Helgoland

coat of arms map
Wappen von Helgoland Deutschlandkarte, Position von Helgoland hervorgehoben
choice and coat of arms saying
green is the country,
is red Kant',
white is the sand,
that is the colors of Helgoland.
Base data
Land of the Federal Republic: Schleswig-Holstein
circle: Pinneberg
geographical situation:
Coordinates: 54° 10 ′ 57 " N, 7°53 ′ 7 " O
54° 10 ′ 57 " N, 7° 53 ′ 7 " O
height: 61 m and. NN
surface: 1.7 km ²
inhabitants: 1.414 (31. March 2005)
Population density: 869 inhabitants for each km ²
office language: German, Friesisch
colloquial languages: Helgoländisch Halunder
of Lower Saxony flatly
postal zip codes: Place: 27498
p.o. boxes: 27483-27494
preselections: 04725
Kfz characteristics: Pi
municipality key: 01 0 56 025
municipality arrangement: Upper country, central country
and Unterland
address
of the local administration:
Lung Wai 28
27498 Helgoland
official Website: www.helgoland.de
E-Mail address:
Politics
Mayor: Franc Botter (SPD)

Helgoland (down-German for holy country, friesisch and Halunder (Deät) Lun and/or. Hålilönj, English Heligoland, with antique writers Abalus or Basileia mentioned) is of Germany furthest of the mainland removed North Sea- Island in the German bay.

Helgoland is part of the German economic area, belonged however neither to the customs territory of the European union nor to the German tax area.

Table of contents

Geografie

situation

of Helgoland, whose Hauptinsel as well as the neighbouring “beach island” dune forms a municipality in the circle Pinneberg in the Land of the Federal Republic Schleswig-Holstein, places those within the German baynorthwest delimitation of the Helgoländer bay and is appropriate for about 70 km far away from the mainland. Both islands lie in the protected area Helgoländer rock base.

Helgoland, which consists approximately 1.0 km of that ² large Hauptinsel as well as that about 0.7 km ² large dune,about 70 km are appropriate southwest for the south point from Sylt, 43 km west the west coast the oath first EDT - peninsula, 62 km northwest the Elbe delta, 55 km northwest the coast of Lower Saxony with Cuxhaven, 43 km north of Wangerooge, 70 km northeast northeast from Norderney and 95 km from Borkum. The exact situation of Helgoland is 54°11' northern latitude and 7°53' eastern length.

Hauptinsel

historical map Helgolands
admission of the satellite Landsat-7 of NASA

The Hauptinsel from Helgoland becomes into the upper country, which partitions central country and the Unterland. It possesses a small Nichtbadestrand in the south and in the north and falls down in the north, the west and southwest in steep cliffs well 50 m to the seaoff; in the sea the area in the southwest in the Helgoländer basin to 56 m under NN drops . At the northwest end of the Hauptinsel is the well-known landmark Helgolands - the long Anna.

dune

the neighbouring island duneReede, which is divided into north and Südreede , is only about 1.5 kilometers east the helgoländischen Hauptinsel beyond the small meeresstrasse. It becomes as so-called. Bath island marks and/or. as a flat beach island and was in former times connected with Helgoland.

high sea-island

Helgoland is often called of “ Germany only high sea-island “, what according to the definition of high sea is only legally seen correct. Geographically regarded it must be noted that Helgoland on “on open ocean”, nothowever within deep sea - the range like e.g. in the Atlantic lies.

geology

geological emergence of the rock island

carousing A SEa in the outgoing earth antiquity

the geologically relevant history of the emergence Helgolands begins approximately 260 million years ago.Thus the emergence Helgolands in the outgoing earth antiquity begins, more exactly in the geological age Permian. Into Zechstein beginning, the second department Permian, it came in such a way on the Urkontinent Pangäa to sea break-downs into Europe and America and toPenetrate the arctic sea in the area today's Central Europe. The region Helgolands lay in this carousing in sea, in the so-called.Elbe trough. Due to the arid climate the water evaporated however again with the time and left limes, dolomites, anhydrites and salts as evaporation arrears, so-called. Evaporite, which in north Germans the area as carousing in of sediments examined and were determined.

for Helgoland

most important found rock formation in the earth Middle Ages

Helgoland on an old postcard in the early earth Middle Ages rock-forming processinstead of. The decomposition of the variskischen mountains in the surrounding mainland dominated tropical and subtropical climate the dominant at the beginning of the Trias. The climate favours a lateritische decomposition, which in the final product high iron - and aluminum contents shows. The oxidation of these decomposition productsleads to a strong red coloration of the typical new red sandstone sediments in Central Europe.

