Heinrich VI. (HRR)
Heinrich was the second son of altogether eleven children Friedrichs Barbarossas and Beatrix' of Burgund. He married 1186 Konstanze, those as a daughter of the Normannenkönigs Roger II. of Sicily auntand heiress of the last Normannenkönigs William II. was.
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the emperor son
at Whitsuntide 1169 left Friedrich I. Heinrich on Reichstag in Bamberg by an voting to its successor determine. The Erstgeborene, Friedrich V. from Swabia, because of weak health from the succession to the throne one had excluded. A goal of the follow-up regulation was a long-termSettlement since the double Papal election 1160 existing Schismas: Friedrich planned, Pope Alexander III. not to recognize, while Heinrich should do this later, in order to be able to govern than heir to the throne again in peace with the Pope or its successor (Alexander died 1181). Heinrich became to 15. August 1169 in Aachen to the king crowned.
At the latest 1184 began Heinrich and its father with William II. of Sicilies over a marrying Heinrichs with William aunt Konstanze (* 1154, † 28. To negotiate November 1198 in Palermo). To 27. January 1186 becameit in Milan grinds. After the wedding a ceremony, which reminded strongly of the emperor coronation/culmination, took place which Friedrich for its son had already before demanded. Besides Heinrich carried starting from this time the title Caesar - possibly following late ancient times rule practice and alsofrom the Roman right fed emperor idea of the Staufer. Friedrich wanted to secure by the ceremony that Heinrich would be with a succession Siziliens not only as a married man Konstanzes, but from own power ruler there. Pope Urban III. therein however questioning of the contract of Benevent sawand thus the leaning sovereignty over Sicilies, stressed by the chair Petri. By this disputed act the arguments between Barbarossa and the Pope in their late phase flashed again. In the summer 1186 Barbarossa determined its son besides to the regent in Italy.
As Friedrich I. 1189 to He applied , transferred third crusade Heinrich the government of the realm. In the same year Konstanze inherited the Normannenreich in Sicilies and south Italy. Friedrich died a little later during the crusade in the river Saleph.
fight for the rule
during the normannischen aristocrats against Heinrich VI. opposed and with Tankred von Lecce an own king selected, who was recognized by the Pope, the Welfe Heinrich the lion turned in October1189 - against an earlier agreement of the Welfenherzogs with Barbarossa - from banishing from England back. Heinrich VI. it succeeded quite fast to attach the conflict with Heinrich to the lion with small concessions: The lion received half of the realm income in Luebeck, but it hadthe attachments of Lueneburg and Braunschweig sharpen as well as one of its sons with the army Heinrichs to Italy to pull leave.
In January 1191 Heinrich VI. negotiated. in Lodi with Eleonore of Aquitanien, the betagten widow Heinrichs II.of England, those still to the most important shapesthe European policy counted. It concerned a complicated course in the marriage politics of its house: Eleonore did not try to dissolve the engagement between its son smelling pool of broadcasting corporations lion heart, existing since 1169, and a half sister Philipp of August of France, which was directed against Barbarossa particularly, now howevermore was needed. Heinrich VI. was likewise interested in the end of the engagement, because smelling pool of broadcasting corporations was as a supporter of Tankred in Messina. He counted on the fact that the relationship between England and France would worsen after the release of the engagement and smelling pool of broadcasting corporations to the retreat from Messinaforced would be. With it it would have isolated Tankred. In response it assured Eleonore that it would not switch itself on into the arguments of the French king with England, allied with it. Shortly thereafter it traveled to Rome further and reached there the dissolution of the marriageof Heinrichs VI. Brother Konrad von Rothenburg with Berenguela of Kastilien. The again selected Pope Coelestin III. as it Berenguelas appointed itself and to one by a cardinal obtained explanation of the Kastilierin to the missing marriage majority that she feels a deep dislike opposite Konrad. Withthis course Eleonores the Staufer had lost its connection on the Iberi peninsula and was so far isolated that France remained for them as only allying, whose balance attempts with England Eleonore had likewise defeated. Shortly thereafter Heinrich, the son Heinrichs of the lion, left the army andVI. began in Northern Germany allied against Heinrich. to collect. Heinrichs only success in the spring 1191 was reconciliation with the upper-Italian cities, all in front Genova and Pisa, those particularly because of their large fleets and their large influence at numerous places round around thatMediterranean for it were interesting. It won the cities by the delivery of regalia to it.
