Heinrich IV. (France)

Heinrich IV. (frz. Henri IV le Grand (the large one)) (* 13. December 1553 in Pau, Navarra, today duly to France; † 14. May 1610 in Paris) was from 1589 to its death kingby France and Navarra. He was the first king from the house Bourbon. In its gascognischen homeland one called it lo nostre rei Enric („our king Heinrich “). As a king Heinrich built IV. the country wrecked by Religionskriegen.Also the edict of Nantes, which assured the French Protestanten free worship, falls into its reign.

Henri IV. König von Frankreich und Navarra
Henri IV. King by France and Navarra

table of contents

lives

Geburt von Heinrich IV. im Château de Pau am 13. Dezember 1553
birth of Heinrich IV. in the Château de Pau to 13. December 1553

Heinrich became to 13. December 1553 inLock Pau in the southwestFrench Pyreneeses - at the border to the French region Béarn - as a second son of the catholic duke of Vendôme, Anton of Bourbon, and the Protestant queen of Navarra, Johanna of Albret, born.Some sources report, Heinrich is the third son, whose two older brothers were called likewise Heinrich, but still before his birth died. Its nut/mother was the favourite niece of Franz I., the king at that time of France.

Under Heinrichs grandmother Margarete was the Kingdom of Navarra become the tie point of the Protestanten and religious Reformer, who in of Paris dungeons, banishing and heap of failure threatened. Its daughter Johanna made the locks Pau and Nérac the center of the French protest anti-mash.

Heinrich became to 6. March 1554generally speaking hall of the lock Pau catholic baptized. The education was incumbent on Heinrichs grandfather to largetighten a child to Heinrich of Albret, because it did not think Johanna to its daughter capable of, since so far all had young deceased their children. One year later died Heinrichs grandfatherand the infant was entrusted the Obhut to its aunt Suzanne de Bourbon Pay for shortly thereafter and educated until 1560 very rural and people near in the lock of the village Coarraze.

With the marriage of the French successor to the throne Franz II. with the Scottish queen Maria Stuart to 24. April 1558 in Paris was present the 4-jährige Heinrich, where it met his cousin and later Mrs. Margarete von Valois for the first time. Later legends report that the king was so done by Heinrich that itit and Margarete at this time informally got engaged. The king came to 10. July 1559 with a lance tournament on the occasion of a peace treaty around the life, successor became its son Franz II., however only the short reign up to 5. December1560 had. The young Heinrich, now also prince von Navarra, was educated Protestant by the educator La Goucherie.Karl IX.followed to 5. December 1560 his deceased brother Franz II. on the throne, and he only there was ten years old,took over its nut/mother Katharina of Medici the Regierungsgeschäfte.

The two uncles Franz of Guise and Karl von Guise dominated already to reigns Franz' II. the policy. Katharina tried now to limit their power by it the candidates of the house Bourbon -the sex Heinrichs of Navarra - in the regency it took part, among other things by the fact that Heinrichs became father Anton 1561 lieutenant general of the kingdom. His Mrs. Johanna followed Anton with Heinrich to that Paris yard. 1562 went it back to Navarra, Heinrichhad to remain with Katharina and by Johanna from Losse to the catholic faith one led back.

From revenge for the power loss Franz and Karl von Guise organized the blood bath of Vassy at the 1. March, with which the first Huguenot war broke out. Anton of Bourbonfought at the side of the catholics and still died in the same year at the consequences of a wound, which it itself during the FE storage Rouens to 17. November had tightened. Since Heinrich became now the duke of Vendôme, its nut/mother got,now the exclusive queen of Navarra, it against the will of the entmachteten Katharina back after Navarra. His former educator La Goucherie informed it in the calvinistischen teachings.

After the end of the first Huguenot war 1563 Katharina led its son andlater king Karl IX. on a large round trip by the whole realm. The duke of Vendôme and prince von Navarra always participated. On lock Empéri stepped to 17. October 1564 the Astrologe Nostradamus in Heinrichs Gemach and announced to it,that it will unite a daily France and Navarra under a crown. In May 1566 the journey ended, to which in January Johanna of Albret pushed. One year later left it with its son the royal yard. He became lieutenant generalfrom Navarra and undertook its first war courses against the baskischen noblemen.

