|of these articles concerns itself with the historical epoch. For the neopaganistische movement of the same name see light sneezing MOS (religion).|
The term brightism (of griech. bright sneezing MOS = Griechentum) the historical epoch of the accession Alexanders of the large one of Macedonia designates 336 v. Chr.up to the incorporation of the last diadochus realm into the Roman realm 30 v. Chr, in which the antique Greek culture spread until to India. In this sense it became first of the German historian Johann Gustav Droysen around the center19. Century uses; the term bright sneezing MOS (in the sense of imitation of the Greek one) is however already antique origin.
Table of contents
Resuming information to this topic: History of theBrightism
after death Alexanders rose its prominent generals, the diadochi in such a way specified, to local ruling powers; a reunification of the Alexanderreiches appeared at the latest 301 v. Chr. offering no prospects, as Antigonos I. Monophthalmos in the battle of Ipsos its rival was subject.The so-called.Diadochus fights for Alexanders inheritance ended to finally 281 v. Chr. after altogether six wars with the dispatching of Macedonia and parts of Greece at Antigonos (the master father of the Antigoniden), Syria, Mesopotamiens and Persia at Seleukos I. (the master father that Seleukiden) as well as Egypt at Ptolemaios (the master father of the Ptolemäer) and the education of three appropriate large realms.
Thereby it came to a temporary stabilization of the political situation, before the dissolution features progressed again and Rome began to interfere into the conflicts,so in particular in Greece and in the conflict of the Seleukiden with the Ptolemäern around Palestine: Antiochos III. became 188 v. Chr. from the Romans in a forced manner to the renouncement of parts of its realm, during also Philipp V.of Macedonia a restricting of itsScope of action in Greece to accept had. In Iran, up to then under seleukidischer control, spread since that 3. Century v. Chr. part ago out, around 141 the v. Chr. also Mesopotamien in possession took and the Seleukiden on an insignificant remainder stateSyria limited, as inheriting the brightistic tradition presented themselves however completely.
168 v. Chr. Macedonia, after the defeat of the son Philipps V., was divided Perseus, by the Romans into four districts and 148 v. Chr.finally into oneRoman province transforms.64 v. Chr. with the conquest of Syria by Pompeius the remainders of the Seleukidenherrschaft were erased, 30 v. Chr. with the income of Alexandria by Oktavian the Ptolemäerreich, since that 2. Century v. Chr. not many more thana Roman protectorate represented, included in the Imperium.
The political history of the brightism, and so that also, ended to the political Selbstständigkeit of Greek states thus, while the cultural radiant emittance of the brightism into late ancient times remained (see also Byzantine realm).
general characteristics of the epoch
of the brightism re-clamped an enormous area: Of Sicilies and Unteritalien (Magna Graecia) and Greece until India, of the black sea until Egypt. Also in Baktrien the Greeks settled andthere established the Gräko baktrische realm in such a way specified, which went down only after scarcely two centuries. Emphasis of the actions during the brightism was however the eastern Mediterranean area, even if the Seleukiden tried again and again to stabilize their eastern possessions in Persia(see Antiochos III.).
The time after 280 v. Chr. a cultural bloom time, in which mathematics , philosophy and art unfolded , was particularly, but not only, in Alexandria. In the brightistic states however always were the Greeks themselvesin the minority. It came again and again to conflicts with the native population, whereby it concerned however rather a social problem, since the indigene population was rather insufficiently taken part in executive functions and therefore hardly opportunities for advancement had; to generalize leavesitself this statement anyhow not. Stepped besides ever more internal dissolution features to day, accompanied from a decay of the Regierungsgewalt. At the same time it did not succeed to the brightistic states to create a mode vivendi.
Characteristic of this historical epoch is the Hellenisierung: thosePenetration above all the Orients by the Greek culture and in response the influence of eastern culture on the Greeks. The Greek was at this time world language, the Koiné in such a way specified (of koínos = generally).
Is particularly well readablethis at the brightistic Judentum, from which by the writings Philos and Josephus exist' like also the deuterokanonischen writings of the Bible a larger source collection. At them is visible, like itself an eastern cult like the Judentum (on very differentWay) with Greek thinking and Greek language connected and thus a world religion developed. This however partly happened in the conflict with the brightistic rulers (see Antiochos IV.).
The Hellenisierung of the eastern population ensured for the fact that still until far in the Middle Agesinside at least the urban population of Syria and small Asia Greek spoke (Egypt forms thereby a special case).