Pope Coelestin III. pursued meanwhile delaying tactics, with which it the Kaiserkönung to Easter (15. April 1191) postponed. This admitted Tankred time, its position in Siciliesstrengthen. After the coronation/culmination Heinrich VI. pulled. toward the south, in order to be able to be crowned in Palermo to the king of Sicilies. However it was stopped by the FE storage of the emperor-hostile city Neapel. In August 1191 there army broke an epidemic off in Heinrichs, on which itthe FE storage broke off. During the fights before Neapel Konstanze, which was in Salerno, was set imprisoned and brought first after Palermo, released then however again. Tankred used the retreat Heinrichs, in order to become generally accepted also in the mainland areas of the Normannenreiches.
In Germany Heinrich VI. had.argue with a large prince conspiracy, which expanded outgoing from the northwest to the south and endangered its German Königtum. At the point the Welfen stood, supported from the Normannen in Sicilies and England as well as from the Pope. Duke of Bernhard Unterstützung for the Aufständigen was important,over Saxonia and thus over one of the most important territories of Germany prevailed. 1192 died beyond that archbishop yielding man of Magdeburg, the most powerful allied one the Staufer in the northeast. After his return in German be enough appointed Heinrich VI. in January 1192 Reichstag after Worms. In Worms a new stage of the argument began with the Pope: Heinrich set on the vakant become bishop chair of Lüttich for Lothar von Hochstaden, while Coelestin let a brother of the duke of Brabant weihen. Heinrich forbade on it the German Kurie the establishment of contact with thatPope. Shortly thereafter the new Lütticher bishop was murdered. Heinrich was given the debt at this crime. At the same time the occurrences meant also new Konfliktpotenzial with the aristocracy in the west of Germany around from Lüttich. With the follow-up publicised by it Heinrich had VI. tried,to bring the emperor-sceptical aristocracy in this region under its control. Straight this attempt led however to new resistance under the guidance Cologne archbishop.
Heinrich VI. as
the English king „ lion heart becomes generally accepted smelling pool of broadcasting corporations “ on the return journey of the third crusadeby Germany, became he pulled 1193 of with Heinrich VI. allied Babenberger Leopold V. by Austria imprisoned taken and on the castle Dürnstein held. This procedure had arranged Heinrich before in Milan with the French king Philipp August. The capture solved in the ChristianWorld substantial indignation out, there Kreuzzugsheimkehrer the special protection of the church been subordinate. The prisoner was handed over first at Heinrich themselves, him on castle tri rock into the Pfalz arrested. In the spring 1193 it placed a demand for ransom: 100,000 Marks, which go to the half at Leopoldthe participation smelling pool of broadcasting corporations Löwenherz' at a campaign as well as should against Tankred. At the same time both Philipp August offered and Richards brother Johann without country, which had the regency in England, the payment of the ransom, if the king still another one year longer in shankwould remain. Heinrich VI. the business locked however with a third negotiation party: With Richards nut/mother Eleonore of Aquitanien, which up-brought the ransom. Smelling pool of broadcasting corporations committed itself to take England of the emperor as Lehen to pay an annual interest from 5.000 Pound to and Heinrich the loyalty oathto carry out as a leaning man. Thus smelling pool of broadcasting corporations for its Kingdom of England recognized the sovereignty of the emperor on. This did not have the advantage that he had won smelling pool of broadcasting corporations as Vasallen , for Heinrich thus any longer alone was dependent on France, at the same time however smelling pool of broadcasting corporations than independent English king received,that against France continued to fight, whereby also Philipp August was dependent as allied one on Heinrich. The emperor maneuvered himself thereby skillfully into a mediator position between England and France.