1567-1573: 1567 the second Huguenot war

with an assault of the prince Heinrich I. was inflamed to Bartholomäusnacht and fourth Huguenot war. of Bourbon Condé. Katharina wanted the 14-jährigen Heinrichwhen again in their yard state back see protestanisches pledge, and it became after the refusal of its nut/mother the goal of attemptattempt attempts. The war ended 1568, since however both parties left their troops mobilized, flowed it nearly smoothly into thatthird Huguenot war.

In September 1568 Heinrich in La Rochelle made acquaintance with his uncle Ludwig von Bourbon Condé, who was a leader of the Protestant army. The 14-Jährige accompanied it during the campaigns, those first the two princes of the house Condé and starting from 1570 Gaspard II. from Coligny stated.

Bartholomäusnacht

in August 1570 came with the peace of Saint Germain a peace treaty between the catholic and the Huguenot to conditions. To 9. June 1572 deceased to Johanna of Albret, whereby outHeinrich, prince von Navarra, König Heinrich III. from Navarra became. Rumors, it one poisoned, could be never free of doubts proven. To 18. He married August of the same yearly in Paris Margarete of Valois, the sister of altogether three FrenchKings and the acting Karl IX., in order to seal the peace from Saint Germain to. In masses the Huguenots, and, accompanied politically important personalities also military „their “loved king to the wedding in Notre-Dame de Paris. The wedding three followedDays of full celebrations and people amusing, with the exception of the Protestant admiral and army leader Gaspard II. of Coligny to 22. August an unsuccessful assassination attempt was committed. From Coligny before the wedding influence on Karl had won and thus the requirements for regency of KarlNut/mother Katharina threatens. It pushed on a support of the insurgent reformed ones in Flanders against the rule of the Spanish king Philipp II.by a united army from catholics and Huguenots. He saw this as only alternative to a civil war in France,thereby however the peace efforts of many years Katharinas ran contrary. It wanted to charge the debt for the assassination attempt of the family of the Guise, over by a in such a way intensified private feud already existing - a friend of Colignys had 1563 the duke of Lorraine Franzfrom Guise murders - the two influential parties to neutralize. Two days after became on instruction of Karl IX. all to of Paris traveled Huguenots and further in larger French cities murders. This Gemetzel found to 24. August, the name day of the Apostels Sank Bartholomäus, instead of, why it entered asBartholomäusnacht “or „Paris blood wedding “history. In Paris about 3,000 Huguenots (including the admiral von Coligny and further Huguenot leader) died again, in the rest of France around the 30.000. In Parispersistent the rumor went around, Katharina its son for the arrangement of the massacre persuaded. The likewise Protestant again-ground Heinrich and his cousin, the prince von Condé, thereupon imprisoned taken and led before Karl. They got the choice between shankin the Bastille, death by the Galgen or crossing to the catholicism. Both decided for the baptism and Heinrich wrote, probably under Katharinas dictation, at Pope Gregor XIII.a request for admission into the catholic church. For the following39 months was Heinrich Staatsgefanger in the Louvre, while the third Huguenot war afflicted the country. The leaderless Huguenots were back-pushed increasingly on the Southern French cities La Rochelle , Nîmes and Montauban.

1574-1594: Assumption of the French crown

Einzug von Heinrich IV. in Paris, Ölgemälde von Peter Paul Rubens
introductionof Heinrich IV. in Paris, Ölgemälde by Peter Paul Rubens
to 30. May 1574 died Karl IX.. Its successor on the French king chair became its brother Heinrich III., which was however childless. Two years later succeeded Heinrich ofNavarra and Valois the escape from the apartments of the Louvre, on which he put the catholic faith down again.