Thus the Greeks broke it off of the close area of the Polis and came to a first globalization. The cultural traditions actually outlastedthe brightism and still centuries worked the political collapse in Rome and in the Byzantine realm away.
rule and administration
of the brightistic rulers
the Alexandernachfolge stood for society and culture [work on] on two columns, (διαδοχή, diadochē) on the one and the acclamation by the armies on the other side. The states existed thereby not independently of their system of government, the kings were not kings of Syria, but kings in Syria. The Königtum was not nationalOffice, but a personal became conceptual, the monarch did not see the state not distinguished from it as his affair (see. Polybios 5, 41). The whole conquered country was theoretical in the possession of the king, why these it also by will to a strange poweras could convey the Romans. There was thus in the diadochus realms no separation between sovereign and person.
The person cult, which had developed around Alexander, was promoted by the diadochi, in order to legitimize so their own powerful position. The ritual admirationthe brightistic rulers however at least first not by them one promoted, but from the outside by „the free “pole ice of Greece to it one near-carried. The rulers were called however for the time being only „“. Only 304 v. Chr. designated the Rhodier Ptolemaios I.as God and called it σωτήρ (Sōtēr, „rescuers “). It remains noting that the diadochi accepted rather zögerlich such cult actions referred to it, while the following brightistic kings forced this ruler cult consciously.
The diadochi and their successors governedwith the help of written decrees, which were formulated as letters (ἐπιστολή, epistolē ) or regulations (πρόσταγμα, prostagma ). For these decrees responsible officials was called epistoliagraphos. The ruler of a committee from friends ( φίλοι, philoi) was advised and used (συγγενεῖς, syngeneis).Different offices for yard in particular within the fiscal range held Eunuchen . The most important man beside the king was a house supervisor (διοικητής, dioikētēs), who was responsible for economics, finances, administration, army and foreign policy. During one already at present the diadochi of oneto speak the typically brightistic ruler cult knows, began absolutist state only among its successors. The rule form of the diadochi won crucial influence on the younger Greek Tyrannis, the Karthager and the Roman Kaisertum.
Future generations affected also the administrationthat diadochus realms. It was organized and by tenured civil servants was organized centralistic. This bureaucracy was not an invention of the Greek Poliskultur, but stood in the tradition of the achaimenidischen and the pharaonischen realm. Comparable gave it in the antique Greece only in thatprivate-economical estate administration. Like the employees of a property of its owner, then were the officials of the diadochi dependent on their ruler, who used her, paid, carried and dismissed. The administration of the diadochi put the foundation-stone for the feinziselierte and personnel-intensive bureaucracythe brightistic time, whereby native officials were certified to higher offices however hardly. These were usually occupied by Makedonen or Greeks.
The territorial structure that diadochus realms decreases/goes back still on Alexander the large one even. Of strategists and Satrapen governed king country covered thereby the largest part of the Alexanderreiches. Alexander had handed the military powers of the native Satrapen to Macedonian strategist over, whom after his death gradually the entire clerical work of its gaus (νομοί, nomoi) took over. The strategists were now alsoresponsibly for the housing settlement and the law. The king knew parts into districts (τόποι, topoi) and villages (κώμαι, kōmai) subdivided king country or the income from it as Lehen assigned. Their final form found the gau administration however only in the process of the third pre-Christian century.
The external possessions, which did not belong to the king country with its gau structure, formed their own territorial type. To the external possessions of the Ptolemäerreiches Kyrene , parts of Syria , Cyprus and the coasts of the red one and the Indian sea belonged. It been subordinate likewise strategists. In the Seleukidenreich the external possessions were organized somewhat differently, them became depending upon size and political system than peoples (ἔθνη, ethnē), cities (πόλεις, pole ice) or kingdoms (δυναστεία, dynasteia) designates. These enclaves, not under more directStood for administration of the diadochus ruler, remained in this form up to the end of the brightism existing. Some of it made themselves however in the course of the time independently, in particular at the periphery of the Seleukidenreiches.
army and warfare
Was of fundamental importance for the diadochus realms the army. Itcan be divided in principle in three large groups: the Macedonian guard (ἄγημα, agēma), which of Hopliten and riders consisted, the Greek-Macedonian Phalanx from heavily armed ones and an increasing number of foreign mercenaries. Apart from the national defense it fulfilled in particular to four ofthe Macedonian army meeting (ἐκκλησία πάνδημος, ekklēsia pandemos) taken over tasks: proclaiming or confirmation of a king (acclamation), the order of guardians for minor kings, the acknowledgment of royal wills and the condemnation of political opponents as state criminals. In the diadochus time omittedother Ptolemaios the Eumenes, Kassandros the Olympias and finally Antigonos I.the Kassandros of the army condemn. At this time the still very large influence of the army decreased/went back however ever more, only the garrisons of the capitals could latertheir will to the political guidance force upon. The military commander in chief (χιλίαρχος, chiliarchos) nevertheless remained the second man in the state beside dioikētēs.
