Heinrich of the sailors

Heinrich of the sailors

Heinrich of the sailors (haven.: Infante cathedral Henrique o Navegador; * 4. March 1394 in postage; † 13. November 1460 in Sagres) was Infant (prince) of Portugal from the house advice.Of it initiated discovery travels along the westAfrican coast justified the Portuguese sea and colonial power and represent the beginning of the European expansion .

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biography

Heinrich was the fourth son of the Portuguese king Johann I. and his Mrs. Philippa von Lancaster, Bruder von Ferdinand the holy one and the Portuguese king Eduard I.. 1415 conquered a fleetunder its guidance the North African fortress Ceuta. But it was appointed the duke by Viseu. Starting from 1420 it (lay) was administrator of the Christ medal. Royal descent and its offices help it to considerable financial means, which it for promotionthe navigation used.1437 it kommandierte again a war course, in order to entreissen the Mauren Tanger, this time however unsuccessfully.

Heinrich initiated

the discovery travels as a governor of the Algarve starting from 1418 an ambitious program for the development of a sea route after India. However the “navigation school” is with its residence in Sagres an invention of later centuries, as the Portuguese mathematician and historian Duarte lead proved. In the sources mentioned only the cooperation of the Jewish Kartographen Jehuda Cresques is, mentionedMaster Jaime from Mallorca, - so the “Asia” of the Joao de Barros from that 16. Century - Portuguese sailors in its science informed. The prince numerous discovery travels compelled along the African coast with particularly a sailing boat developed for it, the Karavelle. The knowledge in navigation, cartography and shipbuilding, won thereby, was fundamental for all following Portuguese discovery travels. From the outset the Portuguese captains were obligated, all on their journeys gained and for navigation important experiencesand realizations in secret logs, roteiros, to hold. Up to the death of the Infanten more than 2,000 nautical miles of African territorial waters were driven on.

The prince preserved still medieval conceptions of a crusade with these enterprises against the Islam. He hoped,one can associate legendary, Christian priest king into Asia with the realm of the Johannes and at the same time attack Muslim powers of the east and the west. These conceptions yielded however already during its lifetimes commercial criteria. 38 years after Heinrichs deathits payments in advance led to the discovery of the sea route to India by Vasco Gama there, to the development of the spice route after Hinterindien and thus to the brief great power position of Portugal.

Heinrich did not undertake discovery journeys. Its surname it owes to its employment as a promoter thatNavigation. It was very well read and knew the reports in former times discovery travelers to Asia such as Marco Polo, William of Rubruk or the Arab world traveler Ibn Battuta. Over reports of the China traveler Niccolo di Conti it could also over the discovery travelsand the extraordinary Schiffbaukust of the Chinese under her admiral Zheng He knew.

important discoverer achievements under Heinrich the sailor

  • 1418 Wiederentdeckung of the island postage Santo by João Gonçalves Zarco , Bartolomeu Perestrelo and Tristão, belonging to larva Irish Republican ArmyVaz Teixeira .
  • 1420 the Portuguese lands on the actual Hauptinsel larva Irish Republican Army and decides approx. 1425 to settle the Inselgruppe.
  • 1422 Portuguese sailors advance over Cabo Nao, the frontier of the Arab navigation in the Atlantic, after the south.
  • 1427 thoseWiederentdeckung of the Azores is attributed Diogo de Silves, who probably goes on the return journey of an investigation travel into the Atlantic on the island Santa Maria ashore.
  • 1431 begin the settlement and colonizing the Azores under Gonçalo Velho Cabral.
  • 1434 captain Gil Eanes umsegelt for cape impassable held the Bojador.
  • 1435 the captains Gil Eanes and Afonso Gonçalves Baldaia discovers Angra DOS Ruivos and reaches the gold coast.
  • 1441 in Lagos become on Heinrichs instruction the first Karavellebuilt.
  • 1441 reaching cape blank (haven.: Cabo Branco) by Nuno Tristão and Antão Gonçalves.
  • 1444 driving on Senegal - the river by Nuno Tristão; in the same year Dinis slide passes the westernmost point of continental Africa, in today's Senegal the lain Cabo Verde, and discovers the Terra DOS Guineus, areas today's Guinea and Senegal.
  • 1444/45 establishment of the Companhia de Lagos, which receive the trade monopoly with Africa.
  • 1446 discovery the Gambia - of the river
  • 1446 a map of André Biancoa Portuguese investigation travel into the western Atlantic lets appear as possible.
  • 1455/1456 raid for Guinea - the coast and discovery of two of the Cape Verdian islands by the Venezianer Alvise Cadamosto in the service Heinrichs.
  • 1460 by the Genuesen Antonio there Noli andits brother Bartolomeo the investigation and settlement of the Kapverden take place.
  • The Portuguese the African coast to approximately today's Sierra Leone have 1460 with the death of the Infanten (approx. 8°N) as well as the Atlantic up to the Saragossasee (approx. 40°W) drive on.
Work on []

See also

to literature

  • lead, Duarte: O infante D. Henrique, in: Lead, Duarte, História DOS Descobrimentos, volume.1, Lisboa 1959, 67 - 265.
  • Randles, W.G.L., The Alleged Nautical School Founded into the Fifteenth Century RK Sagres by Prince Henry OF Portugal, Called the `navigator `, in: Imago Mundi, volume. 45 (1993), 20 - 28.
  • Marques, Alfredo Pinheiro: , Portugal and the discovery of the Atlantiks. Summary and chronology, o.O. (Lisbon), 1990.

Web on the left of

Portugal and the discovery of the new world of TravelWorldOnline

extensive one “international bibliography of the discoveries” (in Portuguese and English)


 

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