Harsha

Harshavardhana of Kannauj (Harsha = dt.: Amusement, * 590/† 647) was an Indian large king from that 7. Century, a light shape in the Indian Middle Ages beginning. Its acts are described in the so-called Harshacarita of the poet Bana, furthermore by the Chinese Pilgermönch Xuanzang (630-43 in India).

Table of contents

of reunification of north India

the king originated from the sex of the Vardhanas (also Pushyabhuti). That generals of the Gupta had been, with seat in Thanesar (156 kilometers north of Delhi). Harschas father spent its time with fights against the dissolving white Hunnen and other Indian princes. It came thereby to a marriage alliance with the Maukhari emperors von Kanauj, in order to keep free itself the back.

Harscha mounted 606 with 16 years the throne after its older brother Rajya a Komplott to the victim was fallen: Rajya had pulled those after Kanauj, in order to drive the kings out from Malwa and Bengalen to, the Maukhari emperor and/or. had dethroned its widow Rajyashri (606). There it became with a negotiation with Shashanka, which king of Bengalen murdered.

Harscha succeeded it to attack Shashankas capital and to force it to the contract. At the same time he transferred the rule to Kanauj. It avoided it however to accept the title of the large king in order not to displace its sister Rajyashri as a legal heiress. As Rächer of the Maukhari emperors it could conquer north India with Valabhi, Magadha, Kashmir, Gujerat and Sindh. Within only 6 years of incessant wars it created such a realm of up to 3000 kilometers of length. The capital was shifted after Kannauj to course, 400 kilometers southeast its old capital. Only the king of Bengalen, Shashanka (gest. 621), a rival, its realm remained could only after his death be eliminated. Also Harscha the conquest of the Industals and the Indian west coast failed. Here it became 630 of the Chalukya - king Pulakeshin II. (gest. 642) struck and had the Narmada as border river to the south to recognize.

society and administration

to Harschas time were India still quite progressively - the science placed the Gravitationstheorie on (concretely the physicist Brahmagupta) and the atom - theory of the universe. The number of pi was computed more exactly than in Greece. However the advanced culture was limited for a long time to the exclusive box of the military-noble, priests and wholesale merchants, which the monetary system, the remote trade, which controlled guilds and the administration. The people described Xuanzang in such a way: “The usual people is generally leichtherzig, however sincerely and honorably, honestly in financial matters and bedächtig in right things. ... Criminals and rebels are there only few, one has something from them to be pending rarely. “

The king developed a centralized administration and constantly traveled by its areas, in order to examine these as well as smooth disputes. In the old India the direct sovereignty of a ruler could be exercised over rarely more than 150-200 kilometers in the radius. The remainder of the areas was subordinate up to a radius of action of approximately 2000 kilometers of sporadic control. One was content to permit no equivalent ruler and extinguish or send into the exile individual opponents. A perfect removal of noble families was considered however as unritterlich, which was safe a problem of Indian states at that time.

Harschas rule counted 30 peace years. It financed public projects and charitable mechanisms for arms and patient with own funds. Xuanzang wrote: “There the administration of the country on mild laws is based, then also the execution is simple. The families are registered and to hard labour give it not. The crowning goods are divided into four parts: Denied from first the national budget, from which second become the Ministers and officials paid, third is available for rewards of earned men, and from fourth the supports of religious communities flow. “

Nevertheless Harschas had state of problems: Its realm was cut off in the west of the traditional remote trade routes with east Rome, the economy shrank and the money circulation quantity decreased/went back. Harscha turned into to present its Brahmanen and other dignitaries with national Ländereien because its cashes were empty. That reduced naturally its authority and increased those the presented one, because the Brahmanen hardly practiced still priesterliche, selects functions rather administering as officials. The given away country was extracted from the tax revenue, royal officials and soldiers was not allowed it not to enter. (However there was still sufficient vacant country, that by such procedure was opened.)

with all that Harschas army was small not straight, it counted from the outset 5000 war elephants, 20,000 riders (horses were as expensive in India 5x as in the Franconia realm) and 50,000 foot soldiers. Later it is to have been still substantially supplemented.

religion politics

Harscha turned and promoted the buddhistische university Nalanda, which possessed at that time 4000 students to the Buddhismus. In Kanauj there were there 1000 buddhistische monks and 500 Brahmanen over 100 buddhistische monasteries, were fed . To be gone around the Hinduismus could not however, in addition he was much too deeply in the people verwurzelt, while the Buddhismus concentrated on the Oberschicht. Both religions existed now next to each other, whereby the Hinduismus its six philosophical schools developed and the king is to have loosened also some Hindu laws (widow burn). Harscha was even an author of three plays, which mixed buddhistische and hinduistische nature courses.

Harscha a large religious celebration organized every five years. In the year 643 was it like that: On the first day Buddha was admired, at the second Vishnu as sun God and at the third Shiva. Had appeared 18 Vasallenkönige, 3000 buddhistische monks and 2000 Brahmanen and trailer of other teachings. Nevertheless the Chinese Pilgermönch Xuanzang delivers that Harscha thereby authoritarianly in the interest of the Mahayana - Buddhismus proceeded. (It threatened everyone with the loss of the head and/or. the tongue, the Xuanzang - an energetic advocate of this faith direction - after the life or it defamed.) [

work on]

the end trachtete

finally undertook the Brahmanen two conspiracy against the king. Harscha uncovered first and let many arrests make, twists however the ringleaders, so that he fell the second 647 to the victim. It was killed by its officers.

Harsha did not have inheriting, a Minister took over thus power, over-threw themselves with seaweed China and Tibet, was defeated and as a prisoner to China brought. However the meaning of the episode is doubted. After Harsha governed in the 2. Half 7. Century in Magadha and Bengalen the late Gupta, which were eliminated by Yasovarman, a promoter of the art seal, which became again Vasall of Lalitaditya of Kashmir ( 754). Later the realm in the hands of the Pratihara appears some decades - Rajputen .


 

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