1578 saw themselves Heinrich and Margarete again after 32 months separation in the Guyenne, where Heinrich was since 1576 governor. She came when desiredtheir nut/mother there to get in hope, Heinrich back to that Paris yard. After a stay of nearly four years Margarete turned 1582 back in the Louvre. One year later came it to a large Familienzwist, after Margaretes brotherHeinrich III. because of its amounting to of the yard one referred. Trip was probably the circumstance that their married man held itself Cortisande d'Andouins as Mätresse. Starting from March 1584 Margarete under the pretext was to escape notices Cortisandes in Agen. Itbegan hostilities against its man to develop and thereupon in a forced manner to withdraw itself into the fortress from Usson.

Heinrich was III. a catholic and a head of the catholic league, but as leaders were regarded Heinrich of Guise, probably because he oneharder position against the Huguenots represented. Its Gegenpart on the Protestant side was Heinrich of Navarra, which led to the fact that the French king between the parties stood. More near related to the sex of the Guisen, Heinrich III. stood. united forcesHeinrichs of Valois and Navarra and its own younger brother opposite Franz. This period is called often also „war of the three Heinriche “. This war got the character of a European Religionskrieges by other European powers also. Philipp II.from Spain the catholics supported, while the Protestanten assistance in England of Elizabeth I. and from the Spain-hostile Netherlands got.

Heinrichs partner Franz, thus the heir to the throne for the case of death Heinrichs III., died 1584 at an illness, so thatHeinrich of Navarra its position as an inheritance took over. This circumstance brought the Pope to Sixtus V. to exkommunizieren Heinrich 1585 . This refused however recognizing the Exkommunikation.

To 20. October 1587 came it between the catholic duke of Joyeuseand Heinrich to the battle of Coutras, in which Heinrich defeated the favorite of the French king despite a numerical inferiority and whom duke killed.

Rider fixed image of Heinrich at the Pont Neuf

at the end of of 1588 became also Heinrich III. of Pope Sixtus V.exkommuniziert, because it let murder the strictly catholic Heinrich of Guise one day before holy evening. The two exkommunizierten kings of France and Navarra allied themselves and marched against the catholic league, which kept Paris occupied.

Heinrich III., the latter Valois, became at the 1. August 1589 stabbed by the Dominikaner Jacques Clement in Saint Cloud and died on the next day at the consequences of the wound. Since the 1575 closed marriage of the king with Luise of Vaudemont was childless, and italso no more brother had, the line had expired. Heinrich III. on his dying bed as a successor had confirmed his brother-in-law and partner, however its conversion demanded to the catholic faith.

After lengthy fights with the French catholics and the habsburgischen Spaniardsconverted Heinrich of Navarra to 25. July 1593 again to the catholicism, by receiving the coming union in the Basilika Saint Denis. Its conversion commentated it with the utterance ” Paris vaut bien une measures. “ (“Paris is worth a fair.” - After Robert Merle he never said however this sentence. Like many other sayings the French people the popular king has this statement assigned). Thus stood to his requirement for throne nothing more in the way, and it became to 27. February 1594 inthe cathedral Notre-Dame de Chartres gesalbt and to the king crowned.

1594-1610: King of France

Hochzeit von Heinrich IV. von Frankreich und Maria de Medici
wedding of Heinrich IV. by France and Maria de Medici
still in the same year existed Heinrichs (from now on the IVTH) first action as a kingin the defense of a Spanish invading army. Afterwards it söhnte itself first with the head of the league, then with the Spanish king Philipp II. out. The country was again geeint after long time, after the duke of Savoyen, Karl EmanuelI., driven out from Provence and Brittany subjected was.

To 13. April 1598 issued Heinrich IV. the edict of Nantes, which should secure 96 years confessional peaces up to the edict of Fontainebleau. The Protestant Frenchmen becameno rights, but privileges, equal rights opposite catholics, entrance to public offices and 100 safe places in completely France awarded.