The capture Richards had already extracted the insurgent support English in the realm. In February 1194 becamethe conflict with the marriage ceremony of Heinrichs of the lion son of the same name with Agnes of Staufen, which beigelgt heiress of the rheinischen Pfalzgrafen Konrad von Staufen, finally. This event meant a large success of the Welfen in the West German area, since they verstetigten the territorial profit fast,by converting the Pfalzgrafenwürde from an imperial office to a territorial rule. In March Heinrich VI. closed. then also officially peace with Heinrich the lion.
Likewise in February Tankred in Sicilies had died. Of the young William III.and the widow of Tankred, dominant as Regentin, Sibylle,first no danger for Heinrich went out. The emperor used the weakness of the Normannen over, financed with the ransom for smelling pool of broadcasting corporations lion heart to start a campaign against Sicilies. Into November 1194 it drew in Palermo and became in the there cathedral Christmas (25. December 1194) to the king crowned by Sicilies. Heinrich VI. and with it the sex of the Staufer was on the high point of its power. Its realm extended in a broad strip from Denmark to Sicilies. England had recognized its sovereignty, did same the kingfar Armenia, the king of Cyprus and an Islamic Kalif in Spain. The normannische king treasure was brought to Germany, likewise the king family, which had been accused of a conspiracy against the emperor.
crusade plan and world realm idea
on Reichstag in Bari in March 1195 Heinrich VI. tried, successes of the previous yearto convert politically: Heinrichs Mrs. Konstanze should become the Regentin Siziliens, however beside the emperor-faithful governor Konrad von Urslingen, a noble-free. Also into other normannische administrative offices Ministeriale were used. Beyond that Heinrich used also in central Italy faithful one, among other things Markward of Annweiler in Bari and Heinrichs brother Philipp in the duchy Toscana and in the Mathildi goods. This procedure should connect Sicilies with upper Italy and include the Normannenreich inseparably into the realm group. Beyond that Heinrich seems rich and Sicily provided with modern administrative structures as new center of theRich in addition, pilotfish house power, to construct intended. Particularly in Sicilies the population reacted rejecting to „the foreign rule “to the German in administrative offices and Lehen.
On Reichstag von Bari announced also its crusade plan to Heinrich. Thus he pursued mehrer goals. So the crusade should Pope Coelestin III. hold to intersperse its stressed leaning sovereignty over Sicilies. Probably eschatologische conceptions played the central idea-historical role. According to this view understood yourself Heinrich or at least one successors from his house, who can be expected, as the peace emperor, the last emperor before the recent court. According to his time this peace emperor should unite conceptions the entire well-known world under its rule, which Jews to the Christianity bekehren and who defeat heaths. With the resignation of crown and Szepter on Golgatha the peace emperor would introduce thereafter the recent court.
Heinrich seems correspondinglarge-scale territorial politics to have pursued, on a large, which aimed entire Mediterranean re-clamping realm. Whether Heinrich these world realm plans of beginning of its rule to pursued or whether it this perspective opened only after conquest Siziliens, is disputed in the research. ThatCrusade was in this connection more than one campaign against the Muslims or a Pilgerfahrt after Jerusalem. It served rather for the durable integration the holy city into the rule area of the emperor. As a king of Sicilies Heinrich stressed beyond that in the meantime moslemischen territories, thoseonce under normannischer rule had confessed.
