House dog

house dog
Saluki, eine Windhundrasse
Saluki, a wind dog race
Over family: Dog-well-behaved (Canoidea)
family: Dogs (Canidae)
tri bus: Genuine dogs (Canini)
kind: Canis
kind: Wolf (Canis lupus)
subspecies: House dog
scientific name
Canis lupus familiaris

the house dog (Canis lupus familiaris) are a house, a home and a utilizable animal from the family of the dog-well-behaved and/or. Genuine dog (Canidae).

Table of contents


specializedspecific designations

  1. stop forehead
  2. catch muzzle, lip with Lefzen, to the lips
  3. Wamme throat, Kehlhaut
  4. shoulder
  5. elbow joint
  6. front foot
  7. croup back part there highest point
  8. club, hip joint
  9. jump joint foot joint
  10. rear foot
  11. Widerrist highest point of the shoulder
  12. knee joint
  13. of runs of legs
  14. rod tail

tooth formula of the dog

Zahnformel des Hundes
tooth formula of the dog
head of a dog.

The lasting dentures of the dogs have 42 teeth. It has 3 Schneidezähne (Incisivi in each Kieferhälfte, I), a hitting a corner or a hook tooth (Caninus, C) and 4 front molars (Prämolaren, P). In the Oberkiefer there are 2, 3 molars rear in the lower jaw (molecular one, M).

In each case one of the molars is particularly strongly and reisszahn (Dens sectorius) one calls. In the Oberkiefer it is thus always the P4, in the lower jaw of the M1, the third last tooth. Both interlink like shears and serve for tearing up Fleischstücken.

Leaves graphicthe tooth formula with dogs express themselves in such a way:

The milk dentures of the dogs have 28 teeth. The P1 and the rear meal teeth do not possess milk tooth predecessors. The kinds of tooth are marked in the milk dentures usually by small letters, the tooth formula can be represented thus as follows:


the senses


the efficiency of the ear is highly developed. It can notice higher frequencies than that of humans, ideally:

  • Humans ~ 20-20,000 cycles per second, maximum sensitivity within the range between 1.000 to 4.000Cycles per second
  • dog ~ 15-50,000 cycles per second (after other sources up to 100,000 cycles per second), maximum sensitivity with 8.000 cycles per second

the mobile caps of the dog it sources of noise let besides better three-dimensional locate than humans that could. A source of noise can a dog with oneDeviation from maximally 2% recognize (with humans the deviation is larger than 15%). For the movement of the dog ear are responsible to 17 muscles. Even dogs with Schlappohren were subject to the Stehohrigen in the noise detection only scarcely.

The ears are beside thatAudition also importantly as “signal generators” for optical communication, which tendency of the dog in such a way signaled. This signal effect is in social living together of the dogs among themselves extremely importantly. Here there are problems with particularly langhaarigen and schlappohrigen dogs.

Dogs are inRemaining one also in the situation to notice over approximately 25 m Infraschall frequencies around the 1 to 2 Hertz.


in former times humans proceeded from the assumption that dogs could see only gray tones “black-and-white”. After more exact investigationsthis opinion was revised: Dogs see colors - however somewhat differently than humans.

The eye of the dog contains as with all mammals two different light receptors: , the Stäbchen, are responsible for seeing gray tones. Thoseother one, tap mentioned, for seeing colors. The Stäbchen are very many more numerous and need besides for a signal to the brain much less light. The taps provide for the color seeing, but only with sufficient lighting. That meetsalso on humans too: In the dawn also we see only in gray tones. With dogs (how also with most other mammals, but not with humans) the eye background is reflected „“(this layer Tapetum lucidum mentioned), so that incident lightby the background of the eye one reflects and the Stäbchen so again meets. Dogs can see very much better in the dawn therefore than humans.

The taps are in each case in a certain spectral region specialized, with humans are it 3 differentReceptors, for which colors red, yellow and blue, from whose 3 color signals the brain forms the total color impression.

The dog has only 2 different tap types, which are sensitive for yellow and blue. Thus only one part of the human chromatic spectrum is covered:A color, which the dog does not know, is red. The color seeing of the dogs is shifted even something toward ultraviolets, ends however by the missing red receptor with yellow.