In the new red sandstone large quantities of the decomposition material from the high countries were cleared away and sedimentiert in more deep-seated regions. In the area Helgolands have these deposits a power of more than 1000 M.They form the visible part of the today's rock island.

Also in the following earth-history department shelly limestone was the area Helgolands sedimentation area. The deposits from this time have a power of more than 300 M. A large number of fossil finds occupiesbesides the favorable living conditions at this time. Thus different fish, sea mammals, shells and snails were found.

Also from 140 million years ago the chalk time beginning are in the Helgoländer area sediment layers to be found. In this time was the entireNorth Sea area sea area. Within the marine range a rich Flora and fauna formed under warm and damp climate conditions, so that the chalk layers are extremely fossil-rich today.

salt ascent in the Tertiary period

aerial photograph (approx. 1890 - 1900)

large power thatSediment layers in the North Sea area - already in the Mesozoikum - are also in the fact justified that the North Sea area was lowering area. Thus even new red sandstone and Tertiary period knew these lowering areas again and again of the decomposition material shipped from the mountains in the flatter seasare filled up. Under the pressure of the supporting material the underlying layers solidified themselves increasingly.

In the direct connection with this solidification and thus the increase of the density as well as the pressure on the lower layers is also lifting the Helgoländer of new red sandstone rock outto see.

In the course of the time the layers of the Trias, the chalk settled as well as Tertiary period over the by-mixed salt rocks in the earth Middle Ages. Each new sedimentation layer had also as a consequence that the sediments by the load that, under-storing in each caseover-storing sediments were continued to solidify and consolidated.

The down-lying salt rocks can be consolidated however only up to a density of maximally 2.2 g/cm ³. With increasing depth and thus with increasing pressure the Dichtewert of a layer increases, so that itin the range of the carousing A SALTs to an anomaly of density came. The salt rock reacted plastic to the ever stronger pressure and was inclined to it, preferentially at weakness zones, how distortions, to ascend in order to arrive in such a way at a pressure relief. With the ascent it comes in addition,to the fact that the resting upon layers become go along above. One speaks with this phenomenon of salt cushions, in whose vertex range Helgoland is.

The upbulging of the new red sandstone as well as the further layers by the ascent of the salt (salt tectonics) becomes also in thattoday's tectonic structure Helgolands visibly. The vertex of the salt structure runs from northwest (north northwest - NNW) after southeast (south southeast - SSO). This indicates the coating direction of the supporting surface layers, which at the abrasions - platforms in the northern rock Watt to recognize are. ThoseLayers were tilted with the upbulging, so that today an inclination the new red sandstone rock from about 17 to 20° is to be recognized. Thus we find layers showing upward at the west side Helgolands, while the layers at the eastern side afterdown show.

over coinage of the again-developed rock island in the quart acre

starting point of the over coinage in the quart acre is the climatic degradation in the outgoing Tertiary period. Three large freezing up led into the northCentral European area to a strong change of the landscape.

During that Elster ice age (before approximately 480,000 to 300,000 years) and the Saale ice age (before approximately 280,000 to 130,000 years) were seized also Helgoland of the Vergletscherung, about which deposited Geschiebelehme until today witnessed. Penetrating the ice might in this time also to onestrong demolition of the elevated and tilted layers up to an opening of the salt structure within the range of the Görtels pre-aged west. The sea penetrating between the cold times contributed of far to the abrasion these layers.

Only be enough after the end for thatlast cold time Helgoland in the course of the rising sea level began to separate before approximately 3500 to 4000 years from the mainland to after it was connected long time by a land bridge running west with the mainland of Central Europe before.

Today's island form

natural changes

Helgoland (in front) and dune from the bird perspective

the main arranging natural forces, which affect the rock island, are the decomposition as well as the abrasion by sea the surf.

With the decomposition particularly is the cool winter climate of importance. Cold weather promotes the physical decomposition of the rock. The frost effect fissured and zersprengt the rock and promotes rock debris as decomposition remainder to day, which is angelagert at the foot of the cliffs. Here the cliff is slowly back-pushedand so the island makes smaller.

