the Harmonium (Plural: Harmoniums or Harm o nien with stress on the o) are a key instrument, with which the clay/tone through differently long copy tongues is produced, which are shifted washed by air in oscillation. Thus the Harmonium belongs to that Aerophonen. A similar system of the toner generation has e.g. the accordion or the harmonica.
Contrary to the whistles of the organ the tongues of the Harmoniums produce more inharmonious overtones, whereby a less pure sound develops, particularly to absorb which one with the Saugwindharmonium by close Kanzellensearched. Thus the Saugwindharmonium receives a soft, humming sound. The Druckwindharmonium is comparable against it more strongly and more sharply in the clay/tone and in the tone quality with a good accordion.
table of contents
structure and technology
the Harmonium consists of the following main parts: The change, among them the housing is understood, the internal mechanism and the blower.
Two systems can rough be differentiated with the Harmonium: that French system (pressure wind system) and the American system (suction wind system). With both systems the blower with the feet becomes by repeated depressing of two so-called Tretschemel lying next to each other (also: Drawing pedals) operates.
With the French system the bolsters of bellows, the drawing bellows , operate those directly or via the channelan accumulator, which inflate wind magazine. The wind magazine (magazine bellows) is located with the Windlade, to a hermetic Holzkasten, in connection, whose upper cover forms the tongue board, because of whose holes the tongues fastened on metal plates is. The play valves or clay/tone valves lock the holes in the tongue board and standwith the keys of the manual in mechanical connections, with which they can be opened. By the positive pressure developed in the Windlade air moves by outward, must thereby at the tongues and shifts these in oscillation, which produces the clay/tone. The magazine bellows can througha register (Expression) to be switched off, so that the player can affect the volume of the clay/tone (crescendo/decrescendo) directly over the drawing bellows.
The American system functions opposite: with the help of the drawing bellows air is pumped out from the wind magazine and the Windlade, thus a negative pressureproduced. If one opens a clay/tone valve now, air flows in and shifts the tongues again in oscillation.
Per pitch one or more tongues can be present (depending upon number of the of possible tone qualities, see to register (music)).
Both with the French and with the American system are thoseTongues freerunning in a metal frame fastens. While with the French system a whole set of tongues on a plate can be fastened, the tongues lie in individual Kanzellen with the American system. This building method facilitates the cleaning of the tongues, which with the suction air system rather verse-deaf. World-wide and number-moderatelyinterspersed itself only simple American system which can be produced: Also in Germany most were since end 19. Century made harmonies of suction wind instruments.
Pressure wind systems were used in Germany and France particularly with so-called art harmonies for elevated artistic requirements, for the composers how César Franck, Sigfrid meager Elert, max of active, August pure hard and. A. wrote.
In the English linguistic usage the Saugwind Harmonium (thus the Harmonium of the “American system”) usually “reed organ” (also “pump organ” or “parlor organ”) is called, special during itself the name “harmonium” in English normallyto () the pressure wind harmonies rare within the English-language range refers.
forerunner and emergence
at the end 18. Jhs. developed first key instruments, which piercing tongues use. Thus the pc. built. Peter citizen organ farmer Kirschnigk „freerunning whistles “(D. h. Copy tongues) into an organ piano(Combination of hammer piano and organ). It was inspired by the Sheng, that at that time by an artist with the names Johann savage in pc. Petersburg was played.
The direct forerunners of the Harmoniums are however the Aeoline and Physharmonika of instruments mentioned. With both it actedover instruments with two drawing pedals, a keyboard from four to five Oktaven extent and usually only one number of piercing tongues. The Aeoline was developed around 1810 by Bernhard Eschenbach as well as its cousin Johann Caspar Schlimbach, whereby they energize themselves from the muzzle drumleft. The Physharmonika was patented 1821 in Vienna von Anton Haeckl. In the USA the organ farmer Ebenezer Goodrich had built the first harmoniumartige copy tongue instrument around 1810.
At the same time, around 1810, the French organ farmer Gabriel Joseph Grenié (1756-1837) created his orgue expressif. The nameit alludes to the fact that one could affect the volume with this instrument by the wind giving. Greniés compatriot, the important French organ farmer Aristide Cavaillé Coll (1811-1899) created a harmoniumartiges instrument for the chamber-musical use, the so-called „Poikilorgue around 1835 “(of altgriech. poikilos „multicolored, artful “, thus actually „art organ “).All substantial characteristics of the today's Harmoniums are finally united in an instrument, which the French organ farmer Alexandre François Debain (1809-1877) let itself be patented 1842 under the name Harmonium, with which this designation appears the first time.