Sehvermögen und höchste Farbempfindlichkeit bei Mensch und Hund
Vision and highest color sensivity with humans and dog

it give however stillother one, serious differences: The dog eye is in the range 430 Nm, the blue range, most sensitively, the human eye within the range green/yellow, 550 Nm. Visual acuity is optimized probably smaller than with humans and on movement, standing things becomes by the brainsuppressed, thus hardly perception. Here also the evolution worked: the booty of the wolf moves and therefore is optically selected.

The field of view of the dog is substantially more largely than that of humans, it amounts to about 240 degrees contrary to200 degrees with humans. The range, in humans and the dog to see three-dimensional can, are with 120 degrees equally large.


the nose, which is smelling organ of the dog, substantially better developed than with humans. Roughly toorecognizes already is by the number of smelling cells, whereby there are substantial differences also between the dog races. Completely roughly one can say here: The longer the dog lip, so much the better the smelling ability. So z has. B. humans 5Million smelling cells, the Dackel 125 million and the shepherd dog has 220 million. For its feeling abilities and smelling the Bloodhound is well-known as “Nonplusultra”.

For the evaluation of the smelling achievement is not sufficient however by far: Measurements resulted in that the smelling abilitythe dog about one million are time better, than that of humans. The dog can breathe in short breaths up to 300 times in the minute, so that the smelling cells are constantly supplied with new “material”.

The most important „smelling organ “is the brain, here the arriving data are processed and evaluated. Is to be considered that dogs can smell „Stereo ", the nose can thus „on the right of and left " differentiate, similarly as when seeing. In this way the dog is able, the directionto judge a trace and to pursue even an old trace. The smelling brain is enormous in the comparison to humans: However 10% of the dog brain are responsible for it, with humans are it only 1%. Humans use this special ability of theDog as a trackhound within many ranges. With this ability must be differentiated between „the mechanical “trace and that smell-purely. Unfortunately it is today usual, the dog (in the special dog haven: z. B.To train protection dog) on the mechanical trace, thuson the smell plants broken by injuries of the ground, like and so on. A crossing, trace at the same time put on can lead in such a way to a false search, since both traces are equivalent for the dog. For the track work of the police is this proceeding naturally unfit. Here the dogs are trained on the smell trace, are thus strengthened, which also natural the dog would make. This trace drifts however by external influences as by the wind from „the mechanical “trace, collects themselvesat zero winds places, at windy corners strongly one dilutes. The trace is clear for the dog, because everyone has „smell donor “a clear „smell color “. Very good trackhounds can take up and pursue such a trace still after days clearly, also in the middle througha city, in the middle by many parallel and crossing foreign traces.

Dogs „taste “smells also over the Jacobson organ (Vomeronasalorgan), which is in the palate. This transports the taken up information immediately to the Limbi system, the evolutionary oldest center in the brain.It is responsible for the emergence of feelings, impulse behavior and for the formation of hormones.


Hündin mit Welpen
dog with puppy

the entrance the sex-ripe is marked with the female dog by the first Läufigkeit, those at the age of 7until arises to 11 months. Rüden attain their sexual authority at for instance the same age. Smaller dogs become generally in former times sex ripe than dogs of large races.

Dogs are subject to a pronounced, half-yearly Brunstperiodik. With an average Läufigkeitsintervall from 5 to7 months rank they among the seasonally diöstrischen animals.

The Sexualzyklus is divided into 4 phases. With the beginning of the Vorbrunst (Proöstrus) it comes to swelling the Vulva and the withdrawal from bloody to meat-water-colored secretion,which makes the dog attractive for Rüden. A cover readiness for its part is not given however yet. The duration of the Vorbrunst amounts to - individually differently - 4 to 21 days. You follow the Brunst (Östrus), which of cover readinessthe dog and fertility is characterized. The sheath discharge is presented more brightly and the dog „“itself to the Rüden. The phase of the Brunst amounts to 2 to 12 days. Together with the Vorbrunst it is called Läufigkeit. Hieran closes the Metöstruson, in its process by one duration of 9-12 weeks recovery and regeneration procedures at the Gebärmutter are made. In the fourth phase (Anöstrus) any sign of sexual activity is missing. This section lasts 2 to 6 months.

With the cover act of the dogit comes to the remarkable behavior „of hanging “. On the penetration of the dog it comes to a strong hump of the so-called „knot “(anatomically Bulbus glandis) of the Rüden, which represents the thickened basis of the acorn mitm to a swelling body. This hasthe effect that the Penis will be able themselves to separate „wedged “and the two animals not from each other. Therefore the male rises after animal the Ejakulation of its Partnerin down and turns as a rule around 180°, so that both animals over oneDuration by up to 30 minutes with the back parts each other remain turned connected.