An estimate of the size of these armies made possible among other things Appian, which reports, the Ptolemäerreich has over 200.000Foot soldier, 40,000 riders, 300 war elephants, 2,000 chariot, 1,500 large and 2,000 small warships orders. However the exact numbers are hardly to be determined, since the antique historians in this regard often exaggerated. Nevertheless no doubt about the fact can exist that thosebrightistic armies, compared to which was enormous armies of the classical time, (Lit.: see. Small encyclopedia of the brightism, S. 492f.). The number data for the battles of Ipsos (301 v. Chr.), Raphia (217 v.Chr.) and magnesia (190 v.Chr.) might howeverquite realistically its.
The use of war elephants decreases/goes back on Seleukos , which held 500 Indian elephants in Apameia. In addition camels, armored riders (κατάφρακτοι, were used kataphraktoi ) and FE storage machines, whereby the FE storage technology made enormous progress.
Important impulses for the war navy gave Demetrios Poliorketes, the son of the Antigonos, which let enormous capital ships with up to sixteen rows of Ruderern build. The unusual speed of the size growth of the warships in the diadochus time becomes clear, if one considers that the largest ships thatEuphrates fleet Alexanders of the large one only five rows possessed. Already at present the battle of Ipsos 301 v. Chr. Demetrios let dreizehnreihige ships build however. The sechzehnreihige Hekkaidekere (ἑκκαιδεκήρης) marked then the high point of the ship development aligned to practical utilizable value.Late of the Ptolemäern built twenty, thirty and vierzigreihigen ships were against it probably pure show pieces which were built only in very small numbers of items.
The diadochi already had a standing army, which was mobile and constantly operational. Itin times of war by a large number of military settlers (κάτοικοι κληροῦχοι, katoikoi klēruchoi) were supplemented, those by Seleukos in cities, by Ptolemaios in villages were settled. With the system of the military settlers the brightistic rulers struck two flies with a flap: Toto one the pay could be paid off totally or partly with the yields of the country cultivated by the soldiers in peacetime, on the other hand was it in this time agricultural worker and thus taxpayer, who the fully developed administration and the constant warsalong-financed. The military settlers were usually Greek immigrants and built their again-created cities themselves. However quite also mercenaries were enlisted and only isolated, first, integrated in later time regularly, native troops into the Phalanx.
The diadochus realms operated a regular economic policy. In the Ptolemäerreich papyrus finds suggest a genuine national planned economy. The principle of this economic system decreasing/going back to the Pharaonen brings a papyrus from Tebtunis on the point:
- Nobodythe right has to do what it wants, because everything is regulated on the best.
- (S. quotes antique systems of government after Demandt. 310)
The removal of corruption, economical no-load operation and often chaotic private initiatives made Egypt the richest country and the Ptolemäerkönigto the richest man of the antique world. It profited by it not least from the inclusion of the rich temple districts, which formed a kind state in the state before. Its capital Alexandria remained into the time of the Roman of emperor Augustus the largest commercial centreadmitted world at that time to that.
The basis of the brightistic economy was agriculture organized in the detail. By introduction of modern cultivation methods Egypt became to the grain chamber of the eastern Mediterranean area, the king received for instance a third of the yields. In the seleukidischen Babylonien those ledMakedonen the viticulture. More clearance remained for private entrepreneurs in the range of the trade. This was limited however by extensive monopoly regulations. Basic food such as oil, salt, fish, beer, honey and Datteln, the production of papyrus, textiles, glass and Luxusartikeln as well as transportation, banksand foreign trade were thing of the state. This protected the own economy by tariffs of up to 50% and achieved not least by an extension of trade with the east considerable foreign trade surplus.
society and social structure
the diadochus realms had for antique conditionsa quite large population: The number of inhabitants of the Seleukidenreiches becomes estimated on thirty, those of the Ptolemäerreiches on approximately eight million. The states of the diadochi were coined/shaped by two large contrasts: the separation into social layers and the allocation in nationalities.A substantially smaller role played the aristocracy. The Greeks had immigrated straight only and could so hardly with the achievement of their ancestors prunken, that particularly in Persia first still existing native aristocracy lost fast at meaning. This layalso in the interest of the diadochus rulers, whose bureaucracy was dependent on the fact that offices were assigned in accordance with capability and not in accordance with birth. Therefore lent ranks were not first hereditary from the king.
