kontors in Nowgorod by Iwan III.. With the misalignment of theForeign trade to overseas the Hanse, which had not seen much necessity due to its monopolistic position to open in relation to innovations lost in 15. and 16. Century increasingly in meaning. The number of the member cities decreased/went back ever more. 1669 held the latterin the Hanse cities, Luebeck, Hamburg , remained , Bremen, Danzig, Rostock, Braunschweig, Hildesheim, Osnabrück and Cologne the last Hans day in Luebeck off, whereby the three the first mentioned protection of the Kontore abroad present took over.
With beginning 17. Century was the proud and powerful standard ware of the Hanse only after names an alliance. The dreissigjährige war, 1618 - 1648, brought the complete dissolution. A suggestion of Spain, Hanseatisch Spanish a Compagnie, which should operate the trade after the new Spanish colonies in Central America, failed because of the Protestant-catholic faith contrasts. On the Hans floors 1629 and 1641 became Hamburg, Bremen and Luebeck assigned to protect the best for the well-being of the Hanse. The Kontor in mountains became 1775, which sells Stalhof , Steelyard in London 1858. The 1540 from Brügge to Antwerp shifted Kontor in the Osterling house went 1863 into the hands of the Belgian government over. The Peter yard in Nowgorod was already 1494 with conquest Nowgorods by Iwan III., called Kalita, destroyed.
the principal place Luebeck, in the late Middle Ages to Cologne the second largest cityGermany and beside Rome, Venice, Pisa and Florenz one of the five glories of the realm, in accordance with edict of emperor Karl IV. of 20. October 1375, was court of appeal for all Hanseatic cities to arrange after own Lübi righthad.
the connection of country and maritime traffic in an organization was the crucial step into the future, which the Hanse should finally bring the monopoly-like supremacy in trade and transport on north and Baltic Sea. New one Traffic ways on the water became however until far in 14. Jh. opened of the Hanse, one did not take over rather the traffic routes opened by Friesen, Saxonia, Englishman and Skandinavier. The trade partners and boat operator were displaced, often under the appearance of fair contractsunder equal partners. For it the privilege Heinrichs of the lion is exemplary to the Gotländer of 1161. When these refused itself accepting with the buyers from that straight again created Luebeck (1159) as trade partners Heinrich mediated and confessed the Gotländernin its area the same rights too, as they should grant the Gotländer to the German on their island. Now the buyers from Visby, which controlled up to then the intermediate trade on the Baltic Sea, could bring their goods if necessary to Luebeck,the direct way in the inland continued to remain blocked to them. A further advantage of the Hanseschifffahrt was a certain right security opposite competitor, a developed maritime law, asking the Befrachtung, manning, conditions on board, the behavior in the case of distress etc. regulated. ThoseRight security for Hanseschiffe, above all abroad, was fundamental for smooth functioning of the traffic organization. Also questions of technical ship security and the sea-ability of the ships were very seriously taken, just like the protection of the trade ships from Piraterie. The boat operatorsdrove therefore usually in the federation into travel communities from two and three ships, and starting from 1477 larger Hanseschiffe per 20 had armed on board to have. From cape run gene these measures did not protect however always.
Kontore of the Hanse were in Nowgorod, mountains (Bryggen), London (Stalhof) and Brügge; at its point selected Oldermänner and assessor stood. Their task was it, the protection of the commercial interests opposite the foreignTo notice powers, at the same time in addition, to supervise the observance that the buyers been entitled liberties by the buyers themselves to whose observance these had to commit themselves with the admission into the Kontorgemeinschaft upon oath. Furthermore there were statutes, those living together thatBuyers and questions of the local trade regulated, it gave their own cash, it gave their own seal. But the Kontore were not considered as members of the Hanse.
on itself alone the posed, the full risk basic, only buyer carrying on on own calculation trade was in the Hanse 14. And 15. Jh. the exceptional case. The typical Hans buyer of the late Middle Ages was member of one or several Commercial companies. Since that 12. Jh. the simple Selschop , a short term opportunity company, is at which a buyer enters capital or commodity on the commercial journey, risk and profit was divided, and the Sendeve, the commission business, with that the profitthe assigned buyer by firm wages or a commission was replaced and the client the exclusive risk carried. At the society free at the most frequent occurring type two brought in or more partners capital in same or different height; Distribution of profitsand loss assignment took place depending upon portion. There were several quiet partners beside the active partners, frequently also. The duration of the society remained usual on few years limited. The straight larger Hans buyers with trade relations between east and west were in severalsuch societies represent, in order to distribute the risk better. With the choice of the society partners relational relations always played a large role.