The average Trächtigkeitsdauer of the dog amounts to 63 to 65 days, the number of puppies varies for instance between 3 and 12 animals.


Also with dogs the term Sozialisation is used, in order to describe the coinage on environmental attractions during the first life months. Only well socialized dogs can become later well socialcompatible dogs. Each dog owner with its puppy should consider the following points:

  • Sozialisationwith kind comrades (learn zwischenhundlicher communication)
  • Sozialisation with other animals (cats, guinea pig, birds, horses etc.)
  • Sozialisation with strange humans
  • habituation to environmental attractions such as March in horn, bicycle bells, airplanes, bang noises (Silvesterknaller) as well as habituation to gatherings of people, Verkehrsgetümmel etc.

The developmenteach dog of its Sozialisation and education one determines predominantly. Insufficiently socialized dogs have difficulties to get along in their environment. They are inclined to ängstlichem or aggressive behavior and other behavior disturbances. A carefully socialized dog however learned, friedfertig and unlockedwith strange persons to go around children and other domestic animals. The most important socialization phase of the dog extends in for instance from second to 15. Life week. Many dog associations offer appropriate courses, which are called „puppy play hours “or „coinage play days “. A second important socialization phaseis puberty.

life expectancy

fundamental small dogs become older than large. So races can reach like the Dackel an age of up to 16 years, in exceptional cases 20 years. Larger, heavy races, as for instance those German Doggen become hardly older than 9 years. According to Guinness book of the records the record, which a half-breed dog, which worked in Australia as a shepherd dog, reached, is about 29 years.


it is meanwhile proven that itself the house dogfrom the wolf developed. Still until recently one held the Indian wolf (Canis lupus pallipes or Canis lupus more lupaster) for the master father, whose exterior appears similar to that of some other dog races. In the meantime genetically the common grey wolf (Canis becamelupus lupus) as Urvater confirms. Thus also the Indian subspecies separates as a possible master father. Investigations of the Mitochondrien DNA von Wölfen and Hunden in the USA showed that the genetic differences between different wolf populations amounted to on the average 0.16%. The genetic difference betweenWolf and Kojote about 3.1%, the difference between dog and wolf (grey wolf) amounted to against it only 0.2%.

The assumption that the house dog descends from the Goldschakal (Canis aureus ), decreasing/going back on Konrad Lorenz, applies by these research as well as the investigations of Eric Zimen and Alfred Seitz as overhauls.

dogs and wolves

of dogs and wolves are fruitful also with one another.

In its book “the dog” describes the behavior researcher Eric Zimen in detail its comparative observations of many years at Königspudeln and wolves as well asat their half-breeds (the so-called. Puwos) and at the descendants from the mating of “Puwo” with “Puwo”.

Also in practice the dog breed again and again one tried, dog races by a crosses from wolves to „improve “, as with the Saarloos Wolfhund, with Czechoslovakian wolf dog and in Italy with the Lupo Italiano. Expectations could not be fulfilled to these attempts with all.

So far one assumed the behavior differences between wolf and dog were too large, it in the freeNature to mixing mating to come can. An additional obstacle results from the fertility cycles: Wolfsrüde and Wölfin are only once in the year fruitful. This differentiates above all the Wolfsrüden from the Rüden of the striking trash.

Nevertheless it came for example 2004 with to Germanyimmigrated wolves to a mating with a dog, because the Wölfin did not find a partner.

original dogs

in some countries were discovered dog races, which can be considered as Urtypen of the first dogs. These dog races are called Pariahunde or Schensi dogs.They live halfwildly in the proximity of humans in a sturdy population. Some by the FCI as independent race are meanwhile already led.


oldEgyptian representation

clarifying the descent of the dog of the wolf threw at the same time the questionafter the age of our dogs again up: Due to various bone finds the dog researchers were so far convinced, the Zähmung and Domestizierung of the herd animals would have taken place before 12.000 to 15,000 years (peat dog) within the range the Near East or in Asia.

Butthen a genetic study - Science publishes in the scientific magazine - threw these theses over the heap. By a hereditary property analysis from dog and wolf Swedish and American evolution biologists arrived at the conviction that the Ur-dog actually of the wolfdescends, but before approximately 135,000 years born it is accepted already, with which he would be approximately ten times older, as so far.