Also the slaves were less numerously and also less important thanin other antique commonwealth. While its number in the Seleukidenreich is to be determined with difficulty, can go out for Egypt with some security of a small economic and social importance of the slavery. The land work was operated by Fellachen, those purely legally not asSlaves applied. Marriages between free ones and unfree ones were relatively frequent. From the temple slaves (ἱεροδοῦλοι, Hierodulen) apart, there were particularly in the private households enriches Greeks Sklaven, these was thus hardly in production active. They were considered as luxury property andwere subject therefore to a special tax. That redeem from slaves became only around 200 usual, prisoners of war in the slave status occurred against it already among the diadochi. These worked particularly in royal quarries and mines.
The largest social problem placed the contrastbetween Greeks and Orientalen.Philon testifies the existence of a two-class company: Egyptians were only punished with the whip, Greek with the stick. The portion of the Greeks of the total population amounted to at the most 1%. The equal rights of the two promoted by AlexanderGroups so not maintained Ptolemaios and Seleukos left themselves accomplished soon a separation between native and Greek function carriers among the diadochi. While the latter native Satrapen in favor of Greek strategists extracted the military supreme command, first did without with the structure of its administrative machinerycompletely on native ones, which were allowed to only carry political responsibility on the level of the Dorfschulzen. Into this picture of a apartheid company it fits that mixed marriages were at least theoretically forbidden and each subpopulation was subject to its own right, the Greeks the Greek, the Egyptiansthe Egyptian and the Jews the Jewish. Processes between humans of different ethnical groups were negotiated before special courts. The ethnical contrast between immigrants and Orientalen was thus larger and more importantly than between slaves and free ones.
The diadochi and theirSuccessors wanted to strengthen the Greek element in their states and favoured therefore the immigrants, from whom in the course of the time hundredthousands came. Greeks stepped as soldiers or officials into the king service and left themselves in the Greek cities of the east,in those they also as private individuals the citizen right received immediately, as dealers, manufacturing ones or farmers down. Niedergelassene Einwanderer waren vom Militärdienst befreit. However above all also the capability of the immigrants played a role with the immigration policy. Also Galater and Jewsto the army were taken up, the cities accepted also Jews and Phöniker . With the immigrated Greeks already soon the differences, it levelled themselves developed a kind „unit Greek “, the local traditions withdrew, a totalGreek traffic language (κοινῆ, koinē) developed. ThoseMeaning koinē shows up in the fact that old person was translated the will into this language and the new was drawn up even in it. The development of a Greek high-level language in the diadochus realms put so as it were the foundation-stone for the later spreading of the Christianity.
longest remained the Makedonen culturally independently. The designation „Makedone “was led later however already soon to the condition term and even by Jews. Altogether the desire for affiliation to the Greek culture was large with the Orientalen. Sodesignated Manetho, which set up the list of the Pharaonen, the master fathers of Greeks and Egyptians as brothers, king Pyrrhos of Epirus attributed its rule to Achilles. Even the Romans appointed themselves before Seleukos to an alleged blood relationship over theirsayful Trojan ancestors. The word of the philosopher of ISOC advice generally applied. This had explained:
- Greek is one not by birth (γένος, genos) and appearance (φύσις, physis), but by reason (διάνοια, dianoia) and education(παίδευσις, paideusis).
(S. quotes antique systems of government after Demandt. 314)
Thus despite the rigiden separation of the ethnical groups in the long run a mixture of Greeks and Orientalen was facilitated. In the Nile valley the Greeks were ägyptisiert and the Egyptians were hellenisiert. Particularlyaccomodating Ptolemaios showed up opposite the Fellachen, probably above all, in order to prevent possible rebellions. Anyhow the prosperity of the Egyptian farmers in the diadochus time increased so far that a Fellache more earned than a Greek worker on Delos.
Relatively well also the situation of the women was in the diadochus realms. They won the right to state before court in the own name and lead independently enterprises. Also all stages of the education were accessible to them.Women visited the Gymnasion, worked as poet inside or philosopher inside and organized themselves in own associations. Inscriptions from small Asia, Sparta and Kyrene report of women, who made themselves by donations a name and political offices took over. In Delphi and Priene officiated to women as Archonten. Besides important Mrs. Zugang to the citizen right of foreign cities had. Women from the king house such as Arsinoë II., the daughter of the Ptolemaios, intervened even actively in the policy. However became still far more frequentlynewborn girls suspended as boys. This fate met however the daughters of slaves, unfree ones was only rarely generally as luxury goods desired.
religion and cult
the diadochi permitted their subjects the admiration of native Gods. During however Seleukos of themAnd one granted them cult places its own legal status by temple meeting (ἐκκλησία, ekklēsia) and, tried Ptolemaios permitted cult associations organized autonomy, to integrate the rich Heiligtümer Egypt into its administrative machinery. The Ptolemäer left itself as συννάοι θεοί (synnaoi theoi) into thatTemples along-admire and appointed the priests themselves. Greek control officials took over the supervision over the temple economy, even Greek priests occurred. The yields of the temples were taxed and their right of asylum limited, the cult however to a large extent remained in its before-brightistic formreceived.