Typically for Helgoland was here also the emergence of rock projections/leads (horns) with intermediate bays (Slaps). In the course of the time and under further influence of the weather and sea these projections/leads of breaking gates can broken through, the rock towers (stacks), individual with the collapse of the elbow connection, are left. The “Hengst”, today as a long Anna designation, is the only one with a height of well 48 m a such stack, and, which held themselves until today.

Anthropogene changes

the first human interferences on Helgoland are to be due to the production of raw materials. So that could do so-called. Helgoländer Kupfererz in the new red sandstone to be proven. Here it concerns Rohkupfer in secondary stores, i.e., these are Remainder occurrences, which accumulated in the Helgoländer region in consequence of the relocation of deposit material from the variskischen mountains of the earth antiquity. Also small iron ore portions could be proven here. From an before-historical use the remainders one discovered before the south port witness Melting furnace.

From greater importance however the shelly limestone was - and gypsum dismantling at the joke cliff at that time starting from the Middle Ages. This dismantling contributed to a rapid destruction the steep rock, which was so unstable 1720/finally 1721 that it one Storm tide any longer to withstand did not know.

Further raw material folder ions remained unsuccessful, so that over the occurrences of fossil fuels within the range Helgolands can be met so far no further data.

Preventive measures continued to change the shape of the island: Up to the beginning 20. Century was the rock island unprotected and had to register a high surface loss annually by abrasion and decomposition.

To the end 19. Century began in the course of an increasing land development planning for an effective breaking and Sturmflutschutz. These planning was advanced by a strongmilitary use of the island. Thus in the year 1903 with the building of a Schutzmauer on that more strongly and break-endangers west side already weather begun, which was finished 1927. In the further process also the north and the east of the Hauptinsel became inthe preventive measures included, which were the basis for the development of the east country. Later also the dune was referred into the preventive measures.

Against the further progressing decomposition however also the Schutzmauern cannot protect. Of it the decomposition debris at the base witnesses to that Steilküsten, which is angelagert to to the Schutzmauern already in parts. If this was away-carried in former times still by the storm tides, then it accumulates today at the retaining walls. Due to this development Helgoland becomes no longer smaller surface-moderately, but threatens nowit in the long term under the debris cones of the decomposition, which itself slowly begrünen to sink.

The last important and to today salient interference into the shape of the island took place during and after the Second World War: To 18. April 1945the submarine at that time - base was a goal of a substantial air raid of the Englishmen, that used the island in the subsequent years as training target for the British Air Force. From bombardments the Bombenkrater in the today's upper country witnesses.

Two years later, to 18. April 1947, all military plants on and under the island should be destroyed as well as old ammunition existence , in order to make so a further use Helgolands from military view impossible in a breakup. The breakup of approx. Those shook 4000 tons of ammunitionIsland with its base into a depth of several kilometers and led to a lasting change of its appearance (closer to it in the section military meaning).

history

early period and antique one

earliest culture-pure on Helgolandgo back into the Jungsteinzeit ; on the upper country several hill graves are proven. A land connection to the mainland, existing in former times , already is due to the after-ice-age sea level rise before 4000 v. Chr. broken off.

From the antique one are us only few messages over Northern Europedelivered. But in natural history Plinius D. Older ones that becomes repeated report on a journey of the Pytheas of Massilia (325 v., today any longer not received. Chr.) quotes. In the following passage in the text the speech is obvious by Helgoland:

Pytheas indicates, a Germanic people,the Guionen, lives at a Versumpfung of the ocean,… a day's journey from there lies the island Abalus; there the amber in spring by the waves one float and is actually a run elimination the lake; the adjacents resident used itinstead of wood to the fire and sold it to the neighbouring Teutonen. Timaeus is correct it therein, however the island calls Basileia. “

the Middle Ages

in 7. Century was Helgoland inhabited of Friesen. it handed 700 over a reporta stay of the Friesenherrschers Radbod on Helgoland in the holy legend of bishop Willibrord von Utrecht, in whom it reports on the friesische divinity Forseti. Willibrord tried between 690 and 714 in vain to missionieren the Helgoländer Friesen.

The Christianisierung succeeded onlyTo destroy and chieftain son Landicius to the priest left 100 years later by bishop Luidger von Münster, the all Heiligtümer Forsetis weihte to the Helgoländer. Thus also the other Insulaner found to the Christianity. Thus Helgoland was missioniert in former times as adjacent regions. Customerfrom the earlymedieval holy country gives also Adam of Bremen to his res gestae from the year 1076.