Traditional dog researchers showed up - not completely surprisingly - snubbed by the new study. „I hold it for improbable that thoseWolves were already so early domestiziert “, said Swiss cynologist and book author Hans Räber. „One must have archaeological finds, and we do not have those. “„And not even with the oldest, approximately 14,000 years old excavations “, so Räber, „it is always clear whether it concerns wolves or dogs “.

There Joakim Lundeberg of the royal institute for technology in Stockholm, one of the authors of the genetic study, is different opinion: „Early humans were nomadische hunters and collecting tanks “, saidthe biochemist.„Because no cemeteries existed at that time, are not it not compellingly to find dog fossils beside such from humans to. “

An interesting idea represents Gregory Acland, veterinarian to the Cornell University in Ithaca, the USA. He means that not humans upthe dog came, but in reverse. If one gives him faith, humans at that time did not have yet at all the intellectual abilities to domestizieren the dog since he was not yet completely domestiziert „“. The early dog found in the proximity of theHomo sapiens an ecological niche and „verhaustierte itself “in such a way. It profited from the wastes, those in the proximity of humans for him dropped and made themselves for his part useful, by warning „its “humans before enemies and protected and alsowith common hunt trips was helpful. After this theory it concerned a kind symbiosis thus from the outset. The Homo sapiens immigrated however only before 100,000 years in the Near East, and could there with wolves in contactguessed/advised, so that it would be also conceivable that the wolf associated first to stores of the Neandertaler. Nothing the defiance: Thereafter humans brought decade from end (before 35,000 years) the dog-similar wolf to Europe. The outside appearance of the dog remained for a long time wolf similar, whyalso none „dog-typical “bone find from this time are. To change only as modern humans established, began it the dog züchterisch purposefully after its utilizable value.

The Domestikation of the dog is singularly far developed. It became the animal,that best with humans to communicate can. Investigations at the institute for Max-Planck for evolutionary anthropology in Leipzig proved that already genetically causes dogs human indications interpret can, which learn even anthropoids only after long training.


inProcess of the people dog relationship, regionally and after the environmental and living conditions, different dog races developed. Humans understood it to use the dog for different tasks by breeding and appropriate dog education. The Fédération Cynologique international one (FCI) is the largestinternational controlling body, under whose guidance national groupings specify the standards of the different dog races.

organization of the breed dog races


main after their intended purpose the following dog types are differentiated:

Besides further unsystematical designations are usual such as work dogs and/or customs dogs , combat dogs , protection dogs , awake dogs, primitive or original dogs up to lap dogs.

Kynologische systematics of the dog races become international one of the Fédération Cynologique(FCI) maintained, those 336 races recognizes at present (conditions: 12/2005). This systematics are however very arbitrary and considered not the degrees of the genetic relationship between the individual races. In the FCI system all recognized dog races are divided in 10 groups, again indifferent sections are partitioned:

  • Group 01: Hat dogs and driving dogs (excluded Swiss Sennenhunde) [1];
  • Group 02: Pin and Schnauzer - Molossoide - Swiss Sennenhunde and other races [2];
  • Group 03: Terrier [3];
  • Group 04: Dogdog dogs [4];
  • Group 05: Point and dogs of the Urtyp [5];
  • Group 06: Run dogs, welding dogs and used races [6];
  • Group 07: Managing dogs [7];
  • Group 08: Apportierhunde - Stöberhunde - water dogs [8];
  • Group 09: Society - and Begleithunde [9];
  • Group 10: Wind dogs [10].

Besides there is a row in FCI systematics so mentioned provisionally accepted races [11].

Outside of this systematics it gives still over one hundred further, howeverof the FCI races as well as a row did not recognize Braque Belge and Harlekinpin , which were painted from FCI systematics as become extinct valid races such as Basset d'Artois.

Apart from the actual dog races there are also still hybrids and/or half-breeds andwild ores of house dogs, as for example the Dingo (Canis lupus f. dingo).

Golden Retriever in the grass

some dog races

to the smallest recognized dog races counts the Chihuahua (FCI NR. 218) with a weight of 0,5-3 kg and a Widerristhöheof under 20 cm; among the largest dog races the German Dogge ( FCI NR ranks. 235) with a Widerristhöhe of at least 80 cm with Rüden and that Irish Wolfhound (FCI NR. 160) with up to 95 cm; among the rare races that ranks Curly Coated Retriever.

to agony-breed and

the breed went to mutilating at some races as far that the dogs have health problems, as Kurzatmigkeit or eye problems, or the birth procedure any longer naturally does not run off, like z. B. those English Bulldogge. With others the natural characteristics were excessively exaggerated: Formation of wrinkles (crowd Pei), skin structure etc.

