Heinrich III. (France)

Heinrich III. of France

Heinrich III. (* 19. September 1551 in Fontainebleau; † 2. August 1589 in Saint Cloud) was 1572 - 1573 king of Poland and 1574 - 1589 king of France. Last king from the house Valois. Inthe last government years rises catholic Paris, because it the succession to the throne of the huguenot Heinrich IV. does not accept. It was murdered 1589.

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Heinrich III. the third son was Heinrichs II. of France and its wife Katharina of Medici. He was the favourite son of its nut/mother, and the relationship with the kränklichen older brother was difficult. Since 1560 after the death of the oldest brotherhe was successor to the throne. Despite its youth he became commander in chief of the royal troops in the third Huguenot war 1568 - 1569 , because the alternatives were politically more problematic, but the two brilliant victories with Jarnac and Moncontour were to be owed rather to the marshal de Tavannes. After the massacreto the Huguenot in the Bartholomäusnacht led Heinrich III. and. A. the FE storage of La Rochelle, which failed because of the weather, because of epidemics and because of the missing huguenot supply over the sea.

Intermezzo as a king of Poland

1573 arranged Katharina its choice toPolish king: In France this saved the Huguenots from the destruction, because in Poland freedom of religion prevails, and the French Religionskriege endanger the choice. As French successors to the throne broke Heinrich III. only against-willingly to Poland up. As his brother Karl IX.in the year after, fled Heinrich diedIII. from Poland and mounted the French throne. The king it became to 13. February 1575 in the cathedral crowned by Reims and married two days of late Louise de Lorraine Vaudémon (* 30. April 1553 in Nomeny, † 29. January 1601 in Moulins), thosefrom a recent line of the lothringischen duke house originated. Over the childlessness of this marriage, at which the whole kingdom took portion, already the contemporaries broke themselves the head. Obviously Louise had become due to an artificially caused abortion, which led to a chronic bearing nut/mother inflammation, sterile.

Heinrichpromoted just like Franz I. the art.

terrible brother and successor to the throne

of the successors to the throne Franz, younger brother of the king, fled from the king yard. Around it the dissatisfied groupings , including the likewise fled Heinrich of Navarra, collected themselves that to the leader in the winter 1576the Huguenots ascended. Katharina of Medici saved its doless royal son: The brother was satisfied with a generous Apanage to the lower Loire .

The Huguenots received more generous conditions than ever before in the edict from Beaulieau with now eight safety places. This edict pushed with thata catholic party on so much resistance that the two royal brothers in the sieved Huguenot war 1576-1577 must impose the Huguenot more moderate conditions; at least there were no larger war actions.

The king developed thereafter the Festivitäten with its favourites, the unpopular Mignons. Katharina of Medici traveled tothe south into the Vorberge of the Pyreneeses and secured in endless rounds of negotiations with Heinrich of Navarra a precarious peace. Its brother erstrebte its own kingdom, either in the insurgent Netherlands or in England by marriage with queen Elizabeth I.. This failed because of itscomplete inability, all - the insurgent Netherlands, England, which own brother - let fall it. The brother and successor to the throne die 1584 at Tuberkulose. Perhaps also Heinrichs Bisexualität, it would be interesting was interested long time not in women, but in the gentlemen in the yard. In additionif it had the habit, its numerous dogs names entgegensätzlich their sex to give (its dearest dog was called le mignon, was however a female).

civil war around the succession to the throne starting from 1585

new successor to the throne is the Huguenot leader Heinrich of Navarra from the Nebenlinie Bourbon. ThisSituation was for the catholic party in France completely unakzeptabel, it is Heinrich of Navarra converts to the catholicism. The refused Heinrich of Navarra ful. Whereupon Henri de Guise renewed the catholic league.

This renewed catholic league had a completely new character: It was not a pure aristocracy party more, but a movement with support at the people particularly of Paris. The catholic league even closed at the beginning of of 1585 an alliance with Spain. The league transferred power to France north the Loire, is however intelligently enough, the dormant king not imprisoned tooset. In May 1588) the king had to flee because of inactivity before Henri de Guise from Paris. Heinrich III. orders the league leader Henri de Guise in and lets it in December 1588 murder.

Thereupon the catholic France rises against the king, thereupon inAlliance with Heinrich of Navarra Paris besieges. During this FE storage Heinrich becomes III. at the 1. August 1589 of a Dominikanermönch murders. On the dead bed it confirmed Heinrich of Navarra as its successor. With it rule the sex of the Valois expired at least in its after 261-jährigerlegitimate line. Because only in the year 1650 the count von Auvergne, a illegitimer son of Karl IX. died.

Heinrich of Navarra becomes as Heinrich IV. King of France and justifies the dynasty of the Bourbonen. The respected Huguenot war 1585 - 1589 go to its conversion toCatholicism 1593 into a national war against Spain over.

Web on the left of

Karl IX.
List of the rulers of France successor
Heinrich IV.
Sigismund II.
List of the dukes and kings of Poland successor
Stephan Báthory


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