Heinrich III. (HRR)
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Heinrich became 1017 as a son of Konrad II. and Gisela of Swabia born, thus before these 1024 to the king one had chosen. It received comprehensive training and systematically for the succession to the throne was prepared, by it promptly at government actionsits father taken part was. As large and schwarzhaarig (therefore it probably its occasional surname “the black one”) described, the beard carried he is grown to Heinrich in accordance with the mode sheared.
From 1027 to 1042 he was duke of Bavaria, of 1038 to 1045 duke of Swabia. To 14. April 1028 let it crown its father by archbishop Pilgrim of Cologne in Aachen to the German king. In the autumn 1038 he became king of Burgund. it stepped 1039 then alsoa throne setting the follow-up of its father on. On a Königsumritt in the actual sense, but he visited done without Heinrich in the years 1039/40 all realm country and made government actions. it subjected Böhmen to 1041 and brought Hungary under the leaning sovereignty of the realm.After the death of his cousin duke Konrad II. from Kärnten in the same year he administered also this duchy up to the year 1047 . Heinrich had arguments relating to domestic affairs again and again with the duke of Lorraine, Gottfried the Bärtigen to exist.
On the Synoden of Sutri (starting from 20. December 1046) and Rome (starting from 23. ) It set the three Popes Gregor VI. for December 1046 in agreement with the Cluniazensi reform movement., Benedikt IX and Silvester III. off and a Cluniazenser, Suitgerof Bamberg, as a Pope. This became to 25. December 1046 as Clemens II. in Rome and crowned in its first official act Heinrich III. inthronisiert. and its second wife Agnes from Poitou to emperor and empress. Clemens II. followlater with Damasus II., Leo IX. and Viktor II. three further German Popes used by Heinrich.
Heinrich was twice married. His first Mrs. Gunhild of Denmark, daughter Knuts of the large one, which it in June 1036, probablyto 29. , married had, died to 18. July 1038 at malaria. It was buried in the monastery Limburg. To 20. He married November 1043 in Ingelheim Agnes of Poitou, with which he had six children. By Agnes it could Contacts for church reform movement in Cluny attach.
Heinrichs son Heinrich IV. followed it at the age of six years as a king. Its daughter Judith (Judith of Hungary) married king Salomon of Hungary and after its death duke Wladyslaw I.Herman of Poland.
In the person Heinrichs III. the fusion of lay (regnum) finds and religious (sacerdotium) rule its high point and experiences at the same time a crucial turning point.
Heinrich binds on the one hand the realm church completely closely actually and uses it as power factor. This becomes clearin numerous Bischofsinvestituren, with those Heinrich on its Hofkapellane for example pin „the pc. Simon and Judas “in Goslar fall back (among other things Anno of Cologne) and by the off and installation of the Popes mentioned above.
On the other hand the low-religious makes itselfHeinrich ideas of the Cluninazensi reform movement absolutely too own and turns against Simonie (it sits down thereby also clearly against its father off) and makes themselves strong for the Zölibat and the peace movement. Also it released the papacythe involving with the Roman aristocracy and universal validity provides for it. Thus however it caused the problems, with those its son, Heinrich IV., later in the Investiturstreit to fight had and one renewed drifting apart of lay and religious poweras a consequence had.
over the birthdays and - locate, even over the order of the descendants Heinrichs III., is little well-known. From extensive source study Mechthild Black Veltrup deduced the following order, it in their in the literature datapublications mentioned plausibly justifies:
- Beatrix (* 1037, † 13. July 1061), 1043/44 1061 Äbtissin of Quedlinburg and Gandersheim, bury in the pin church in Quedlinburg, 1161 in the monastery Michaelstein.
From second marriage with Agnes of Poitou:
- Adelheid (* autumn 1045 probably in Goslar, † 11. January 1096), 1061 -1096 Äbtissin of Gandersheim, around 1063 also Äbtissin of Quedlinburg, bury inthe pin church in Quedlinburg
- Mathilde (* October 1048 probably in Pöhlde, † 12. May 1060) ∞ 1059 Rudolf of Rheinfelden, duke of Swabia, 1077 German Gegenkönig
- Heinrich IV. (* 11. November 1050 in Goslar, † 7. August 1106 in Lüttich), duke of Bavaria, König of the HRR starting from 1056, emperor 1084 - 1106, ∞ I 1066 Bertha of Turin († 1087), daughter of theCount Otto von Savoyen, ∞ II 1089 Adelheid (Jewspraksija, Eupraxia, Praxedis) of Kiew, daughter of the large prince Wsewolod Jaroslawitsch
- Konrad von Bayern (* Septembers/Octobers 1052 probably in Regensburg, † 10. April 1055) Duke by Bavaria 1054 - 1055)
- Judith (* summers 1054 probably in Goslar, † 14. March probably 1092/1096), ∞ I 1063 Salomon (X 1087) king of Hungary (Arpaden), ∞ II around 1089 Wladyslaw I. Herman († 1102) duke of Poland
- bad yard, Egon: „The Salier “. - 4. , act. Aufl. - Stuttgart (among other things): Kohl hammer, 2000. - ISBN 3-17-016475-9
- Laudage, Johannes: The Salier: The first GermanKing house. - Munich: Beck, 2006. - ISBN 3-406-53597-6
- Bernd gumption Mueller/Stefan Weinfurter (Hrsg.): The German rulers of the Middle Ages. Historical one of haven advice of Heinrich I. to Maximilian I. Beck, Munich 2003 ISBN 3-406-50958-4
- Black, Mechthild: The daughters Heinrichs III. and the empressAgnes. - in: Vinculum Societatis: Anniversary publication for Joachim Wollasch, 1991. - S. 36 - 57
- Black Veldtrup, Mechthild: Empress Agnes (1043-1077): Source-critical studies. - Cologne: Böhlau Verl., 1995
Web on the left of
|List of the Roman GermansRuler|| successor|
|SHORT DESCRIPTION||German king and emperor of the holy Roman realm|
|DATE OF BIRTH||28. October 1017|
|PLACE OF BIRTH|
|DYING DATE||5. October 1056|