One calls such breed goals today agony breed, whereby the definition is very difficult, since with difficulty is to be said, starting from whenDog by certain physical characteristics is tormented. A prohibition is because of these definition questions and also the opinion of some breeders with failed races and extreme breeding their money earns to intersperse with difficulty. At the end of of 2005 passed new animal law for the protection of Switzerland could for this reason to the prohibition of some races lead. Similar law changes are planned also in European Union states. Races with those of agony breed, is for example the Xoloitzcuintli or Mexican naked dog, that is often falsely spoken as healthier and particularly long-lived dog to thatoldest dog races counts. If however additionally to the hair dress also important teeth can be missing to some naked dog races and partly eat these dogs neither bones nor hard fodder, the border is clearly exceeded to the agony breed.


of customs dogs

By customs dogs one understands dogs, which support humans with their work, to a certain extent „employed “dogs. Most well-known probably those are landläufig „police dogs “dog mentioned in the authority service. Here they become the tracing, finding drugs, weapons, explosive etc., in addition,on the patrol and for guard assigned.

Some dog races are suitable as blind dogs, many can also as rescue dogs or therapy dogs be trained.


the company with the hunt was first and over is probably enough timemost important use of dogs. The abilities and talents necessary for it had inherited the animals of their ancestors, the wolves, so that for it no special züchterischen achievements were necessary. Only special hunting dog races were many later bred. For the Treibjagd neededone for example dogs, which could run fast, while small dogs (Dackel, Terrier) easily in fox or build penetrate could.

dogs of the Hirten

Hirte mit Hütehunden
Hirte with hat dogs
as humans became established and agriculture strengthens claimant,dogs were used also strengthened for the guard by yard, house and herds. For breeding the natural impulse of wolves to hold the herd together used. While in the wolf herd for it however mainly the guidance wolf is responsible, that of the herd members supportsbecomes, it has the hat dog with a much larger herd of animals, which partly oppose resistance to its efforts, and with the wolf booty animals would be to do. It must have united therefore züchterischen expenditure cost, until the first useful hat dogs were bred.At today's hat dog races, like the Collie, is guard-rubbed very strongly pronouncedly. That can be partly led to problems with the attitude than leisure dog, be regarded there sometimes by the dog also Spaziergänger, children or car than „herd animals which can be guarded “. Other oneDogs (so-called herd protection dogs) are used also today still for guarding the herd and for defense against booty grip arms and cattle thieves. These dogs act independently and without instruction by the Hirten. The willing to cooperate shank with humans was at no time an explained breed goal,this explains the large self-sufficiency and heavy training barness of these dogs. Frequently it comes therefore in the adult age (approx. 3 years) to problems with herd protection dogs, which can be lived in urban area and not kept kind fair therefore. Guarding and herd protection dogs carry out stilltoday good work at the herds of sheep, although the meaning of the hat dogs is subjected in the today's time to a strong change. Hat dogs (Border Collies) have due to its special suitability (high adaptability, work on larger distance) in the dog haven (above allAgility and Flyball) a new task found.

awake dog

all dog races can as awake dog be used, by using its natural instinct, to alarm the herd if danger threatens. In the cities were naturally rather the smallDog races as the pointed, while on the country because of the higher deterrent effect also large dog races were used. In each case two dogs were kept frequent: small dogs, which had a low threshold of sensation and which announced an approaching of a stranger, as well aslarge dogs, which were ready to defend house and yard.

course animal

Berner Sennhund

the use of dogs as a course animal of the poor man was Bernese in 20. Century inside far spreads. Large dogs are anatomically better toPull suitably by trucks and carriages as z. B.Horses. A course dog can pull up to the three to fivefold its body weight, then it found also to in 20. Jh. with the military use as a soldier dog. In northern countries andin Siberia dogs are used like the Husky or the Samoyede also today still as carriage dogs. These dogs show a pronounced social behavior, which resembles that of the wolf herd in the herd and in the bottom plate. That is used by the breeders. Thus givesit for example special dogs, which take over the education of the puppies as „a Kindergärtnerin “. With humans mainly the guidance dogs communicate.