Debains Harmonium was a pressure wind instrument, which into those1870er Jahre die Harmoniumlandschaft dominierten. The simpler suction wind system was already 1836 of the citizen of Berlin Physharmonika farmer J. D. Shrub man invented, had not been able himself to intersperse however first in Europe. In the USA for the 1860er years the development of the suction wind system was advanced; as an inventor thatSuction wind bellows applies there James Cahart. The American company Mason & Hamlin presented its first suction wind instrument to 1861 and won 1867 during the world exhibition into of Paris the first price with such instrument. With it the world-wide triumphant advance of the suction wind harmonies began.
Since approx. 1860 became also inand zweimanualige harmonies with organ pedal produces and as Pedalharmonium (also: Orgelharmonium) designates. They were used particularly as organ replacement in Sakralräumen or as domestic exercise instrument for organists. Later (after 1900) with the triumphant advance of the electrical current supply above all these pedal harmonies received electrical blowers, thereone with the feet the Tretschemel to operate only badly at the same time and organ pedal play can; however the possibility was void of being able to nuancieren the wind pressure by the speed of the bolster stepping with these instruments.
bloom time and Nachleben
a bloom experienced the Harmonium toward end19. and at the beginning 20. Century, when it as a kind home organ and house instrument of the civil middle class, when replacement for whistle organs in smaller churches, in addition, than veritables concert instrument was discovered. In the western world became occasionally (around 1900) twice asmany harmonies such as pianos sells.
Also in religious meetings the Harmonium played a role (for example in the Pietismus), because it came the sound of the organ close, but was cheaper and even in smaller areas to be set up could. In some pietistischen groupings is from the Harmoniumaccompanied almost become singing of religious songs a characteristic.
From the German harmony change companies over one half million instruments were manufactured altogether clearly. The most important German Harmoniumproduzenten was the following companies (sorts according to Gründungsdatum): Pianofortefabrik Schiedmayer in Stuttgart, based 1853, produced into the 1950erYears also numerous harmonies; Company Philipp Trayser based in Stuttgart, 1853, dissolved 1906; Company Ernst Hinkel based in Leipzig, 1880, Harmoniumproduktion to approx. 1975; Company Theodor man-borrow in Leipzig, based 1889, 1961 united with the company Lindholm; Expired to company Hörügel in Leipzig, based 1893,1952; Company Magnus yard mountain transferred to Borna, based 1894, 1930 of company Lindholm; Company Olof Lindholm adjusted in Borna, based 1894, Harmoniumproduktion 1990, but today still repair of harmonies; Company Bongardt based in Wuppertal, 1897, subsidiary Bongardt & Herfurth based in Wiehe 1920,dissolved 1991.
With the arising of electronic sound production and at the latest since the spreading of the electronic organs the Harmonium from the music life is to a large extent displaced. In addition surely primarily the more varied sound possibilities of the electronic instruments contributed. If one looks for with the Harmonium causes, starts itselfthat often relatively reads noise thinks, which develops when stepping the blower. Another reason might be the fact that above all the deep tongues within the bass range need relatively for a long time, in order to in-swing, and therefore in their speech is easily retarded. This disadvantage is one however with pressure wind harmonieswith it met that frequently a so-called Perkussionsregister was inserted, that with small Hämmerchen, which strike on the tongues, this precise for ringing out brings (with suction wind harmonies the installation of Perkussionsregistern was however too aufwändig). Finally it is to be stated anyhow that the Harmonium at present (around 2005) at least inExperts experiences a certain Renaissance.
the Harmonium brought in
India the Harmonium, originally as mobile organ replacement from Christian mission arene to India, is to be excluded from the Indian music today no more. Its simple handling has it not only to a popular instrument infor the popular and religious music of India made, but it also a firm place as Begleitinstrument in the classical northIndian Ragamusik provides.
Virtuosen on the Harmonium become in the literature from the time before that 1. World war frequently as Harmonisten designates. (ThatTerm “Harmonist” of Siegfried meagerly Ehlert with its harmony-retrain op.99 eingführt)
Ahrens, Christian; Handle, Gregor: The Harmonium in Germany. Building, economic meaning and musical use. Frankfurt/Main 2001. ISBN 3-923639-48-1.
Gellerman, Robert F.: The American Reed organ andthe Harmonium: A Treatise on its History, Restoration and Tuning, with descriptions OF some outstanding Collections, including A stop dictionary and A directory OF Reed of organ. 2. Aufl. New York 1997. ISBN 1-8795-1112-6.
Vehlow, Gero Christian: Studies for the history of the music for Harmonium. Cologne 1998. ISBN 3-7649-2635-X
Web on the left of
- Ulrich Averesch: The basic knowledge to the Harmonium (pdf file, 546 KB):