Frequently Helgoland is brought also with the Piraterie in connection. Klaus Störtebeker and its Likedeeler used the island as base, until in the year 1402 a Hamburg naval force in close proximity to Helgoland Störtebeker in a sea-battle to take prisoner could. Whether this entered the island however ever, is not occupied.

Like the remaining Nordfriesland Helgoland arrived in 12. and 13. Century under the DanishCrown and applied for 14 starting from that. Century as part of the duchy Schleswig. During the landing hurrying of 1544 Helgoland was first surveyed, awarded then however by lot decision to the duke by Schleswig Holstein Gottorf. To 1713/21 the island belonged to this duchy inDuchy. It had the status of a landscape with a high degree at autonomy.

early modern times

1720 destroyed a storm tide the Woal, the promontory between the red new red sandstone rock of the Hauptinsel and the joke cliff lain east, lime rock, its demolition by the North Sea due to there to in 17. Century of claimant quarry was accelerated. Over the remaining cliffs the dune island important for the today's bath enterprise formed.

As the duchy Schleswig Holstein Gottorf after the large one Nordi war 1713 and 1721 to its holsteinischen regions and without the schleswigschen possessions to do had, became Helgoland a component of a to a large extent uniform duchy Schleswig under the Danish crown was finally reduced.

During the continental barrier - 1806 by Napoleon against Englandordered - Helgoland developed to a lively smuggling place.

British troops

the island occupied and integrated British rule 1807 them as colony in Great Britain .

In peacetime of Kiel 1814 Helgoland remained with the British (see History of Denmark). The seaside resort Helgoland became 1826 of J. A. Siemens based. Many writers and intellectual one came on the island. The publisher Campe made regularly on the island summer vacation. Heinrich Heine praised the island; important was also Ludolf Wienbargs Helgolandbuch. The poet Hoffmann von Fallersleben made on Helgoland vacation and sealed here 1841 the Germany song after one „for merry Besäufnis “. In the Helgoländer original there was still the variant to the third Strophe: Knock against and calls unanimously: Highlythe German native country!

In former times high point of the popularity of the island as destination were the fifties 19. Century.

1864 found sea-combat between Austria and Denmark before Helgoland instead of (see to sea-combat before Helgoland (1864)).

transitionfrom Great Britain at Germany

parade for transfer Helgolands at Germany
map of Helgoland around 1910

1890 ignored Helgoland in the Helgoland Sansibar contract from Great Britain to the German Reich (and there to the Kingdom of Prussia), for which Great Britain before the coastthe German East Africa at that time lying island Sansibar received, and/or. the German Reich did even without its requirements on the sultanate Sansibar and on other rights in East Africa. The population did not call it “button against trousers”, with which she expressed her opinion, thereonly the size, but also the fertility of both islands are very different. The Helgoländer was not asked for its opinion. Already soon their living conditions changed, since ever larger parts of their homeland were removed to a sea-fortress.

Into thatWaters Helgolands first sea-combat at Helgoland 1914 as well as second sea-combat took place at Helgoland 1917 during the First World War. The population was evacuated briefly after outbreak of war and could return only 1918 again.

The military plants were back-built, butdoes not destroy, and after the seizure of power of the national socialists again developed.

after the Second World War

1945 the island was after a devastating bombardment of the British Air Force to 18. April uninhabitable and was evacuated. After the Second World Warif the island was militarily used by the British, see to section military meaning. The evacuated Helgoländer proved co-operation and started different political initiatives to up to straight Federal Government stepped into the office. In March 1948 the UN was asked for assistance.Appeals to the Pope and the British House of Commons followed. After the Bundestag had demanded the release of the island in January 1951 unanimously, the Englishmen at the 1 gave. March 1952 Helgoland the Federal Republic of Germany back. One permitted to the population,to return their island. After the reconstruction in the uniform style there the tourism and the cure enterprise flower to the time, see section tourism.

1962 became Helgoland nationally recognized North Sea therapeutic bath.

military meaning

emperor Wilhelm II.Helgoland left,the close of the delta created anew of at that time, economically and strategically important emperor William channel (today: ) Is appropriate for northeast ship canal, to a naval base develop. This military function had the sea-fortress Helgoland also still in the Second World War; it reached its high point with the enterprise lobster shears, from which the today's northeast area resulted.