leisure activities

due to its social adaptability are the house dog the animal connected most varied with humans. Sospend many humans today with their dog their spare time and operate thereby also dog haven. Pretty often the animals function even as only social relationship of their owner. Unfortunately it often comes by here frequently arising humanizing of the dogsserious attitude errors, whereby the natural needs of the animals are ignored.

combat dog problem

at all times dogs were used also in the war for different tasks. Later one bred certain races than combat dogs, for fights with other animals, in addition,against each other (see articles of combat dogs). At present (2005) the topic “combat dog” is very disputed in Germany. Colloquially certain races are classified overall as dangerous “combat dogs”, without scientifically provable criteria are the basis for this organization. Critics of this classification predominantly use the terms List dog, plant dog, category dog or soKa (Ka so mentioned mpfhund). The statement that some dog races would have a genetically caused decreased biting inhibition, stated as argument, is wrong from scientific criteria. By biting inhibition one understands the natural behavior of a dogor wolf, which limits the aggressiveness within the herd. Thus there are running fights in wolf herds and also under dogs only rarely deadly, since the animals specify their ranking for example by gestures of subjecting. These samples are learned in the puppy age and can with missing Sozialisation of the animals to be purposefully suppressed, an effect, which applies to all dog races. To what extent the assessment to such behavior disturbances are also left and thereby purposefully be out-bred can, is contentious. There „combat dogs “in the criminal environment the character ofStatus symbols have, puppies here partly purposefully at this behavior disturbance are trained and also with the breed selected, in order to underline the social position of their owners.

Starting point of the critical medium reporting and the sceptical attitude of the public against „the combat dogs “always are again - partly deadly - accidents with representatives of these races. After absolute numbers from the statistics of the Lands of the Federal Republic, most biting accidents in Germany are caused however by shepherd dogs, which one does not count to „the combat dogs “. On the other hand dog races are like that Pit bulletin, by which enormous Kraft of their Kiefermuskeln also already cause stronger injuries with inadvertent bite than other dogs of same size. Therefore they have the potential, particularly while inappropriate handling to become a substantial danger. Such dogs place specialRequirements at its attitude and education and need a conscious owner - so the legislator. These statements could not be occupied so far however, be confirmed recognized scientists begun by Günther Bloch over Dorit Urd Feddersen Petersen to Eric Zimen that them for itno reference points have, still that there are measurements of the biting strengths at all.Sources about

fur supplier

desired is in the northern Asia also the skin of the dog than fur. Dog skin becomes also in Europe under various fantasy names how„Gaewolf “sold, however not expressis to as dog skin separate as „genuine fur “defined. Still at the beginning 20. Century was also dogs leather with Kürschnern for certain articles, as desires gloves, much. In Brazil dog skins become, in particular those thatDackel, for covering a certain rubbing drum, the Cuíca, related.

meat supplier

in hunter and collecting tank cultures dogs in times of distress were eaten. In Germany slaughtering of dogs is forbidden since 1986, the same regulation applies to the remaining European Union.

see to dog meat


2004 lived in Germany about 5 million dogs, in Switzerland about 440,000 and in Austria about 550.000. After the Hauskatze the dog thereby is the domestic animal usually held.

Dogs become inGermany to the small animals counted. They are held under normal conditions as individual individuals or in small groups in direct proximity of the habitat of their owners. This can be on the one hand the living sphere of the owner, besides is however also the attitudein the free one (in the kennel or in tying up attitude) quite usually. All three forms of the attitude do not hold the danger animal-protection-fair accommodation of the animals.


an adequate nutrition of the dogs is made most simply by the feed commercially Dog feed. Although the portion of feed allergies increased in the last years substantially, this feeding guarantees the supply of the animals with essential food components most simply. Some dog owners are the opinion that a dog nutrition with fresh meat, Innereien, bone,Vegetable and herbs, supplemental with valuable planting and Fischölen (see also BARF), is better. The nutrition is nourish-physiologically at least doubtful by internal leftovers, since thereby lack conditions can be caused.