Only in Egypt also the diadochi themselves did not enjoy göttliche honours. On the occasion of the release of Athens 307 a written Hymnus at Demetrios, the son of the Antigonos, the extent testifies them proven honours:
- Make you happy, son of the powerful God Poseidon(Allusion on its fleet specified above) and the Aphrodite (Schmeichelei in relation to its beauty). Because other (i.e. the actual) Gods are far or them exist not at all, or they do not worry about us. However we see you at present,not from wood or stone (like the cult pictures in the temples), but really.
(S. quotes antique systems of government after Demandt. 303)
Apart from this spontaneous ruler cult on the part of the cities stepped from the ruler ordered. Already Alexander instructed the own Vergöttlichung to 324.The diadochi continued the Alexanderkult, whose center formed Alexanders grave (séma ) in Alexandria. Besides they promoted legends by means of their own göttliche descent. General spreading soon already found that Herakles the ancestor gentleman of the Ptolemäer and Apollon the master father of the Seleukidenis. While in Macedonia a ritual admiration of the ruler did not take place, it in the other two realms soon already on a large scale one practiced. The sons of the diadochi arranged the admiration of their fathers and those the own person andfor it own temples built. In each gau an upper priest (ἀρχιερεύς, archiereus) supervised the ruler cult, in honours of the diadochus rulers regularly festivals after the model of the olympic plays was held, which attracted guests from all world.
An amazing upswing took under thatDiadochus and its successors the Judentum, whose mental center was now no more Jerusalem, but Alexandria. There former Jewish prisoners of war in the delta district, who administered themselves under a municipality chief, settled. Toward end of the diadochus time began the work to the Septuaginta, the Greek version of the old person of will. The oldest except-Biblical report on the exodus originates from the Aegyptiaca of the Hekataios from Abdera. In its at the yard of the Ptolemaios wrote work reports it that the Jews during a plaguefrom Egypt drove out and from their wise legislator (Moses?) after Judäa were led. The writings of the Hekataios affected obviously also Manetho and Strabon, which wrote in similar way over the origin of the Jews. Altogether were the Jewsa Hellenisierungsprozess subjected, which led also owing to the support by Seleukos and the first Seleukiden to large equal rights with the Greeks.
New eastern release religions became ever more important in the diadochus realms. The olympic Gods of the Greeks lost at meaning. Religionprivate thing, only the ruler cult remained as connecting element. Probably the religion-political innovation consequence-fraughtest beside it was the introduction of the synkretistischen Sarapiskults by Ptolemaios. Sarapis was a fusion from the Egyptian Gods Osiris and Apis and the Greek God father Zeus. Besides after the Interpretatio Graeca increases Greek and eastern Gods equated, for example the harvest goddess Demeter with Isis, the wife of the Osiris. This development prepared the soil for the 300 years later taking place spreading of a further eastern release religion,the Christianity.
science and culture
Note:Science and culture of the brightism were coined/shaped by a large range, whereby the diadochus time for it put the foundation-stone. In the following this can Development to be certainly only outlined.
The diadochus time introduced the upswing in science and technology of the brightistic time, from which still the modern times should profit. The Alexanderzug was already accompanied by surveyors, their recordings for the Geografie of of great importancewere. In the brightism formed some the most important philosophical currents out (see for example Stoa, Epikureismus and Peripatos), whereby in addition, mathematics, art and medicine in this productive time could unfold further.
To the center of the GreekGel honouring SAMness became since the time of the diadochi Alexandria with its Museion and the well-known library, whereby the Patronagepolitik of the Ptolemäer played a large role (Lit.: see. P. Green, Alexander ton of Actium, S. 80ff.). In the palace district thatCity convenient Museion can be compared earliest with a today's university. With its conference room, the Wandelhalle and the common Speisesaal of the local Philologen inviting to philosophical discussions it formed a science and a cultural center. Under the line of an upper priest becameapart from philosophy also natural sciences and medicine in a scholarly manner. The physicians of Alexandria probably dared themselves as first to a comprehensive study of human anatomy and dissected for it executing. Here geographical mathematics arrived at the full development, equally important contributions developed to philosophy and astronomy. Also Eratosthenes worked here. It benefitted it like also the other scientists, man of letters and artists of that time that he could select its effect place freely. Thus an international layer from scholar, those developed soon the mockery of the Satirikerprovoked. In Athenaios 22 D were compared it with birds, which amused themselves in the cage of the MUSE ion mA-constant and the king with their Gezänk.
