House Nassau

the house Nassau is an aristocracy sex of European importance, its beginnings to in 10. Century rich and that first as a count von Laurenburg at the Lahn arises. The 1093 Dudo mentioned of Laurenburg is considered as a supposed master father of the house. 1159 become the fewKilometer river downward convenient castle Nassau seat of the sex, which called itself since that time after this castle. The counts von Laurenburg and Nassau extend Arnold I. among the brothers. (1124-48) and Rupert I. (1124-52), its son whale RAM I. (1167-98) as well as whale RAM Sohn Heinrich II., handing(1198-1247) constantly their possession in the area between Taunus and Westerwald at the lower and middle Lahn. Before 1128 they acquire the Vogtei of the monastery Worms, which possessed rights numerous in the area and know thus a connection between their inheritance at the lower Lahnand their possession over victories create. This connection becomes in the middle 12. Century strengthened with the acquisition of the hessian-Thuringian Reichslehen in such a way specified, i.e. the Herborner Mark, the Kalenberger Zent and the court Heimau (paying wages to mountain). Connected with it the “rule in such a way specified was close toWesterwald ", which likewise arrives at this time in nassauischen possession. End of the 12.Jahrhunderts can be acquired with the realm yard Wiesbaden an important base in the southwest.

Heinrichs II. Sons whale RAM II. and Otto I.divides 1255 their country into two parts and its house in twoLines, which are called after them petrol niche and Walrami line. Boundary line was essentially the Lahn, whereby Otto the northern region with the cities victories, Dillenburg, Herborn and Haiger and whale RAM that south the river convenient part of the county with because castle and Idsteinreceives. Both lines are often divided in the next centuries (see below). The kings of the Netherlands stand in female consequence of the petrol niches line, the Grand Dukes of Luxembourg in female consequence of the walramischen line. Since after German aristocracy right only the male succession applies, is the house outexpired to this view.

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the petrol niche line (1255-1890)

the petrol niche line becomes after count Ottos death 1289 first by its sons together led and 1303 divided into

  • Nassau Dillenburg (1303-28), fall at victories
  • Nassau Hadamar, older line (1303-94), fall at Dillenburg
  • wet outer victories, starting from 1328 Nassau Dillenburg (1303-41), divided into
    • wet outer hatchet stone, older line (1341-1561), falls at Dillenburg
    • Nassau Dillenburg, older line (1341-1606)

the older Dillenburger and the Bredaer, later Orani line

Nassau Dillenburg acquire under Johann I. (1362-1416) and its sons 1386 the county Diez, 1403/04 Breda and 1420by inheritance the county Vianden. Under the government Johanns IV. (1442-75) the emphasis of the rule shifts more and more into the Netherlands possessions. These fall its son Engelbert II. (1475-1504) too, during its brother Johannes V.(1475-1516) Dillenburg receives. There Engelbert no inheritingleaves, follows to him its nephew, Johanns V. Son Heinrich III. (1504-38), which can expand the influence wet from in the Netherlands still substantially. By the marriage with Claudia of Chalons and orange he receives the Principality of Oranien in Southern France; both son Renatus (1538-44) leads as the firstNassauer the title “prince von Oranien”.

Heinrichs brother William, mentioned that realms (1516-59) inherits that Dillenburger country, introduces there to 1536 the reformation and creates in Herborn a reformed, university-similar university, the “high school in such a way specified”. When the Bredaer line expires again, stepsagain the oldest Dillenburger prince the there inheritance on. It is William handing son William of the Schweiger (1545-84). It is „the Wilhelmus of Nassauen “of the Volkslieds of the same name and later Netherlands national anthem. As governors of the Netherlands lead it and his sons Philipp William (1609-18), Moritz (1618-25) and Friedrich Heinrich (1625-47) this in the war of liberation of 1568-1648 into independence and achieve with its great-grandchild William III., „the last Oranier “1688 the English crown. Its Netherlands inheritance falls to the line Nassau Diez (see below).

The younger brother of William of Oranien, Johann VI. called the older one of Dillenburg (1559-1606), knows the entire petrol niches master country after expiring the older Beilsteiner line 1561 again, i.e. the German possessions, in its hand combine. After its death the country is however again divided and it to develop the lines