The Kalif of Tripoli and Tunis consented in view of these demands and the innermoslemischen threat by the Almohaden to tribute payments . Heinrichs expansion intentions were directed in addition, against formerly normannische areas under Byzantine rule. Still 1195 demanded envoys of the emperorin Byzanz a strip from Durazzo to Thessalonike as well as the supply of a fleet for the crusade. Shortly thereafter the fall opened Isaaks II. through its brother Alexios III.Heinrich the possibility of laying claim on completely Byzanz: Heinrichs brother Philipp married the verwitwete daughter-in-law of Tankred,a daughter Isaaks. Thus Heinrich VI. could. make themselves the defender of the rights of the fallen emperor. The Pope demanded however first the beginning of the crusade against the Muslims, so that Heinrich gave itself first with a tribute of the Byzantiner of 16 hundredweights gold annually contently.
Also the hereditary regulation for the realm served the preparation of the crusade. On the day after the coronation/culmination the Heinrichs VI. to the king of Sicily born later Friedrich II.designated Heinrich on Reichstag in Worms in December 1195 to its successor as a German king. At the same time scheduledit the departure to the crusade on next Christmas. In February 1196 Heinrich on the Mainzer suggested yard day the prince its hereditary realm plan, after which they lose their right to vote and which should become office for king hereditary. As return also the Reichslehen should become hereditary and forthe episcopacy the Spolien to be abolished. The princes contradicted this plan first, accepted it however after substantial threats Heinrichs in April on Reichstag in peppering castle. At the same time Heinrich negotiated with Coelestin, in order to attain a renouncement of the Pope of its right for emperor coronation/culmination. The Popein it and during these negotiations recalled also the princes in Erfurt did not get involved their agreement to nevertheless still finally agree around on Christmas 1196 and Friedrich II. to select to the king.
in former times death and decay of the realm
during the preparations of theCrusade, which should start with a large fleet in Messina, a large-scale conspiracy of the normannischen aristocracy became admits, the Heinrich VI. with the withdrawal of all imperial privileges and numerous executions punished. A Vorhut of the army under the line of the Mainzer of archbishop Konrad already was in lake stung, as Heinrich to 28. September 1197 at the age of 32 years died; possibly at malaria, which it had tightened itself in Neapel. Heinrich was buried in the cathedral by Palermo.
In Germany its in former times death became multiple entrusting ore. Otto von St. Blasien, the monk, which continued the chronicle of Otto von Freising, wrote: „The Germans in eternity may deplore its Hingang, because it has them raised by the treasures of the other countries, their name with the sword into the memory of the peoples entrenched, proved, howthey all are superior. By it the realm would be again in old gloss erblüht, if God had not recalled it. “
After Heinrichs death fallow pilotfishes realm rapidly together. To Sicilies its widow Konstanze for the only two-year Friedrich transferred the government. In Germany selectedpilotfish party men Philipp of Swabia, the Welfen Otto IV. by Braunschweig, the son Heinrichs of the lion, to the king. In Rome 1198 Innozenz mounted III.the Pope throne, which wanted to replace the world domination of the Staufer by the world domination of the papacy. In the same year diedKonstanze. In its will it used Innozenz as guardian of the young Friedrich.
See also: Reisekönigtum (ex. for the enormous travel activity Heinrichs VI. in the year 1193)
- Peter Csendes: Heinrich VI. (Shapes of the Middle Ages and the Renaissance), Darmstadt 1993.
- Joachim Ehlers: Heinrich VI., in: Bernd gumption Mueller and Stefan Weinfurter (Hgg.): The German rulers of the Middle Ages. Munich 2003, S. 258-271 and S. 582f. (Bibliografie).
- Odilo of angel: The Staufer. 8. Edition. Kohl hammer, Stuttgart 2005, ISBN 3-17-017997-7.
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Friedrich I. (Barbarossa)
list of the Roman-German rulers successor
Philipp of Swabia
Otto IV. by Braunschweig
person data NAME Heinrich VI. ALTERNATIVE NAME SHORT DESCRIPTION emperor of the holy Roman realm DATE OF BIRTH November 1165 PLACE OF BIRTH Nimwegen DYING DATE 28. September 1197 DYING PLACE Messina