The library attached to the Museion covered up to 700.000 roles. Above all Ptolemaios II.,the son and successor of the Ptolemaios, made themselves earned around her. He let the writings of the Greeks, Chaldäer, Egyptians, Römer and Juden collect, acquired the library at the beginning of the diadochus wars the deceased philosopher Aristoteles and bought particularly inAthens and Rhodos further books too.Kallimachos wrote the first library catalog, the first library chief was Zenodotos. The large library of Alexandria woke the ambition of the rulers straight Pergamon separating from the Seleukidenreich. Also they began to collect booksand copy to leave. Of Ptolemaios II. imposed export prohibition for papyrus (chartae) went around it by the use of the new Pergaments. Marcus Antonius gave late Kleopatra VII., the last Ptolemäerin, 200,000 roles of the pergamenischen library, so finallyagain to Alexandria came.
Even if the capital of the Ptolemäer were removed according to plan by these for the cultural center of the brightistic world, then nevertheless the other cities came not too briefly. Particularly the Greek motherland became again and again from the diadochiwith donations mindfully. Seleukos returned the library of the Peisistratos kidnapped by the Persian large king Xerxes 200 years before from Athens again. In order to affect the Greek public in their sense, the diadochi supported the pole ice financially by donation and throughBuildings like the Olympieion in Athens. This vordergründigen support of the cultural life and the financial situation of the cities their extensive political deprivation of power faced. The urban autonomy remained only on the inside. Foreign policy, military and taxes were now thing thatDiadochus ruler, who the cities however despite all relatively carefully treated. So culture and sciences could unfold in a way in them in the brightistic time, which made the modern time of the antiquity from the brightism.
The astronomical work of the Eudoxos of kneeling DOS († 352) became in the 3. Century of Aristarch († 230), the heliozentrische conception of the world the justified and the turn of the earth recognized, and Eratosthenes († 202), that its extent computed and the system of the degrees of longitudecreated, continued. Already at present Alexanders drove on Pytheas the North Sea and discovered Britannien. Ptolemaios II., the son of the diadochus Ptolemaios, sent envoys to India and let the inside of Africa investigate. Also within the range of the technology many progress becamemade, the some decades of late Archimedes and Heron of Alexandria their important inventions made possible. Already at the diadochus time Demetrios Poliorketes one let well-known FE storage machine , with which he attacked Rhodos design as Helepolis.
In addition, the literature of theseTime was partially remarkable:Kallimachos, the most important alexandrinische poet, as well as its pupils, among them also Apollonios of Rhodos, which wrote its famous work to the Argonautensage (Argonautika). In brightistic time also the romantically made a sea protest Alexanderroman developed for thatto into the modern times of largest popularity to enjoy could. In the Middle Ages it was even after the Bible the furthest common book and from Europe to Southeast Asia was read.
Generally it can be stated that itself the brightistic literature inFramework of already well-known kinds moved (drama, Elegie, Epigramm, Epos, Hymnus, lyric poetry etc.), this however developed further and transformed. In the area of the comedy importantly thereby above all Menander , that was common with the philosopher Epikur in Athens as Ephebe served.
The transformation process in the literature was promoted by a new form of the public education, like public schools and above all the extensive library nature of the brightistic time. The libraries mentioned above made possible for the scientists andWriters for the first time on broad basis to support themselves and thereby to set apart be able themselves by material already analyzed.
from the antique one to in 19. Century became the time of the diadochi generally quite negativelyseen. For Plutarch the liberty ended with the death of the Demosthenes 322 and with it at the beginning of this time. The diadochus time marked the end of the Greek classical period and thus at the beginning of the brightism felt as purge process. Became however usuallysurveyed that the Kanonisierung of the classical period in such a way specified only in the brightism taken place and the term developed only in Roman time.
The positive appreciation of the time that diadochus realms goes particularly on the historian Johann Gustav Droysen into 19. Centuryback, that the brightism modern time of the antiquity called. Droysen turned against the idealization of the classical time and meant that the diadochi undertook the successful attempt, the individualistic Polissystem to overcome (if the Polis also certainly further oneimportant administrative unit represented) and large countries by central planning politically and economically really to seize. On Droysen the estimate of the diadochus states decreases/goes back as parts of a comparatively modern, urban coined/shaped world civilization, those by an economic upswing, technical progress, mobility, individualismand the meeting of different cultures was coined/shaped. In 20. Century found this estimate general acknowledgment, then Gottfried Benn wrote 1949:
- The Greek cosmos created the internal way of life for the half earth by the brightism.