With the help of the duke of Sully, Maximilien de Béthune, experienced France, posed since 1597 to the point of the financinga spectacular economic and financial upswing. The infrastructure and the agriculture were reorganized modernized, the national budget after the repayment of a 200-Millionen-Livres-Staatsschuld balanced and the administration, as redundant royal offices were waived. Maximilien de Béthune let channels and ports put on andmain header the tariffs for grain up. Together with the cattle breeding he explained the agriculture as the “chests, from which France was to feed itself. ”

1599 got engaged Heinrich IV. with Maria von Medici, the then richest heiress of the European continent.After in December the marriage with Margarete of Valois by Pope Klemens VIII.(she remained however queen), the marriage between Maria and Heinrich was cancelled could take place. Reason for this separation was that the marriage did not bring children out and both,Heinrich such as Margarete, itself Mätressen, and/or. Lovers held.

in October king Heinrich IV. became. and Maria von Medici “by procurationem “marries itself, i.e., in absence of Maria, there her still on the way after Marseille found, where it arrived at the beginning of of Decembers. The Dauphin Ludwig became to 27. September 1601 in Fontainebleau born.

In a discussion with Karl Emanuel I. from Savoyen Heinrich expressed the desire, “that in my country each farmer Sundays itsChicken in the pot has!“There to that time 80% of the population on the country, meant this statement lived to generally wish to the people a better life.

1610 it prepared an idea for 57-jährig into the Spanish Netherlands forwards, overto hurry the reformed princes in the holy Roman realm to assistance. His Mrs. Maria de Medici became in the evening 13. May - three days before its planned departure - in Saint Denis crowned and gesalbt, thus it during Heinrichs absencethe Regierungsgeschäfte with appropriate authority to lead knows. Later Heinrich went one day with six further noble men without guard on the way to Maximilien de Béthune. Into the Rue de la Ferronnerie, that placed itself to a close, badly passable roadroyal body (Kutsche with two open impacts) an obstacle into the way. Two cars wanted together past, could not do this however not due to the width lacking of the road. The noblemen will step out with the exception of the duke of Montbazon, so that Heinrichwas completely unprotected. The fact that only two were in the body explains also, why nobody saw the king murderer François Ravaillac, which jumped on the car and pushed with a measurer three times into the chest of the king coming. The first measurer passglitt an Heinrichs Rippen ab, der zweite durchtrennte den Haupstrang derSchlagader kurz über dem Herzen und durchstieß den linken Lungenflügel, der dritte Stich glitt ebenfalls ab und traf den Herzog von Montbazon. Ravaillac became with the kingLouvre driven, on the way there deceased to Heinrich. Jérôme Luillier, royal general attorney of the audit office and the Council of State reports on the arrival in the Louvre that “the king dead on its bed [the bed of the queen] stretched, in full clothes with unbuttonedWams and bloody shirt. Nevertheless the cardinal de Sourdis at its top, at its side stood… the Schlosskaplan and the body physician of the queen…; they spoke the reminding prayers… But the poor prince was already different.

The Dauphin Ludwigbecame at the age of nine years as Ludwig XIII. its successor - its nut/mother led the Regierungsgeschäfte - while France and above all Heinrichs carried gascognische homeland mourning.

descendant

Heinrich IV. mit Gattin Maria von Medici und seinen ersten vier Kindern, Ludwig XIII., Elisabeth, Christine und Heinrich
Heinrich IV. with wife Maria von Medici andhis first four children, Ludwig XIII., Elizabeth, Christine and Heinrich

the childless marriage with Margarete of Valois 1599 became by the Pope Clemens VIII. cancelled.

To 5. October 1600 it ground itself in second marriage with Maria von Medici.Together they had the children

Besides it had still the illegitimate children:

With Gabrielle of d'Estrées:

  • César de Vendôme, (* 3. June 1594), legitimizes 1595
  • Catherine Henriette, (* 14. November 1596), legitimizes 1596
  • Alexandre de Vendôme, (*14. April 1598), legitimizes 1599

with Catherine Henriette de Balzac d'Entragues:

with Jacqueline de Bueil:

  • Antoine (* 9. May 1607),if 1608 with

Charlotte of the Essarts legitimize,

  • Jeanne Baptiste (* 1608), 1608 Marie
  • Henriette legitimize (* 1609)

as well as:

  • Marie (* 1571)
  • Jeanne (* 1572)
  • Heinrich (* 1599)

ancestors

          ┌──< Franz (1470 - 1495), │ countof Vendôme │ ┌──<Karl IV.
     │    Duke of Bourbon and Vendôme     │    │    │    └──< Marie de Luxembourg (1462 - 1546)    │         Countess of Saint pole    │ ┌──< Anton of Bourbon (1518 - 1562),  Antoine deBourbon │    Duke of Bourbon and Vendôme, king of Navarra │    │ │    │    ┌──< René I. (1454 - 1492),│    │    │    Count von Alençon │    │    │ │    └──< Françoise d'Alençon (1490 - 1550)│ ... │ │ │ └──<Margarete of Lorraine (1463 - 1521) │              …
│
 Heinrich IV. (1553 - 1610),  Henri Quatre King of Navarra (Heinrich III.) and France │ │         ┌──< Johann III. (1469- 1516) d'Albret , Jean │         │    King of Navarra │         │ │    ┌──< Heinrich II. (1503 - 1555),  Henri II d'Albret │    │    King of Navarra │    │    │ │    │    └──< Katharina I. (1468 -1517),  Catherine de Foix │    │         Queen of Navarra │    │ └──< Johanna of Albret (1529 - 1572),  Johanna III. 
     Queen of Navarra    │    │    ┌──< Karl von Orléans (1459 - 1496),  Charles d'Orléans ││ count von Angoulême duke of Orléans │ │ └──<Margarete of Angoulême (1493 - 1549),  Marguerite d'Angoulême         Countess of Angoulême         │         └──< Luise of Savoyen (1476 - 1531),  Louise de Savoie              Duchess of Angoulême 

development of Heinrichs integration politics

as Heinrich IV. , was his son Ludwig XIII died. too young, in order to take over the rule, so that its nut/mother governed Maria von Medici for it. It revised fast some from Heinrichs strategies. After Ludwig1617 by the murder of the successor power favored by its nut/mother had fought for, banished it its nut/mother from France. Politically weakly, Ludwig arm and Jean de Plessis, well-known as a cardinal Richelieu, transferred the office business, that against having castlearranged policy Heinrichs IV. resumed. This complicated France into the 30-jährigen war, since France, controlled from the Bourbonen, wanted to break the supremacy of the having citizens in Europe. Richelieu was an advocate of the absolutism, and around this not by thoseafter Heinrichs IV. Murder come unrests to endanger, he adopted the grace edict of Alès (Alais), in which the 100 safe places in France were forbidden. The edict of Nantes became completely 1685 of Ludwig XIV.cancellations. In relation to repression politics thatHuguenot Ludwig XV still became by great-grandchild. continued and revolution, which Ludwig XVI , prepared the soil for the French. the life cost.

literature

of special books

  • Maurice Adrieux: Heinrich IV. Of France good king. Societäts publishing house, Frankfurt/M. 1979, ISBN 3-7973-0330-0
  • roll and Mousnier: A king murder in France. The murder Heinrich IV.. Propyläen publishing house, Berlin 1974
  • larva line Mari Louise, Saint René Taillandier: Heinrich IV. The Huguenot on of France throne. Hugendubel, Munich 2004, ISBN 3-424-01240-8

barking trichloroethylene TIC

  • Heinrich man: The youththe king Henri Quatre. Novel. Fischer, Frankfurt/M. 2002, ISBN 3-596-10118-2
  • Heinrich man: The completion of the king Henri Quatre. Novel. Fischer, Frankfurt/M. 1998, ISBN 359610119-0
  • Robert Merle: The good city Paris. Novel. (Fortune de France; Bd. 3),Structure publishing house, Berlin 2001, ISBN 3-7466-1215-2
  • Robert Merle: Still the glow smolders. Novel. (Fortune de France; Bd. 4), structure publishing house, Berlin 2003, ISBN 3-7466-1207-1
  • Robert Merle: Paris is worth a fair. Novel. (Fortune de France; Bd. 5), structure publishing house, Berlin2004, ISBN 3-7466-1208-X
  • Robert Merle: The wild dance of the silk skirts. Novel. (Fortune de France; Bd. 7), structure publishing house, Berlin 2004, ISBN 3-7466-1216-0

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Predecessor
Heinrich III.
List of the rulers of France successor
Ludwig XIII.
This article was taken up to the list of the articles worth reading.


 

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