of swans, symbol and metaphor for harmony

the harmony (griech. harmonia = (together) adding, syllable acre or har: indogerman. Herk. = combination from opposite one to a whole one) generally

The term “harmony” is used usually, where one apart from a certain regularity in the arrangement of individual objects and/or. its parts still another sense, a value referringnessto mark believes. For this reason the term is avoided by most scientists. There are some technical terms of the single sciences nevertheless, in which the expression seems to harmony:

table of contents

term history

with the development of the term in the antique one referred “harmony” to features of the symmetry.The harmony term was placed first by the Pythagoreern into the center of philosophical views. One saw the harmony in the beautiful proportion as unit of measure and importance. This thesis, first with mathematical realizations and with the harmony of the tonessupported, became in Mysti extrapolates.

Thus, the movement of the heavenly bodies was maintained follows certain harmonious numerical ratios and causes (inaudible) a “sphere music “. Heraklit tried to seize the term “harmony” dialectically as unit of the contrasts: “The Widerstrebende unites,from the opposite (tones) develop the most beautiful harmony, and all happening takes place on the way of the controversy. “Also Platon relied on the harmony term as voucher of its idea teachings. Thus it developed thoughts of the “atoms”, which consist of triangles, ofthe harmony of the cosmos, the tones and. A. and it transferred also into the state teachings.

Particularly in the antique theoretical medicine to this nature-philosophical harmony one tied. It led the health from the harmonious mixing proportion of certain juices and from thatAre missing this relationship the illness off. The medieval science of the different tempers of humans due to a certain measure of the mixture of the basic juices of the body continued the antique tradition.

The harmony teachings of the antique ones have two sources:

  • 1. Thosemathematical proportions the alto more pythagoreer and itself the theoretical music of the theory of harmonious measure conditions 2, developing
  • from it. the dialectic nature philosophy, which looked for the switching members of the fundamental contrasts and as switching all opposite one to harmony regarded.

Numbers, thosein a harmonious proportion stand, must the equation (A-B): (b - C) = A: C fulfill.

Boethius placed the influential theory of the three different kinds of “music” on (“music”: the epitome of the whole of harmonious measure conditions):

  • musica mundana : that is called cosmic measure conditions
  • musica humana : that is called the harmony of the soul, those of the body and between both
  • musica instrumentalis : that is called harmonious measure conditions of instrumental making music

Boethius points musica mundanathe dominating role too. Humans have the obligation to recognize these and to lead even a regulated life. The medieval astronomy strove to give with the model of sphere movements co-ordinated harmoniously one on the other an explanation of the sky movements.

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Took the conception as a basis of the existence of a “sphere harmony “to

application with Kepler, Goethe, Hegel and Leibniz Johannes Kepler his astronomical research. One of its Hauptwerke carries the title “Harmonice mundi “(1619). As convinced KopernicanerKepler of the question follows, which connections between the planetary motions and harmonious conditions exist, how they are common from the music and geometry.

In G.W. Leibniz 'theory of the “universal harmony” comes the view of the constant lawfulnessthe world to the expression. For the solution of the specific problem of the determination of the relationship of body and soul Leibniz introduced the term “prästabilisierten harmony” from body and soul:Body and soul are like two from each other independently going clocks with one anotherharmonieren.

Marine Mersenne gave a physical reason of the musical clay/tone system harmony universal (1636) in its writing to “. The harmony to Leibniz was based on the demand of the existence of a system, which consists of interacting with one another elements. With the developmenta new system term, above all Newton's physics, the material reciprocal effect became a condition for the existence of systems. Thus the harmony lost its original important influence on view of nature. In shape of the theory of the “choice relative shanks” as basisthe chemical compounds remained however still them to in 19. Century inside of influence.

G.W.F. Hegel did not only call itself with harmony a certain phase of the dialectic contradiction, that one, in that the qualitatively different as contrast andContradiction represents, but “a together-being correct unit” forms. Within his theory of measure conditions defined G.W.F.Hegel the harmonies as “excluding choice relative shanks, their qualitative peculiarness, arising in musical and chemical conditions, itself however likewise just as again into the outward appearance only quantitativeFortgehens dissolves " (in: Science of the logic). But the harmony concept is finally displaced also here by the analysis of the concrete chemical reciprocal effects.

A large role played and plays the harmony term finally in the efforts of biology and/or. Taxonomy, a closed systemof kinds, kinds and. A. to justify the organisms in the Botanik and Zoologie. Particularly the authors of the “relationship boards” of organisms as well as for the trailers of “natural systems” in the taxonomy is the harmony thought a guidance principle.

methodologyand theoretical function

in the natural sciences became the term by terms such as symmetry, entireness, system, structure law and. A. replaced. A meaning has the term of the harmony as heuristic principle, if thereby the request is understood, in that variety of objectiveTo look characteristics and relations for structure laws.

Apart from this methodologischen function of the term of the harmony and its almost theoretical unserviceableness in the natural sciences however in those sciences a positive theoretical function comes to it, in those subject object dialectic articlethe science is, in which values and standards as factors of humans of the arranged or objects which can be arranged are examined.

Harmony means then above all to co-ordinate shape and function of all parts of a whole one in such a way that the function that in each case different oneParts and above all the function of the whole one to be maximally fertilized.

Today the term of the harmony has its relevance in the aesthetics, the art sciences (music, architecture, painting), in the Pädagogik (the generally developed personality) and. A.

sees also


  • January of Brauers, world formula harmony, bathe Badener publishing house 1998, ISBN 3980593568
  • max Lü, the harmony law in us. The classical author of the new directions., Ullstein2003, ISBN 3548366562
  • max Lü, God and the knowledge around harmony, in: J. Brauers (Hrsg.): My God picture, a Anthologie, Munich 1990, ISBN 3485006114, S. 212 f.
Wikiquote: Harmony - quotations

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