- (quotes antique systems of government after Demandt,S. 295)
It remains general noting that to today no real agreement one obtained. Still the American historian Peter Green comes into its detailed and interesting, in addition, problematic study From Alexander ton of Actium to a rather negative evaluation, differently aboutGraham Shipley or Hans Joachim Gehrke. Also Demandt defends Droysens estimate and stresses the similarities between brightism and modern trend. According to it the time stands for that diadochus realms in similar relation to classical and archaischer time as the modern times to the Middle Agesand antique ones. He sees similarities with the extension of the habitat, the establishment of colonial regimes over technically less developed peoples, scientific-technologic progress, the emergence of a world market and the urbanisation.
The meaning of the diadochus time is to a large extent undisputed in the range thatForeign policy. In this time developed a monitoring system with regard to foreign policy, which brought intergovernmental relations into firm forming. Ludwig memo ice noticed 1900 the fact that this monitoring system the unit of the Greek right to the entire extent of the graecomacedonischen brightism (quotes after Demandt, antique systems of government, S.318) carried out. With this regulation went however an instability of the diadochus states, which was connected with the fact that nearly each diadochus wanted to become a large conquerer in the style Alexanders of the large one. The Armenian king animal IDA width unit summarized the self picture of a diadochus ruler in such a way:
- A Privatmann earns praise, if he worries about his own house, a king however, if he argues about the goods of others.
- (testifies with Tacitus, annals XV 1; quoted after Demandt, antique systems of government, S. 318)
During these different itselfin the time around 300 v. Chr. however in among themselves closed alliances against an aggressor from their rows, they resisted above all in each case could contact the Romans become meanwhile the Vormacht in the Mediterranean area later. This - and notthe diadochi - became finally the executors of the large Alexander and established the world realm, about which the diadochi could only dream.
the source situation to the brightism is with most problematic in the old person history, since in far parts a continuous excessive quantity is missing. Thus one is on the fragments (as of Hieronymos of Kardia) and/or. upthe not completely received writings of historians (Polybios, Diodor), also papyri (particularly from Egypt), coins, inscriptions as well as on archaeological sources etc. instructed. For this reason many circumstances are disputed, even if on the wholeStand stands, which raises however complex detail questions.
of the brightism, whose beginning forms the diadochus time, the Greek antique one as the writemost joyful time (Lit is considered.: for a general overview regarding the sources and therebyto connected problems see Shipley, The Greek world after Alexander, S. 1–32). Already the diadochi collected the works of contemporary authors in their libraries in Alexandria, Antiochia and Pella. Hardly historical or philosophical writings are received nevertheless from that time.The antiquity researcher Hermann Strasburger proceeds from a relationship between missing and received works of 40:1. Most of these books were lost obviously in Byzantine time, since they did not correspond to the klassizistischen language ideal defended at that time. Also the destruction of the large Library of Alexandria contributed reliably to this bad excessive quantity situation. Are fragmentarily received the Greek authors Timaios of Tauromenion (345-250 v. Chr.) and Hieronymos of Kardia (360-272 v. Chr.), contemporaries of the diadochi, as well as Poseidonios of Apameia (135-51 v. Chr.).
clear better look it with the Roman and other in Roman time writing authors. These are not however all contemporaries of the diadochi. For instance Diodor are , that nevertheless around the turn of an era wrote and of18. Book of its historical work to the diadochus time treats, that in a summary of the Justinus received Pompeius Trogus and Appian, which wrote an overview of the Seleukiden, important antique sources. Likewise in Roman time the Greek Plutarch wrote,that wrote among other things Viten of Eumenes , Demetrios and Pyrrhos. An at first sight little obvious source are Jewish texts in Greek and aramäischer language. In addition Flavius Josephus, the historical writer of the Jewish war count, andthe book Daniel of the old person of will.
of extensive as the written are the documentary certifications of that time. Beside the inscriptions are in particular the Egyptian papyri, which Michael Rostovtzeff evaluated, and which cuneiform script documents from that Mesopotamien of the first Seleukiden for the historiography important. Importantly for our picture from the diadochus time is also the alignment of the sources with the archaeological findings. Unfortunately are rather meagre the remainders of Alexandria, Antiochias and Seleukias, the capitals the large diadochus realms,larger finds were made in Milet , Ephesos and Pergamon. Titles and haven advice of the diadochi are particularly well-known from Münzbildern and Marmorbüsten us.