That particularly by the British high military meaning was attached to the island is from the fact readable that the island in the Second World War and afterwards an important war goal were. To 15. October 1944 furnishedally air raid particularly in the Unterland large damage on. It followed to 18. April 1947 the unsuccessful attempt of the Englishmen to blow up the island - to today largest non-nuclear breakup of history. Approximately 4000 torpedo heads, nearly 9000 depth charges and over91,000 shells of most diverse caliber, altogether 6700 tons explosive, were stacked in the tunnel labyrinth of the submarine shelter and with the coastal batteries; punctually at 13 o'clock was released the enormous explosion by board of the Kabellegers „leaving “. An enormous fire jet and one nearly thousandsMeters high smoke column shot into the sky. The destruction of the island failed. The explosions cleared away large quantities of rock, so that beside the upper and Unterland the central country developed again. Finally Helgoland remained military restricted area and training ground for the British Air Forceup to the return of the island to the Federal Republic of Germany in the year 1952.

Today the German navy on Helgoland operates among other things a SAR - rescue helicopter base. There the SAR-10-Kommando is stationed.

climate

Helgoland has a very healthy high sea-climate.It is almost poll-free and thus ideal for Allergiker. The island has even the wintermildeste climate of Germany; Winter lowest temperatures of deeper than −5 °C are rare. The gulf-currentwarmed up North Sea works as heat accumulator. Because of the high sea-situation becomes the cold northeast and/or.East winds from Russia weakened, the winter temperatures can lying up to 10 °C more highly than for example in Hamburg. Springs are quite cool, the Herbste are often still quite warm and last longer. Helgoland points more sun hours than the GermanMainland up.

Already at the beginning 20. Century stood stately regularly fruit-end figs on the island. This very day a very old Maulbeerbaum stands from this time in the upper city. Auspflanzversuche with hemp palms, honey palms and other palms as well as other one upthe German mainland or does not only cause winter-hard subtropical plants (laurel, Yucca, Cordyline, stone oak and other one) since the eighties 20. Century successfully ran.

tourism

the “long Anna
Helgoland Katamaran at the jetties in Hamburg
Cat No1 Katamaran am Norderneyer Anleger
Cat No1 Katamaran at the Norderneyer investor

Helgoland is a nationally recognized sea-therapeutic bath. About 2000 beds are available in private accomodation, pensions and hotels.
Geological objects of interest are among other things the “long Anna“and the Lummenfelsen. The Hauptinsel pre-aged and dune which can be reached by ferry is a preferential goal that holiday-maker, who does not only stay as daily tourists on Helgoland and “flees” before the daily tourist crush there. On the dunedivide the bathers on some days the beach with some sea-dogs and cone seals, which put their shyness down to a large extent opposite humans. Nevertheless caution is required, because they remain non domestizierte animals, which to become very uncomfortable to be able, if onethem too close comes. It is therefore advisable to hold appropriate distance. On the dune also the small airfield ( airfield Helgoland dune) is, from which in approximately 20 to 30 minutes the German mainland can be achieved.

For resuming information to the tourism on the dune see dune tourism.

A tourist attraction unique in Germany is debarking from the ferries to the jetty. This is necessarily, there the port not sufficient place for up to ten the Seebäderschiffeoffers. The fast Katamaranfähren, which heads for the south port directly, forms an exception and which typical daily tourist brings for example from Borkum and north dyke/ Norderney to Helgoland, in addition, between Hamburg and the island operate and so the everyday life thatInhabitants substantially facilitate.

In the winter season from October to March the few Seebäderschiffe head for likewise directly the south port. Debarking would be not particularly delightful and depending upon weather also too dangerous in this season. In the winter season it givesalso only a regular shipping connection to the mainland; this guarantees at present, on the basis of Cuxhaven, the Funny Girl several times weekly.

Further well 400 m of the old underground and several kilometers are are enough for bunkers and shelter in guidance accessibly. DetailsNumber and length of the underground courses on the island are still unknown.

A building worth seeing is the pc. - Nicolai church on the upper country with some old and new artistic equipments.

Not as object of interest meant, but with nautical interest worth seeing, is the largest Seenotkreuzer of the DGzRS, the “Hermann Marwede “, as well as example of a SWATH of the pilot tenders (alternating “Duhnen” and “box”).

