House cattle

house cattle
mark cattle
systematics
Subordination: Wiederkäuer (Ruminantia)
family: Horn carrier (Bovidae)
Unterfamilie: Cattle (Bovinae)
kind: Bad
kind: Game cattle (bad taurus)
subspecies: House cattle
scientific name
bad taurus taurus

as house cattle or simply cattle designateone first the game cattle domestizierte because of its meat, later also because of its milk and its tractive power (bad taurus).

Most today's house cattle (taurine or genuine house cattle), including the Zebu come from the Ur or Auerochsen (bad taurusprimigenius) off, that in far parts of Europe, Asia and North Africa lived and its largest population in the alluvium had, afterwards its existence decreased/went back gradually. At the end above all the hunt and human interferences were into nature reasonsfor the extermination of the Urs. The last Urrinder Europe became extinct 1627 in Poland. The Domestikation to the house cattle took place already in 9. Millenium v. Chr.As voucher it is considered that starting from 8.300 v. Chr. Cattle as well as field farmers on tothere cattle lots Cyprus arrived.

Since then humans bred a large number of different cattle races, into which partly also wild kinds of cattle (for instance the American Bison with the Beefalo) were in-crossed. Particularly in Asia further animals were domestiziert, ofother kinds originate, so the Balirind (bad javanicus f. domestica) from the Banteng (bad javanicus), the Gayal (front cattle) (bad gaurus f. frontalis) from the Gaur (bad gaurus), the Hausyak (bad mutus f. grunniens)from the Wildyak (bad mutus) and contrary to the actual cattle of the kind bad for kind Bubalus counting Hausbüffel (Bubalus bubalis f. bubalis) from the water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis f. arnee).

Table of contents

designations

  • young animals calf are called.
  • Starting from a half year the young cattle Fresser are called (depending upon sexBull or Färsenfresser).
  • The sex-ripe female house cattle are called cow, serve it for the milk and/or. Meat production becomes it also milk cow and/or. Nut/mother cow mentioned.
    • Sex-ripe female cattle before first calving are called heifer, Kalbin (Austria, South Germany), Queen, Queene or strong ones.
  • The sex-ripe male house cattle are called bull or bull, Farren or Fasel, in Switzerland also Muni.
    • Kastriertes male cattle are called ox.

use

Rinder
of cattle
of cows (painted of Anton Braith).Paintings from the Braith Mali museum in beaver oh/tear

of house cattle are useful in several regard, whereby some races were particularly bred regarding one or more certain types of use. One differentiates thereby the two-use races from the milk and/or. Meat-stressed races. Beside milk, meatand leathers supply cattle liquid manure and muck, which play an important role in the agriculture as natural fertilizers, in addition fulfill particularly oxen in many parts of the world this very day as course animals for trucks or for plowing an important function.The moreover one animals are like the tail cattle an important factor in the landscape conservation and in the nature protection (alpine dairy farming).

With the cattle can be differentiated the use directions milk production and meat production. There are races, those predominantly on one of the twoUse directions were bred, in addition, such, with those both use directions to be züchterisch worked on (=Doppelnutzung, DN). The differences between both directions are genetically conditioned:

Races with high milk production show typically high mirrors of endogenously synthesized growth hormones (Somatotropin, BST).Typical milk cattle races are for example Holstein Frisian (= red one and Frisian one, HF), brown cattle (= Brown Swiss, BS) or mark cattle (= Simmentaler, FV) as double use cattle.

Meat cattle have a more favorable structure of the meat (fibrousness, veining). In former times male animals were kastriert for the improvement of the meatand thus made oxen. Nowadays this is only usual in extensive attitude forms in Germany. Both male and female animals are slaughtered. Common meat races are for example Hereford, Charolais and Limousin, besides different, more regionally spreadRaces such as Angus and Galloway. During the use direction meat production is differentiated between races, which exhibit a fast growth, but is not inevitably grossrahmig (for example Limousin) and such races, which on a high final-yielded come (for example Charolais).

Work on []

Spreading

of house cattle is world-wide common, whereby the Zebu races are adapted to the Tropics substantially better than races of European origin. Since the end 15. Century brought European the house cattle to America, on many islands and to Australia and New Zealand, where soon large wild ores of existence entwickleten themselves, however starting from the 18. Century began together to break. Today there is only on it island Amsterdam still another population of verwilderter house cattle. Since beginning of the 1980er years is there onePopulation of tail cattle in the Oostvaardersplassen, which lives to a large extent without influence of humans.

anatomy

Teile des Rindes.
head of house cattle.
Stomach of house cattle.
A: Esophagus
b: Pansen
C: Net stomach
D: Sheet stomach
e: Lab stomach
f: Intestine

of cows are like horses also Herbivores, use however as Wiederkäuer like also sheep and camels the food far better. The food goes through 4 stomachs (Pansen, net stomach, sheet stomach, lab stomach). Nevertheless also cow excrement, landläufig Kuhfladen, called still oneconsiderable calorific value. Dried Kuhfladen becomes therefore in the 3. World as fuel uses.

The cow produces with rewashrooms of 98 - 190 litres of saliva liquid on the day.

races

of house cattle in Thailand: Cow with calf
Herefordbulle, Australia
Grey cattle calf in the animal oiler Pitztal
Rinder in Kärnten
of cattle in Kärnten

it gives a large number of cattle races, which are bred for different requirements. However straight are lost into the today's time of mass animal husbandry and mechanization of the agriculture many races. For this reasoneach year a domestic animal of the yearly is selected, in order to make attentive on this situation. For listing the cattle races and marking in the cattle passport there is an obligatory race key.

some races of the house cattle

to diseases and parasite

see also

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