than holy in almost all religions a personality is designated, that regards as the respective divinity particularly close standing, or as humans perfect in religious and ethical regard one regards.
Table of contents
a religion-scientifically accurate definition one „holy ones “to find, is with difficulty. On the one hand no definition generally accepted for all religions is possible due to the differing requirements, which place different religions at one „to holy ones “. On the other hand the religious type „of the holy one overlaps “with several other religious authority types.
„The holy one points thing in common “with the two types of the martyr and the Heroen up: Its grave and/or. the repository of its Reliquien develops to a ritual center of special rank. The goal of general admiration is, used of Pilgerreisen and often as center of a Nekropole.An intermediary function is attributed to all three types as an advocate of the Gläubigen in relation to the göttlichen authority. An admiration is often given as with the Heroen already during lifetimes, can take place however as with the martyr also only after death. Of the martyr differentiatesitself „the holy one by the fact “that it already achieved the religious perfection during lifetimes and not only in its dying.
„The holy one “can belong to that types of the member of a klerikalen institution (thus the priest shank or the Mönchtum), must this however not. Further the holy one can possess the Charisma of the religion founder or Reformators, contrary to these is however its goal not Verkündigung and following formation of a Gläubigenschar, but stepping out by its religiously exemplary life. Of the mythischen Heilsbringerfinally its working although often differentiates it with respect to the material delivered, in the Tradierung unreliable, history and the missing aspect of release of its life.
Belonging one of all other types specified above can do also than holy ones dear, however not automatically than suchare designated. There are the types „of the holy one “and its admiration in all larger religions, although in different developments.
Christian theology is coined/shaped by a double concept of holyness: The holy absolutely is Godeven, however not in the sense of transcendental statics, thus a condition in göttlichen spheres without effect on the this life. Rather God holyness is understood as immanent dynamics, the all terrestrial things for itself to select can and thus reason of their holynessis. In the new will this view is modified. Now it is Jesus Christ, who causes in its singular relationship with the father by its death and its Auferstehung holyness in those, which follow it.
Christian holyness steps into two componentsup. On the one hand God chooses itself both in the old person and in the new will „a holy people “: The people Israel and in such a way designated „new holy people “ of the church. On the other hand the concept of the individual holyness of an individual also always stepsup, which achieved a special degree of the grace and the offered welfare by the implementation of the follow-up Christi. The individual holyness is thereby however always only Manifestation of a holyness as member of the church, those in its whole those„communio sanctorum “, thus „the community of the holy ones “, represents.
Christian holy ones in the colloquial sense are characterised thus by the fact that they already achieved a higher stage of the grace, which is for each Gläubigen as member of the church possible in principle however.The theologian Wolfgang leg ore expresses it compactly in such a way: „It [the holyness of the particular] in the baptism justified as beful quality and unfolds moral in the personalen acceptance of the göttlichen call by assumption of the convicition Jesu in oneholy lives (Eph 1,4; 5,1; Phil 2,5; 4,8; Kol 1,22; I Petr 1,15f; 2,9; Tit 1.7-9 u.ö.) “the earlyChristian holy admiration followed from the Jewish faith admitted forms. There were for a long timethe high priest as „official Fürbitter “of humans, the intermediary shank of the angels between God and humans, which admit admiration of large shapes of the past as well as the Martyrium.
The hohepriesterliche intermediary function was transferred completely to Christ and only after theological clarificationin former times fathers of the church that the admiration of other humans, the Christ had followed, whom singularness of the intermediary function Christi does not impair began the Urkirche martyr and the Apostel to call. The first voucher of a martyr admiration is the report written around 160over Polykarp of Smyrna, in the western church the martyr admiration probably spread during pursuits in the 3. Century out.
With the change of the Christianity for the state religion of the Roman realm also the holy term widened, there the Martyrium because ofturned off pursuits now any longer highest certification of a Christian life to be could not. Gradually - under the determining influence Clemens' of Alexandria - „confessores so mentioned became “, thus Bekenner, which had escaped pursued, but the Martyrium,and humans with one „angel-same lives “, whose radically asketisch - virgin life was understood as constant fight against the seductions sow to, taken up to the circle of the admiration-worthy „holy ones “. The council of Ephesus set a provisional point of conclusion under these extensions, 431 with the award of the title „of the Gottgebärerin “at Maria the Marienverehrung officially sanctioned.
Since the early Middle Ages either large light shapes of the Christianity (church teacher, kings became increasing,so-called. „Knight and soldier-holy “etc.) or humans, who offered an alternative concept to the everyday Christian life (Franziskus, Benedikt) dear by the people as holy ones, the church acknowledgment followed generally only later. In order to prevent a Ausufern of the holy cults,strove the Popes to attain the exclusive right to the holy speaking and thus control of the holy admiration and could itself in the process of the 11. and 12. Century against the competitive instances of the Synoden and local bishops intersperse.
The high-medieval thought, itselffor churches and cities to choose later conditions and occupations their own patron under whose protection and assistance one wanted to place oneself, “, Reliquienanhäufung and urge make the transformed understanding „of the holy ones clear after miracles were the theologically unwanted results.The character of the holy ones as models in the Christian life stepped in favor of the attributed functions as an aid back (see. in addition the development of the cult „of the fourteen emergency aids “!)
