Heard and McDonald islands
|administration:||Australian Antarctic division OF the department OF the Environment and Heritage|
|research station:||ANARE, Atlas Cove (1947-1955)|
|geographical situation:||53° 06 ' S. Break, 72° 31 ' o. L.|
|Time belt||UTC + 5|
|surface:||390 km ²|
|highest collection:||Mawson peak (2,745 m)|
|discovery:||27. November 1833 by Peter Kemp|
the Heard and McDonald islands (English Heard Iceland and McDonald Iceland) a small uninhabited subantarktische Inselgruppe belonging to Australia is with 53° 06 ' south, 72° 31 ' east.
Table of contents
the island Heard became to 27. November 1833 sighted by the Britisher Peter Kemp during a travel on the ship „magnet “of the Kerguelen into the Antarctic and into its maps registered. It is probably however not unclear, whether the island was sighted ever before. 1849 reported Thomas Long, more AmericanWhaler that it would have sighted country south the Kerguelen. The American captain John Heard, on the way with its ship Oriental, sighted the island to 25. November 1853 during a travel from bad clay/tone to Melbourne. It reported the discovery officially to 24. December. Littlelater, to 4. January 1854, discovered captain William McDonald on board the ship „Samarang “the island McDonald in the proximity of the Heard island.
Captain Erasmus Darwin Rogers landed for the first time in March 1855 on the island. Between 1855 and 1880 some American Robbenfänger spent one yearoder mehr auf der Insel. 1880 were nearly completely destroyed the seal population and the Robbenfänger left the island.
research and history
1874 collected scientists of the HMS Challenger geological and botanisches material. Between 1900 and 1929 some little successful whale-catching attempts took place. 1902 visited baron Erich von Drygalski, Leiter of the German South Pole expedition, with the ship of gau the island and arranged for the first time comprehensive scientific material to the geology, Flora and fauna of the island.
1929 employed the French geologist Aubert de la Rue some studies, ashe with a whaler to the island came. In the same year Sir Douglas Mawson, leader visited British, Australian and expedition of New Zealand (BANZARE) the island Heard for one week, when he was on the way to the Antarctic. A protection hut was built, the shipwrecked ones asUnterschlupf to serve should; the leftovers of the hut stand this very day.
The first Australian Antarctic research expedition (ANARE) built a station with Atlas Cove at the western end of the island in December 1947. Altogether those were between ten and 15 coworkers on the permanently occupied station, 1955 were again closed.
Research teams from the USA were likewise in Atlas Cove stationed for one year, where them built their own huts. Further huts became 1970 - 71 of French and Australian researchers establishes. The last ANARE expedition remained one year and used a basisin Spit bay.
the Inselgruppe consists of the islands Heard, McDonald, Flat and Shag, as well as an enormous amount of rock and/or. Mini islands. The total area of the Inselgruppe covers approx. 412 km ², whereby the island Heard at 368 km ² dominated (the island McDonald is onlyapprox. 100 hectares largely). The Inselgruppe is a protected area, in which sea-dogs and birds live.
The islands Heard and McDonald consist of volcanic rock and limestone. They are on the Kerguelenplateau, submarine mountains 3,700 m beyond the bottom of the sea rises up. The islands are two of the three places (with the Kerguelen), at those the Kerguelenplateau and/or. the larger Gaussberg Kergeulen Meeresrücken beyond the water surface rise up.
on the islandsthere is no brought in species, which is not world-wide nearly anywhere more so given. Australia permits maximally 400 visitors per year, to at the most 60 at one time.1997 were explained the Inselgruppe of the UNESCO as the world nature inheritance.
the Heard island is nearly round with oneDiameter of approx. 25 km. The topography becomes of bends Ben (other name: Mawson peak) dominates, whereby the active volcano is remarkable as only active volcano of Australia. Bend Ben has an extent of 21 km, which became mountain several times mounted.
The island is both karstigand volcanically. About 80% of the island surface are covered with ice. On bend Ben can one twelve glaciers count, which are large partly over 7 km long and 10 km ². The development of the glaciers is considered as indicator to the climatic heating up, 1947 still handed it toto the sea, today they end several hundred meters in the interior.
the islands originally stressed by Great Britain were handed over to 1947 Australia. She is administered of the Australian Antarctic division OF the department OF the Environment and Heritage in Canberra. The islandsare considered as independent territory (official title:Territory OF Heard Iceland and McDonald Iceland) and possess their own Top level Domain: .hm
Web on the left of
- http://www.subantarctic.org.uk (English)
- CIA World Factbook (English)
- world cultural heritage (UNESCO) (English)
14 oceanic UN member states:
Australia | Fiji | Kiribati | Marshall Islands | Mikronesien | Nauru | New Zealand | Palau | Papua New Guinea | Salomonen | Samoa | Tonga | Tuvalu | Vanuatu
other undisputed States of/special cases:
Cookinseln | Niue
other disputed states:
Hutt River Province
other areas (z. B. Colonies):
American Samoa | Bakerinsel | Tie-clip by clay/tone island | French Polynesien | Guam | Heard and McDonald islands | Hawaii | Howlandinsel | Jarvisinsel | John clay/tone island | Kingmanriff | Kokosinseln | Midwayinseln | Neukaledonien | Northern Marianen | Norfolkinsel | Osterinsel | Palmyra | Pitcairninseln | Tokelau | Wake | Whale-read and Futuna
Federal States: New South Wales |
South Australia |
Territories: Australian Capital Territory | Northern Territory
External areas: Ashmore and Cartier islands | Australian Antarctic territory | Heard and McDonald islands | Kokosinseln | Korallenmeerinseln | Norfolkinsel | Macquarieinsel | Weihnachtsinsel
antipode islands | Amsterdam | Auckland islands | Balleny islands | Bountyinseln | Bouvetinsel | Campbell island | Chatham islands | Crozetinseln | Falklandinseln | Heard and McDonald islands | Kerguelen | Macquarieinsel | Peter i. - Island | Prince Edward islands | Scott island | Snaresinseln | Pc. Paul | Südgeorgien and thoseSouthern sand yielding islands | Southern Orkneyinseln | Southern Shetlandinseln | Tristan there Cunha
coordinates: 53° 06 ' S 72° 31 ' E