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the hauptschule, in the middle of the 60's 20. Century from the so-called. Upper stage of the elementary school come out, is general screen end a resuming school in the context of the three-membered educational system. It is locked with main graduation.The hauptschule is considered as rule school, must thus of the school carriers mandatorily be offered, and is at the same time compulsory school, “because all schoolable pupils and pupils, who visit no different one [...] full time school, are obligated to the attendance of the hauptschule” (manual main education course 1998, S. 9; see literature).
Insome Lands of the Federal Republic (z. B. in Thuringia, Saxonia or in the Saarland) was abolished the hauptschule as school form. It exists however further in form of main graduation, D. h. each Land of the Federal Republic possesses at least one school type, on which main graduation can be acquired.
To enable in former times actually meant around pupils for occupations “relating to crafts” also today still aims to challenges the hauptschule at the ability to work of the pupils and pupils for the ranges of the handicraft, the industry and the simple services.
Instruction is very strongly practically, action and builds inhigh measure on the experiences of the young people up, without doing however without scientific bases and future orientation.
Occupation-referred experiences collect the pupils and pupils by occupation-choice-preparing measures and operating practical courses of several weeks.
The development to modern, independent and humans of age becomes - as in all other school forms- makes possible for the pupils and pupils particularly by the individual support naturally also in the hauptschule.
In urban centers of dense development with high foreigner portion the portion of pupils of not-German native language of the hauptschule is higher than at other school forms.
with different concepts becomethe pupils and pupils promoted:
- Development of project-oriented instruction modules
- of German courses for foreign pupils
- force prevention
- class-spreading instruction
- school social work
- special practical course/yearly practical courses
- social group work
- arbitration of arguments (Schulmediation)
- craze consultation
- Teamteaching etc.
The fan canon of the hauptschule corresponds to that of the other school forms. Exception: The subject working jig is informed strengthened and is inunite Lands of the Federal Republic also speciality in place of the 1. Foreign language.
Usually the pupil reaches after successful conclusion of the 9. Class main graduation.
Last in order to carry for the polyphonic demand after the comparability of conclusions calculation, some hauptschule at the end of the 9 do not require. Class oneFinal examination in the subjects German, mathematics and English as well as a supplementing project examination which is based on voluntariness.
In the school year 2003/04 there were in Germany 5358 hauptschule (those are 88 less than two years before) with 1.1 million pupils.
By the constant decrease of the portion of the main pupils onall pupils of a class there are difficulties in some rural regions increasingly to form residence near main grades.
country-specific emphasis in Berlin and North Rhine-Westphalia a 10-year old compulsory schooling.
In Berlin the pupil receives “extended main graduation” after class 10.
In North Rhine-Westphalia become afterClass of 10 two conclusions assign:
- Secondary conclusion I - Main graduation after class 10 type A
- secondary conclusion I - specializedupperschoolripe after class 10 type B
political will is it to arrange the school career permeable upward: Like that it is possible that above average talented graduates of the hauptschulethe middle ripe one to attain can and thus the capability receive to visit the gymnasiale upper stage (secondary school II).
In Lower Saxony 2004 a model test started to mediate with the goal main pupil purposefully into training. Once per week there is a “practice day”, at that the pupils indifferent enterprises go being able itself and in such a way qualify for the working life. In the school year 2005 this practice day was renamed in streamday. The pupils begin with the school year course 8 to visit on at least one day of the week an enterprise in the environment of the school. In the subsequent yearsare the school year courses 9 and 10 to follow.
In the Saarland there are no more hauptschule for few years. They were replaced by the extended six-form high schools, informed together in that the pupils in the classes 5 and 6 and starting from the 7. Class into different branches dividedbecome (main and/or. Material school branch).
In Bavaria the hauptschule come by lack of pupil increasingly under pressure since the introduction of the six-level six-form high school (gradually starting from 1999). Particularly in population-poor regions increasingly partial hauptschule must be closed - the pupils are summarized in central hauptschule and informed there.
ThoseHauptschule offers in Bavaria after the 9. Class of two graduations on: main graduation and qualifying main graduation. After reaching the class goal in the 9. Class hauptschule will assign main graduation. After existence of an auxiliary examination, the pupils receive qualifying main graduation to the Quali in such a way specified. Overthe chances for weaker pupils on the job market to improve, were furnished special practice classes (P-classes so mentioned) for learn-weak and rather practically talented pupils. For main pupils, who could visit according to their gift also a six-form high school, M-classes exist, in those reaching the middle education conclusion(Middle ripe ones) after an additional tenth year in the hauptschule one makes possible.
- Burkel, Anja: A school learns over. The everyday life in classes with 50 per cent foreigner portion (South German newspaper 14. March 2003)
- Manual main education course (1998). Hg. v. Dietmar J. Bronder/Heinz Jürgen Ipfling/KarlG. Zenke, Bd. 1: Foundation, bath Heilbrunn: Klinkhardt.
- Manual main education course (1999). Hg. v. Dietmar J. Bronder/Heinz Jürgen Ipfling/Karl G. Zenke, Bd. 2: Practice reports, bath Heilbrunn: Klinkhardt.
- Manual main education course (2004). Hg. v. Dietmar J. Bronder/Heinz Jürgen Ipfling/Karl G. Zenke, Bd. 3: Reports on the situation in the countries, bath Heilbrunn: Klinkhardt.
- Rekus, Jürgen/Hinz, Dieter/Ladenthin,Peoples (1998): The hauptschule: Everyday life, reform, history, theory. Weinheim, Munich: Juventa.
- Rühle, Alex: Expenditure-bled - apropos Pisa II: An attendance at residents of Munich a hauptschule (South German newspaper 23. November 2004)
Web on the left of
- training aid for main school teacher
- initiative hauptschule e. V.
- The hauptschule maintains ground (German Press Agency report)
- Last stop hauptschule?
- Main school portal Hessen
- Hauptschule Bielstein
- Bavarian teacher and teacher federation
- comprehensive information about main homework
the hauptschule is in Austria four years old general screen end a compulsory school, which is usually visited at the age by 10-15 years and which elementary school follows, if it instead ofa Gymnasialbildung (also AHS lower level; is as alternative educational facility to the pupils at the disposal) one selected. In order to form themselves in relation to the general-forming higher schools (High Schools, AHS lower level) better and work against threatening locking due to sinking numbers of students, specialized forms have themselves like “sport hauptschule” or in the last years“Music hauptschule” develops.
In hauptschule the “main objects” (German, mathematics, English) are led as Leistungsgruppen so mentioned, so that on the one hand gifts, on the other hand learning weaknesses in the individual subjects to be better promoted to be able. The moreover one the informing personnel exists out subject teachers so mentioned in this school type,D. h. for each subject his own teacher (subject teacher) is available (this does not include however out of and the same teacher in two different subjects to be informed). The duration of one lesson is, by the way as with the other schools in Austria, on 50 minutesdetermined.
Usually pupils visit poly-technical training course or one year of a professional training school (like the professional school) after completing the hauptschule, in order to fulfill the 9-jährige obligation school time. However it is possible for upper stages (material) also after the hauptschule, by means of attendance of a High School (4 years) or a professional traininghigher school (5 years, z. B. To go higher technical institutes or commercial academies) the way to the Matura.
By on the one hand altogether fewer children and on the other hand constant image weaknesses of the hauptschuleflash again and again discussions over the introduction of a comprehensive school .
portal education and public education
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