Only the reformation stated clear criticism at the dominant situation. OneRole of the holy ones as direct intermediaries of the requesting was strictly rejected with reference to the Bible and the singularness the welfare intermediary shank Christi again into the foreground was moved. Probably however the holy memory became bspw. in the Confessio Augustana endorses XXI andrecognized. Even if catholic theology always the same view were, remained the mixture of verkappter Anbetung and admiration nevertheless a clear characteristic of the Volksfrömmigkeit into the today's time.
In the east churches the admiration of holy ones is a natural componentthe mental life. She expresses herself until today in painting and admiring icons, writing and reading from Heiligenviten as well as that again strengthens arising Kanonisation. As in the catholic church the graves and Reliquien are also visitedand, after them designated and its memory day (i. admires humans, churches and places. D. R. the day of death) in the church year liturgically celebrated.
For years „holy-spoken lose for instance the 1960er “as „holy ones “increasingly in meaning. Legends and mythische reports are back pushedin favor of time-historical experiences of modelful humans (Gandhi, nut/mother Teresa, Martin Luther King), who serve as models for Altruismus and humanity. The admiration of these new models is bound not at denominations or religions and reflects an arising of Idolen in the youth culture against.
holyness in the Judentum
Also by official side no resistance was brought to a certain admiration of the prophets against, since the time of the makkabäischen resistance fight won also the Märtyrertum at meaning. Since the lateantique developed in the Volksfrömmigkeit a proper grave cult around burial places of particularly pious Jews, are often pleased even to synagogs over or in the proximity of a grave. Particularly strongly the type of the holy one in the osteuropischen Chassidismus arose, to that in „the Saddiq “one would almost over-creep Heilsbringer admired, which was regarded as an intermediary of God grace for humans.
Also in the today's Judentum holy graves play an important role as barrier travel goals. Prominent examples for this are the graves of the ore fathers in Hebron, the David grave inJerusalem or the grave of the kabbalistischen Rabbiners Schimon ben Jochai in Meron.
holyness in the Islam
The moreover one the later holy admiration refers usually to well-known Mystiker (Sufis). Frequently these worked also as head (Sheikh) of a Sufiordens (Tariqa), as it strengthensstarting from that 12. and 13. Developed for century. At that time, which is considered as the bloom time of the Sufismus, the Islamic Mystiker found a large resonance in the broad population (particularly in the North African countries), whereby itself this very day the strongAdmiration of the holy ones under the Mystikern to explain does not only leave.
The picture of the holy one in the Islam is of it coined/shaped that holy advocates and intermediary between the Gläubigen and the hidden Allah are, miracle to work can and as a guard of the faithapply. Their burial places are into the today's time places of pilgrimage, which are seen of the pilgrims as source of strength, since the mirror-image-ritual energy of a holy one works after Muslim view also beyond terrestrial death.
holyness in the Indian religionsof the Hinduismus, Buddhismus and Jainismus can roughly by the fact be characterized that it in radical Askese and Meditation onehigher level of awareness to have reached are. The intermediary character between göttlicher authority and humans does not arise with the common atheistischen or agnostischen concepts accordingly.
The inaccurate category „of the Hinduismus “practically not possibly makes a generally valid definition one „for hinduistischen holy ones “. It leaveshowever a relatively wide-spread admiration certain religious teacher, which coined/shaped the face of the Hinduismus in their time, like Shankara, Ramakrishna or also Gandhi, observe themselves.
In the Buddhismus the conception of holy ones is more concretely present. The Hinayana seesthe individual holyness in the fact given that humans reach the Nirvana after strictly asketischem life and attention of the teachings Buddhas and so that from the cycle of the Wiedergeburten separates. The thought of an admiration of the Reliquien Buddhas already present in the Hinayana setin the Mahayana strengthens away. Here additionally the Bodhisattvas admired as holy ones, because they already attained illuminating, from Altruismus („compassion “) however without the Nirvana to do and other humans to illuminating to likewise lead want.
In the Jainismus finallybecome 63 exemplary humans, under it the 24 Tirthankaras so mentioned („ford-ready, pioneer “), when holy one admires, because her, although they already found release from the cycle of the Wiedergeburten, in always recurring distances humans the way to illuminating shown outhave.
holyness in the Chinese religions
The Taoismus against it admired different historical shapes, to which one attributed, in agreement with the Tao to have lived (z. B. „the eight Unsterblichen in such a way specified“). They are often presented as magically talented ones, which can protect illness and death.
holy admiration list
- Arnold Angenendt: Corpus incorruptum. A guidance idea thatmedieval Reliequienverehrung. In: Saeculum 42 (1991), S. 320-348.
- Arnold Angenendt: Holy one and Reliquien. The history of their cult from the early Christianity to the present. Munich 1997. ISBN 3406428673
- Theofried building masters: Article „holy admiration I “. In: Material encyclopedia for antique ones and Christianity, Bd.14, Stuttgart 1988, frame. 96-150.ISBN 3777288357
- Wolfgang leg ore: The holy ones in the reflection of the church. The holy ones today honour. Freiburg and. A. 1983.
- Jürgen Frembgen: Journey to God. Sufis and the-wipes in the Islam. Munich 2000. ISBN 340645920X
- Theodor Klauser: Christian martyr cult, heidnischer Heroenkult and the lateJewish holy admiration. Cologne 1969. ISBN B0000BUE1H
- Gabriele Miller: Article „holy ones “. In: Encyclopedia for theology and church, Bd. 4, Freiburg and. A. 1995, frame. 1274-1276.