Dollinger puts out into the Hanse some these buyers impactlightful: That Hamburg buyer vienna and Miles, Johann joke-borrow outLuebeck whether the Tragik of its biography, the Dortmunder Tidemann Lemberg whether his Skrupellosigkeit, the ethnic German of Stockholm Johann nail whether his assimilation strength, the European-wide acting brothers Veckinchusen for the different success variants of a inter+family, commercial co-operation, the Lübecker Hinrich Castorp as examplefor the almost classical Hans buyer of its time and the brothers Mulich as example of the break-down of the Hans buyers into the upper-German trade. In the picture Hans's getting leg the younger one with its haven advice of the Hans buyers in the Londoner Stalhof and Jacob van Utrecht havethe buyer 16 beginning. Century in its working environment and held with the necessary implements of the successful buyer of the time.
Example of the successful Hans buyer 17. Century is surely the Lübecker Thomas Fredenhagen, that despite changed commercial stream stillfrom Luebeck very successfully world-wide in the competition with Bremern and Hamburgern acted.
Trustee and inheriting
where the Hanse as point of reference of urban traditions is always sworn to, is considered the Hanseaten as world open, urban, soberly and reliably, aristocracy-CH-reserves and rigidly. Luebeck, Hamburgand Bremen with such plates are gladly connected. The cities took the term Hanseatic city however only in 19. Jh. into its state title up over one and a half centuries after the Hanse had already expired.
Hansaplatz and Hansaport
the Hanse becomesthe positive features of history added. Where always a city belonged once the Hanse, this seems to lift their reputation, and can thereby be recruited. Places, roads and buildings remind of it: Hansaplatz, Hans branch race, Hanseatenweg, Hansahof, Hanse quarter, Hansaport over onlyTo state examples from Hamburg and Luebeck. Numerous public and private buildings and companies swore to alleged Hans tradition and lead designations such as Hanse, Hansa, hanseatisch or hansisch to the component of its name. That refers often to its seat or its competence, aboutin the case of the Hanseati higher regional court, Hanseati insurance office Lufthansa German of 1891, or the soccer association fiber plastic Hansa Rostock. Mostly it serves quality seals however as a kind.
For the 1980er years again Hans floor of the modern times in former Hanseatic cities are held. However thereby above all the cultural standsand economic co-operation of municipalities on the agenda. Particularly on an integration of the Hanseatic cities lain before in the Eastern Bloc much importance is attached.
On the Hans day in Stade those decided 1994 at that time about. 100 Hanseatic cities from 10 countries (Estonia, Finland, Latvia, Litauen, the Netherlands, Norway, Sweden, Poland, Russia and Germany) as common project in the context of a solidarity action of all Hanseatic cities, the pc. To restore Nikolaus cathedral in the Hans yard from Nowgorod to. The leadership in this affairthe cities Visby (s) and mountains (N) took over. Altogether become about. 750.000 € of Germany, Holland, Belgium, Norway, Sweden, to apply Finland and the Baltic states its. The work began in the summer 1994.
- to Hanseatic city
- free realm city
- history of the German navy
- archives of the Hanseatic city Luebeck
- the history of the Hanse as loose standard ware is inseparable with thatSingle historical postings of the substantial member cities connected, which, since they were not always united and pursued quite own interests, which evaluate Hanse in the light of their history quite differently:
- Jörgen Bracker (Hrsg.): The Hanse - life reality and myth, 2 Bde., Hamburg 1989. Catalog of the exhibition of the museum for Hamburgi history in Hamburg 24. August-24. November 1989. Partly high-informatively.
- Philippe Dollinger: The Hanse,5. Edition, Stuttgart 1998.With distance the best overall display.
- Rolf mutton Kiesow: Hanse, 3. Edition, Munich 2004 ISBN 3406447317