|of these articles treats the city in the West Jordan territory. For further places of this name see Hebron (term clarifying).|
Table of contents
Hebron is one of the oldest cities in the Near East and one of the oldest continuously inhabited cities of the world. At present the old Kanaaniter was it a king city. Archaeological finds point on the fact that Hebron in 35. Century v. Chr. one based. The city becomes in the Biblein numerous places mentions.
A cave lain in the proximity, cave of the Patriarchen or ore father grave mentioned, (Arab الحرمالإبراهيمي aluminium-ḥaram aluminium-ibrāhīmī, Hebrew מערתהמכפלה hectar of Machpela ma'arat), applies for the excessive quantity after as the place, at the Adam, Eva, Abraham, Sara, Isaak, Rebekka, the Jakobs and Lea are buried. This cave applies to Islam and Judentum as holy, so that the city for both great religious importance possesses. The Israeli tables king David was gesalbt in Hebron to the king and governed here, to he Jerusalemconquered and the capital there shifted. The Byzantine emperor Justinian I. built in 6. Century a church over the grave, which was destroyed later by the Sassaniden.
638 Hebron fell under Islamic rule. This lasted, until the cross drivers took 1099 Hebron. They called the cityAbraham. After they were struck 1187 by Saladin, the city received Hebron to the names back. Since driving the Jews out from Spain 1492 there was a strong Jewish municipality with hundreds of members in Hebron also again. The Mamelucken governed the city, to it 1516under the rule of the Osmani realm fell. 1831 to 1840 took over the Egyptian field gentleman Ibrahim pasha Hebron.
1917, in the process of the 1. World war, Hebron was British occupied and afterwards part of the mandated territory Palestine. 1948 annektierte Jordanian ones the west bank and Hebron became oneJordanian city, until Israel in the six-day war 1967 the west bank conquered and crew power changed.
In the course of the Israeli settlement of the west bank nationalreligious settlers displaced increasingly the traditional Arab population from the city center Hebrons. Because of the isolated situation pulled nearly only member of the militant edge to thatSettlement movement into those at present. approx. 200 persons comprehensive old part of town settlement, which must become secured from the Israeli army.
massacres of 1929
to 23. August 1929 spread among Arabs in Palestine the rumor, Jew in Jerusalem of thousands of Arabs would have murdered. Thereupon cameit also in Hebron to the Pogrom against those here resident Jewish inhabitant. Although numerous Arab inhabitants Hebrons saved their Jewish neighbours, up to the following evening 67 Jews were murdered there. The survivors thereupon of the British mandate power obligatorily after Jerusalem removes.
Massacre of 199425. February 1994 murdered the extremistic settler Baruch Goldstein 29 Muslims in the Abraham mosque. The Israeli government and the majority of the Israelis condemned its crimes, with a minority it for it were however admired.
The inhabitants mentioned by Hebron, Chalāyle (= inhabitant of aluminium-Chalil), have a status among Palestinians as for instance the Ostfriesen in Germany. There are numerous jokes, in which the compatriots make themselves attributed tardiness, Dickköpfigkeit and Begriffsstutzigkeit merry over those the inhabitants of Hebron. In particular theirallegedly slow manner of speaking is pours inexhaustible mockery. The cause for these doubtful prejudices is dialektales phenomenon, which is similarly also in other Arab cities: Before one Sprechpause the last syllable is spoken long. In Hebron this characteristic Pausaldehnung is additionally nasaliert, so thatan intonation develops, which is extraordinarily typical and is felt among Palestinians as merry.
The Abraham oak, also oak mentioned by Mamre, stands at the place, wherethe excessive quantity after Abraham broke its tent open (1. Mose 18). Their age becomes estimated on 5,000 years. Today the area, on which the oak stands, belongs to an Russian-orthodox monastery, which is inaccessible for the public.
Jewish settlements in Hebron
- pickle Hadassah(since 1979); House with 10 families
- pickle Romano (since 1983); School with 250 students
- Tel Rumeida (since 1984); House with 15 families
- pickle Hasson; House with 6 families
- pickle Castel; House with 1 family
- pickle Schneerson; House with 6 families and kindergarten with 30 children
- Pickle finch
- pickle HaShisha (since 2000); House with 6 families
live approx. 350 - 400 settlers and approx. 250 students in the H2-Zone von Hebron. For the Israeli central office for statistics these persons belong to a Jewish settlement , those to the population of Kirjat Arba,in the east on Hebron borders.
- Peter Welten: Kind. Hebron. In: Theological material encyclopedia 14 (1985), S. 521-524 (archaeology, history, Bible)
- Fabio Maniscalco (OD.), Protection, conservation and valorization OF Palestinian cultural property, mono graphics of series Mediterraneum. Protection and exploitation OF cultural andenvironmental property, volume. 5, Naples 2005
- Ibrahim Iqtait, at Architectural Survey OF Raboud (South OF Hebron). In Web journal on Cultural Patrimony, volume. 1, January June, 2006
Web on the left of
- Leonie Schultens, settler conflict Hebron: In the cage (mirror on-line one, 17.02.2006)
- clay/tone documents from Hebron
coordinates: 31° 32 ' 6 " N, 35° 5 ' 55 " O