In an expenditure of the transmission ingenious beside it one stated, there would be a pedestrian traffic light at the beach of Helgoland,to the landing private airplanes setting forwards to warn is. This corresponds to the facts.
The traffic light at the airport

economics

the population Helgolands lives today to a large extent on incomes from the tourism. On Helgoland there is still Duty free - Shops.Besides there are crafts enterprises and since 1892 a world-wide outstanding research establishment: the biological institute Helgoland (BAH). This investigates the bases of the life in the sea with emphasis in the North Sea and in the Wattenmeer. Since 1998 the BAH belongs to the institute for Alfred way hefor polar and exploration of the sea (AWI) with seat in Bremerhaven. A further research establishment is the bird control room Helgoland, which was in former times part of the BAH. Due to the destruction on Helgoland it took its head office to 1947 in Wilhelmshaven and is called now Institut forBird research „bird control room Helgoland “. The bird control room on Helgoland is today a branch office of this institute.

Various driving connections to the mainland and to other islands, so for example daily to Bremerhaven, exist not Cuxhaven , Büsum as well as after Wilhelmshaven, Amrum, Wyk on Föhr and Sylt, by which a only one (every two days after Cuxhaven) by the shipping company Cassen Eils is operated also in the winter.

politics

flag of Helgoland

the island Helgoland form oneoffice-free municipality in the circle Pinneberg (Schleswig-Holstein).

flag

green is the country, red is those Kant, white is the sand.
Those are the colors of Helgoland. “

languages

beside the standard German andalso the Halunder nordfriesischen dialect, many above all older Helgoländer also still flat German control Helgoländisch mentioned, their own , and/or. Of Lower Saxony.

With Landesgesetz of 24. December 2004 became Friesisch apart from German office language on Helgoland.

See also: Friesen Droapen

work on []

Buildings

Helgoländer point-to-point radio tower
Helgoländer lighthouse

on Helgoland is a point-to-point radio tower of very unusual building method. It is implemented as steel framework construction with triangular cross section, which is still additionally secured with Pardunen. In direct proximity to the point-to-point radio tower the lighthouse stands on thatUpper country. In the Second World War as Flakturm and/or. Flakleitstand conceived building 1952 as lighthouse in enterprise was taken and possesses the brightest German fire with a consequence of 42 nautical miles, so that the ray of light at clear nights up tothe ostfriesischen islands to constitute is. In the lower two floors of the lighthouse at present the cold war an atomic shelter was built; the illusory windows in these floors were attached only for stylistic reasons.

sport

at the Pfingstwochenende finds everyoneYear the North Sea week, Germany largest Segelregatta for Tourensegler in the North Sea, instead of.

At the end of July/at the beginning of of August takes place since 2003 the Störtebeker Opti Cup , a Regatta for optimists.

In the context of the general enthusiasm at the perseverance sport becomes on Helgoland annually Marathon race organizes, to which some hundred eventhungrige sportsmen travel on the island. In addition the VFL Fosite Helgoland offers still another large offer of kinds of sport. In the summer annually a Beachvolleyball takes place - tournament.

traffic

except of thoseby StVO § 35 rescue forces equipped with special rights (in case of Helgolands emergency service, police (of bicycles), customs office and fire-brigade) 50 motor vehicles or bicycles may not be led on Helgoland after StVO §. This “Helgoland paragraph” is unique in Germany. For childrenand young person gives it during the winter months a special permission to the federal state government.

other

  • Helgoland corresponds almost perfectly to the description of the island in the North Sea, on which charm-suppl.-catch-sneeze yourself Askaban from the Harry Potter - universe finds.
  • Werner Heisenberg developedinto the 1920ern during a Helgoland stay fundamental ideas of its theory about the quantum mechanics, which contains the Heisenberg uncertainty relation; Gedenkstein on the upper country reminds of it.
  • the child book author James Krüss is born Helgoländer. In May 2006 a James Krüss museum is on the islandare opened.

literature

  • Albert Panten: Helgoland in the Middle Ages. Helgoland 2002
  • Erich Lüth: Helgoland, the indestructible island. Ullstein TB-Vlg., B. 1984, ISBN 3548204244
  • Thorsten Berndt: Helgoland - opinions of a high sea-island. S/W book of pictures ISBN 3-529-02777-4
  • Thomas Willke: Again lobsters before Helgoland. Picture of the science 7/2005, S. 20-25 (2005), ISSN 0006-2375
  • Wendula Dahle: Helgoland - the travel and reader for the island. Edition Temmen 2001, ISBN 3-861-08490-2
  • James Krüss: My great-grandfather and I

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