Many human food and luxuries are for dogs moreor a little malicious. As example here chocolate is aforementioned. The Theobromin in the chocolate is very injurious to health for dogs in larger quantities and can lead in individual cases also to death. The lethal dose amounts to 100 mg Theobromin/kg body weight, already smallerQuantities lead however to symptoms of intoxication, which can express themselves in vomiting, failure, unrest , muscle cramps and urinary incontinence.


frequent diseases

the spectrum of the described dog illnesses is extremely rich and in his varieties alsoIllnesses of humans quite comparably. Frequent dog diseases are expressed:

the danger

of genetic defects is given genetic defects at some dog races. These particularly become by thoseconstant a crossing of the same gene material favours, as it with the breed in isolated areas, as islands, the case is. In addition, to the reaching of “breed goals” and sometimes genetic defects are consciously used and/or. taken in purchase. Admits are heree.g. the Hüftgelenksdysplasie (hp, also Ellenbogengelenksdysplasie mentioned), the so-called Dackellähme or the Merle factor (a genetic color defect, which Grauscheckung designated by one as Tigerschecke is characterised). The joint changes are mainly on the “ideal of beauty” in the reference to the figure, e.g. that diagonallyto lead back sloping backs of the shepherd dog or the excessive backs of the Dackels. Consequences of such gene defects can lead from pain with the movement up to complete paralysis.

Is a gene defect admits less particularly with Langhaarcollies was discovered, in addition,with Collies used races as with the Australian Cattle Dog and at numerous other British hat dog races arises. This defect, the MDR1-Defekt, prevents the synthesis of a certain protein. The protein plays an important role with the decontamination. It is and. A.for the blood-brain barrier importantly, where it ensures that certain medical active substances cannot arrive into the brain. If the protein is missing, the animal at certain medicines can die. In addition, this protein comes in many internal organs (liver, kidney…) forwards.Here is not further well-known yet, which can have consequences its absence. Also connections with deaths after a Narkose are discussed.


dog licence fee

the attitude of house dogs is taxable in the Federal Republic of Germany (inContrast to of cats or horses). The dog licence fee is levied on the municipality in different height and proven by a tax plaque. Some municipalities demand that the plaque is to be fastened well visibly to the dog. An obligation to certain inoculation (Rabies) it does not give in most Lands of the Federal Republic. Detailed ones legal regulations, for example to the linen obligation, for removing from dog excrement at public places or for the attitude from combat dogs so mentioned are state-specific.


for house dogs existssince some years the possibility of the implantation of a chip, which makes the identification possible of the animal. For the selection of the transponder number of the animal a reader necessarily which veterinary surgeons, Tierheime and police stations to usually have. Some not-commercial organizations howTasso registered association. operate central registration places for run away and found dogs; here also the chip number of the own animal can be registered. This number is world-wide unique and permitted contrary to the Tätowierung a safe identification of the dog.

border crossing

With border crossing a home animal document of identification must be carried for identification since 2004 in European Union Europe, moreover a chip must be implantiert, whose number is noted in the home animal document of identification. The chip obligation applies to all dogs and is not not as with the “list dogs“size-dependently. Up to the year 2011 übergangsweise also the Tätowiernummer applies. Sense is not the fight against rabies


in Germany gives it an officially recognized dog driving licence, even if this by some dog schools is suggested. ThoseTraining as the Begleithund is likewise neither prescribed, nor legally regulated; the Begleithundeprüfung can be taken at different mechanisms, is to be paid attention to the acknowledgment by the responsible roof federations of the respective dog school. Rescue dog examinations can only in a certified rescue dog relay [

to work on] politicians

and their dogs many

politicians are put down to show and appeared with their dogs, in order to project from itself a positive picture in the public. The appearance of politicians with dogs or other domestic animals is to that extenta means that publicly relation. The positive emotions, the z are with the viewer. B. the dog wakes, to the person of the politician to be transferred.

So many presidents of the United States dogs had, with those them itself often publiclyshowed. President George W. Bush published even to Christmas a video over its dog and Franklin D. Roosevelts Fala was perpetuated Protagonist of its own film and in a monument. Also the French president François Mitterrand took to almost any publicAppearance its dog also.

Some historians see also in the many published photos of Adolf Hitler with its dog Blondi the attempt of propaganda to let the “leader” work more warmly and more humanly.

In England a politics policy becomes, forwardsall attacks on the political opponent to the article has, when Rottweiler designates politics.

see also

Web on the left of

Wiktionary: Dog - word origin, synonyms andTranslations
Wikiquote: Dog - quotations
Commons: House dog - pictures, videos and/or audio files
This article was taken up to the list of the articles worth reading.

  > German to English > (Machine translated into English)