urine acid (also Purin-2,6,8-triol, after IUPAC - nomenclature 2,6,8-Trihydroxypurin) is the final product of the Nucleinsäurenabbaus (here: Dismantling of Purinbasen with reptiles, birds, apes and humans. Their salts are called urates. The sum formula reads C 5 H 4 N 4 O 3.
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|Other names||2,6,8-Trihydroxypurin, Purin-2,6,8, triol|
|sum formula||C 5 H 4 N 4 O 3|
|short description||odorless white crystals|
|mol mass||168.11 g mol|
|state of aggregation||firmly|
|density||1.89 g/cm ³|
|melting point||300 °C|
|boiling point||? °C|
|steam pressure||? Pa (x °C)|
|solubility||heavily in water|
|of safety references|
|R- and S-sentences||
of R: ?
|As far as possible and common, SI-UNITs are used. If not differently notes, the indicated data apply with standard conditions.|
Table of contents
urine acid is developed as 2,6,8-Trihydroxypurin from an aromatic Sechser-Ring, to which five-achieve yourself attaches. In the Ringstruktur substitute four nitrogen - atoms carbon - atoms 1.3.7 and 9.
To carbon - atoms C 2, C 6 and C 8 are hydroxy groups and/or Oxogruppen (= Ketogruppen) bind.
urine acid forms white, odorless crystals, which melt starting from 300 °C. It steps into two tautomeren main forms (to lactam and Lactimform, see also Tautomerie) on (of 22 further Tautomeren). Urine acid is only bad as weak acid inprotoniertem condition (for example in water), against it well in basic media solubly. Also the alkali salts (particularly lithium) have a better water solubility.
in the organism of Primaten, thus humans and apes, develops for urine acid as dismantling product thatPurinbasen and is thereby the final product of the Purinstoffwechsels. It results from Hypoxanthin or Xanthin from the enzyme Xanthinoxidase. Urine acid is the final dismantling product of the Purinnukleotide and to approximately 75% renal, thus over the kidney, is separated. Besides also a Elimination takes place over Saliva, sweat or the intestinale secretion, thus over the intestine. The daily elimination amounts to up to 1g
with other mammals urine acid by the enzyme Uricase into Allantoin is converted. There are today different theories about the loss of this metabolic pathway with Primaten in the run thatEvolution: Probably the urine acid in the blood functions as anti-oxide to and offers a certain protection against free radicals.
under certain conditions comes it to a increased production of urine acid; thereby in the context of the elimination if the Löslichkeitsprodukt is crossed, the urine acid can in the deriving urinary passages, in the bloodstream or in bradytrophen fabrics to fail and be deposited.
Different factors increase urine acid production:
- Accompaniment of different therapy forms
the determination of the urine acid concentration is of great importance with a tumor therapy with cytostatic drugs or ionizing rays. If larger tumor and cell masses are destroyed, then the urine acidity in the blood rises rapidly, so that it tooheavy kidney damages to come knows. The tumor therapy must be steered by regular regulation in such a way that critical urine acid mirrors are avoided.
Alcohol restrains the urine acid elimination.
the urine acidity leaves itself in the Enzymtest by Photometrie using the Uratoxidase and an absorption within the range of 290Nm measure.
A further common proof is made by the evaporation of the urine acid with concentrated nitric acid and shifting with ammonia - solution in the Murexid sample.