- diadochi and diadochus wars
- of light sneezing table Judentum and brightists
- philosophy of the antique ones
the classical representation are Droysens history of the brightism, which became outdated in the meantime however hopelessly. Newer representations are in English (Peter Green, Graham Shipley, franc W. Whale bank) and French (E. ) Language wants available; for the German readerGehrkes of contributions as well as the encyclopedia of the brightism (both the small and the large encyclopedia) are very useful orientations. In the following above all overview works are called, on the basis whose Bibliografien easily more specialized literature can be opened. It also is upthe appropriate sections in Cambridge Ancient History referred to (particularly starting from Bd. 7.1).
- Alexander Demandt: The brightistic monarchies. In: Antique systems of government. Academy publishing house, Berlin 1995. S. 291-320, ISBN 3-05-002794-0.
Scarce overviewover history and society of the brightistic state world with Bibliografie.
- Johann Gustav Droysen: History of the brightism, 3 volumes, Gotha 1877-1878 (reprint Darmstadt 1998).
- Malcolm achieving clay/tone: History of Macedonia. Beck, Munich 1986, ISBN 3-406-31412-0 .
- Hans Joachim Gehrke: Brightism.In: Ders. and H. Cutter (Hrsg.):History of the antique ones. A study book.. Metzler, Stuttgart 2000, S. 163ff., ISBN 3-476-01455-X.
Knappe and well readable einführende representation.
- Hans Joachim Gehrke: History of the brightism (Oldenbourg sketch of history). 3. Edition.Oldenbourg, Munich 2003, ISBN 3-486-53053-4.
Knappe representation with research part and comprehensive bibliography.
- Günther Hölbl: History of the Ptolemäerreiches. Politics, ideology and religious culture of Alexander the large one up to Roman conquest. Wiss. Buchges., Darmstadt 1994; Special expenditure. Theiss, Stuttgart 2004, ISBN 3-8062-1868-4.
- Klaus roses: The alliance forms of the diadochi and the decay of the Alexanderreiches. In: Acta Classica 11 (1968), S. 182ff.
- Hatto H. Schmitt and Ernst Vogt (Hgg.): Small encyclopedia of the brightism. 2. extended edition. Harrassowitz, Wiesbaden 2003(Expenditure for study; orig. Wiesbaden 1993), ISBN 3-44704-727-5.
Actually a small essay collection. Very well to the introduction.
- Hatto H. Schmitt and Ernst Vogt (Hgg.): Encyclopedia of the brightism. Harrassowitz, Wiesbaden 2005, ISBN 3-447-04842-5.
Substantially extended version of the proven „small “encyclopedia.
- Franc Gernot Schuffert: Studies to war and power formation in the early brightism. Diss. Pour 2005, here on-line.
- Jakob Seibert: The age of the diadochi. Wiss. Buchges., Darmstadt 1983 (yields of the research, 185), ISBN 3-534-04657-9.
Research report over the diadochus time.
- smelling pool of broadcasting corporations A. Billows: Antigonos the One Eyed and the creation OF the bright sneezing TIC state. Univ. OF California press, Berkeley, Los Angeles 1990; PAPER-bake 1997, ISBN 0-520-20880-3.
Fundamentally for Antigonos I.
- Peter Green: Alexander ton of Actium. Thehistorical evolution OF the bright sneezing TIC age. Univ. OF Californa press, Berkeley; Thames and Hudson, London 1990, ISBN 0-520-05611-6.
Detailed overall display, in the evaluation of the epoch however partly too negatively.
- Waldemar Heckel: The Mars neck OF Alexander' s empire. Routledge,London 1992, ISBN 0-415-05053-7.
- Susan Sherwin White, Amelie Kuhrt: From Samarkhand ton of Sardis. A new approach ton the Seleucid Empire. Univ. OF California press, Berkeley; Duckworth, London 1993, ISBN 0-7156-2413-X.
- Graham Shipley: The Greek World after Alexander, 323-30UC. Routledge, London and New York 2000, ISBN 0-415-04618-1.
Outstanding one English-language overview of the time of the brightism from the diadochi to Kleopatra VII.
- Edouard wants: Histoire politique you moons hellénistique (323-30 av. J. - C). 2 Bde., 2. Aufl.1979-1982. New edition Éd. you Seuil, Paris 2003, ISBN 2-02-060387-X.
Best modern representation of political history that diadochus realms.
Web on the left of
- source cutouts and bibliography
- comprehensive bibliography
- Knappe literature recommendations (Green, Shipley etc.)
- Peter Greens light sneezing TIC History and Culture freely accessible(English)
- Internet Ancient History Sourcebook to the brightism (sources in English translation)
- article collection to Alexander the large one and the diadochus (English)