  • Nassau Hadamar,recent line (1607-1711), 1629 catholic, 1650 gefürstet, 1711 divided, 1743 completely at Diez
  • wet outer victories, (1607-23), 1623 divided in
  • Nassau Dillenburg, (1607-20), from hatchet stonebeerbt
  • wet outer hatchet stone, recent line, starting from 1620 Nassau Dillenburg, recent line (1607-1739), 1652 gefürstet, 1739 at Diez

and

  • Nassau Diez (1607-1890)

the line Nassau Diez and the house Oranien

the line Nassau Diez begins with Johanns VI. Son Ernst Casimir (1607-1632), since 1620 the governor of Friesland, since 1625 are also from Groningen and Drenthe. It is almost exclusively in the Netherlands, as also its successor William Friedrich (1632-1664), which 1655 into the realm prince conditions one raises, Heinrich Casimir (1664-1696) and Johann William Friso (1696-1711). The latter becomes 1702 of William III. from England to the general inheriting of the oranischen line assigned; its descendants carry since 1713 the title “prince von Oranien “, it are since 1747 hereditary governors of the united provinces and since 1815 kings of the Netherlands, from 1815 to 1890 also Grand Dukes of Luxembourg.1806 loses it the rule over their German countries, when the united Principalities of Diez, Dillenburg, Hadamar and victories fall to the napoleonische Grand Duchy of mountain and in the Viennese congress to the walramische line wet outer because castle (see below). The petrol niche line dies 1890 with king William III.(1849-90) in the man trunk out, since in the Netherlands however the female succession to the throne is recognized, the house Nassau Oranien exists there this very day.

the Walrami line (1255-1912)

it comes of to whale RAM II. Son Adolf of Nassau (1277-98), which is crowned 1292 to the German king. Itfollow its sons Rupert (1298-1304) and Gerlach I. (1305-61). 1328 fall the rule Merenberg, 1353 Saarbruecken by marriage to the house. 1355 become the line between Gerlachs sons Adolf I. (1344-70) and Johann I. (1344-71) divided into

  • Nassau Wiesbaden Idstein (1355-1480), 1480 again divided into
    • Nassau Idstein,older line (1480-1509), falls at Wiesbaden
    • wet outer Wiesbaden, (1480-1605), inherits 1509 Idstein, falls at because castle

and

  • wet outer because castle Saarbruecken, (1355-1442); 1442 again divided into
    • wet outer Saarbruecken, older line, (1442-1574), 1547-59 divided, 1574 at because castle
    • wet outer because castle, older line (1442-1627)

count Philipp III. (1523-59) the reformation leads 1526in its country. The Saarbrücker line 1574 drop back in such a way at because castle and can of Philipps III. Grandchild Ludwig II.(1593-1627) 1605 with the inheritance of the Wiesbaden Idsteiner line again all walramischen lines in its hand combine. After its death the country is again divided, itif the lines Nassau Idstein

  • , recent line ( 1629-1721) develop, falls at Ottweiler
  • wet outer Saarbruecken, recent line (1629-40), divided into
    • wet outer Saarbruecken (1640-1723), falls at Ottweiler
    • Nassau Ottweiler (1640-1728), inherits 1721 Idstein, 1723 Saarbruecken, falls at Usingen
    • Nassau Usingen, (1640-1816), 1688 gefürstet, inherits 1728 Idstein, Ottweiler and Saarbruecken, 1735 one dividesin
      • Nassau Usingen Saarbruecken (1735-97), falls at Usingen
      • Nassau Usingen (1735-1816), 1806; with because castle and 1816 of this combine beerbt

and

  • wet outer because castle, recent line (1629-1912)

the younger because citizens line and the duchy Nassau

the line receives 1688 under Johann Ernst (1675-1719), thosehowever only his son Karl August (1719-53) 1739 assumes. Its grandchild Friedrich William united by wet outer because castle (1789-1816) its country with Nassau Usingen 1806 to a total state, which it governs together with Friedrich August von Nassau Usingen (1803-16). Also the residences from Usingen and because castle become to Wiesbaden into the lock Biebrich shifts. In the same year the two states join the Rhine federation , whereby Friedrich August as head of the house receives and the duchy Nassau develops. For the loss of the linksheinischen regions (Saarbruecken) at France the country is territorially substantially increased.1813 and in the Viennese congress the Principalities of Diez , Hadamar and Dillenburg of the oranischen line are finally added, whereby for the first time since 1255 all German nassauischen countries - with exception of triumphing - are again in a hand united. Inheritance of both remaining walramischen lines - the Usingerand the because citizens - William of wet outer because castle is, that as a William I. (1816-39) Regent of the duchy becomes. Seat of the government is Wiesbaden, which was already since 1734 usingische residence. William son Adolf V. (1839-66) however its country loses 1866 at Prussia after the German war.After the house Oranien Nassau in the Netherlands in the man trunk becomes extinct (see above), becomes Adolf 1890 due to 1783 a closed hereditary contract Grand Duke of Luxembourg. 1912 expire with the death of his son William IV. of Luxembourg (1905-1912) also the walramische line in the man trunk; overthe female succession to the throne exists the line wet outer because castle however there this very day.

see also

to literature

  • Even, Pierre: Dynasty Luxembourg Nassau. From the counts to Nassau to the Grand Dukes of Luxembourg. - Luxembourg, 2000
  • Gene gensicke, Hellmuth: National history of the Westerwaldes. - Wiesbaden, 1999
  • family trees for the history of the European States of, new one consequence. - Frankfurt

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