Helmut Kohl

Helmut Kohl

Helmut Josef Michael Kohl (* 3. April 1930 in Ludwigshafen on the Rhine) is German CDU - a politician. He was from 1969 to 1976 an Prime Minister of the country Rhineland-Palatinate and from 1982 to 1998 Federal Chancellors the Federal Republic of Germany. Kohl arranged the process of the German reunification and participated considerably in the European agreement process . It is disputed due to its offences against the party law in connection with the CDU donation affair.

Table of contents

personal record

Helmut Kohl became 1930 as a third child of the financial official originating from GreussenheimHans's Kohl (1887 - 1975) and its Mrs. Cäcilie geb. Cord (1890 - 1979) born in Ludwigshafen. Of Kohl family was civil-conservatively, Roman-catholic coined/shaped. The older brother fell in the Second World War. Kohl became toward endthe war as aids into the armed forces drawn in, however no more needed to fight.

Kohl buildup in the Ludwigshafener quarter Friesenheim in the high tariff seriousness race. It visited the primary school Ruprechtschule and afterwards the Max-Planck High School, both in Friesenheim. it began 1950a study of the jurisprudence in Frankfurt/Main. it changed 1951 to the University of Heidelberg with the specialities history and political sciences.

After Kohl had terminated its study 1956, he stepped a place as scientific coworkers at the institute for Alfred weber of the universityHeidelberg on.1958 it became due to a work the topic the political development in the Pfalz and the repurchasing of the parties after 1945 the Dr. phil. attained a doctorate. Subsequently, he became a Direktionsassistent with an iron foundry in Ludwigshafen and 1959 adviser„the trade association chemistry “in Ludwigshafen. In the year after Helmut Kohl married the woman interpreter Hannelore racer (1933 - 2001), whom it could do since 1948. From this marriage two sons followed.

To 5. July 2001 took itself its wifeHannelore at the age of 68 years the life. She had suffered before for many years from a light allergy.

To 4. March 2004, well five one half year after end its chancellor shank, placed Helmut Kohl the first part of its memoirs under the title„Memories, 1930 - 1982 “forwards. They contain life memories and cover the years 1930 up to the beginning its first chancellor shank 1982. The second part appeared at the 3. November 2005 and treats the first half of of Kohl chancellor shank (1982-1990).

Kohl livesin Berlin and in Ludwigshafen (quarter Oggersheim).

Political career

already as pupils stepped Kohl of the CDU with (1946) and was afterwards joint founder of the boys union in its hometown Ludwigshafen (1947). He pursued its political activitiesalso during its study.1953 it became member of the acting executive committee of the CDU in Rhineland-Palatinate, 1954 deputy regional chairmen of the boys union Rhineland-Palatinate, 1955 member of the regional-level party council of the CDU Rhineland-Palatinate. 1959 he became a chairman of the CDU circle federation Ludwigshafen, 1960-69 was heParliamentary group leaders of the town councillor parliamentary group Ludwigshafen, starting from 1963 of leaders of the parliamentary group in the federal state parliament of Rhineland-Palatinate, from 1966 to 1973 he was regional chairman of the CDU von Rheinland-Pfalz, 1966 member of the Federal Administration of the CDU, 1969 deputy Federal leaders.

Prime Minister

as a Kohl 1966 to regional chairmen of the CDU Rhineland-Palatinate, was intended he was selected also for the successor Peter Altmeiers in the office of the Prime Minister. After the following election of the federal parliament again old Meier Prime Minister became, but to 19. May 1969 replaced Kohl it. Important decisions in of Kohl term of office were thoseRegional reorganization and the establishment of the University of Trier Kaiserslautern.1971 stood as a candidate to Kohl unsuccessfully for the federal presidency of the CDU and were subject to Rainer Barzel. 1973, one year after Rainer Barzels failed vote of no confidence against the acting Federal Chancellor Willy Brandt, knew Kohl itas Federal leaders of the CDU replace and kept this party function 25 years up to 7. November 1998.

1976

it began opposition leaders with the election to the Bundestag for the first time as a candidate for the chancellorship of its party. The CDU/CSU missed the absolute majority with 48,6% thatVoices only scarcely. That was to there secondarybest election result of the CDU/CSU at all. Kohl withdrew after the choice as an Prime Minister and became leader of the parliamentary group of the CDU/CSU party in the German Bundestag in Bonn. Its successor as an Prime Minister became to 2. December 1976 Bernhard Vogel. After the lost choice the CSU seized cross ago the separation resolution for the abolition of the parliamentary group community with the CDU, Kohl could however against the CSU chairman Franz Josef bunch the continuation intersperse. With the election to the Bundestag 1980 it had for itBunch the precedence with the chancellor candidacy leave. Since bunch remained however after the lost choice Prime Minister in Bavaria, Kohl was further opposition leader.

Kohl was from 1976 to 2002 member of the German federal daily.

Chancellor

Helmut Kohl at the beginning its chancellor shank

After the break of the social liberals coalition of Federal Chancellor Helmut Schmidt to 17. September 1982 - it existed serious diversities of opinion over the future economic policy in the Federal Republic of (cause was among other things a strategy paper of the FDP, that by Otto count Lambsdorff preparedwas and neoliberale positions for the reform of the job market contained) - took FDP and CDU/CSU to 20. September 1982 coalition talks up.

Kohl was nominated for the office of the Federal Chancellor and at the 1. October 1982 in the context of the first successful constructional vote of no confidence in the history of the federal daily against the acting Federal Chancellor Helmut Schmidt to the sixth Federal Chancellor selected. Federal Minister of Foreign Affairs became, like also in the social liberal coalition, Hans Dietrich Genscher. The coalition change was very disputed within the FDP. There the FDP alsoto a declaration of a coalition in favor of the SPD into the election campaign 1980 had gone, missing material authentication was lodged a complaint; this step was condition conformal formally. In addition it came that of Kohl had not come out chancellor shank from normal elections to the Bundestag. In order to erase this fault, Kohl introducedextremely disputed procedure through: Under the pretext of a disorder of the coalition partners over evenly that Federal Budget, which had been by agreement decided only few weeks before, Kohl asked the question of confidence. With the decision to 17. Decembers 1982 contained as agreed thoseDelegate of the government coalition of the voice, so that the parliament in the final result malfunctioned the confidence to the government. Federal President Karl Carstens dissolved the Bundestag after longer hesitating in January 1983 on request Kohl, it became for the 6. March 1983 preferredNew elections set. Against this proceeding some delegates before the Federal Constitutional Court complained. This decided however that the dissolution condition in accordance with federal daily had taken place.

With the election to the Bundestag to 6. March 1983 became the coalition from CDU/CSU and FDP with voice gains for thoseCDU/CSU (48.8%, + 4.3%) and clear voice losses for the FDP (7.0% 3.6%) red-elect. Helmut Kohl, which began altogether between 1976 and 1998 six times as a candidate for the chancellorship, obtained its best election result (and the secondarybest in the history of the Federal Republic). Candidate for the chancellorshipthe Social Democrats was the former Federal Minister of Justice and Munich mayor Hans yokes bird.

In the first years of its term of office Kohl implemented still the NATO NATO resolutionNATO resolution calm under the government Schmidt against the resistance of the peace movement .

François Mitterrand and Kohl intend in Verdun together the dead ones of both world wars.
To 22. Septembers 1984 met Kohl and the French president François Mitterrand at the place of the battle around Verdun, in order to think of the dead ones of the two world wars together. The photo of their handshake lasting several minutesbecame admits as symbol of the French-German reconciliation. Kohl and Mitterrand in the following years a particularly close bond of trust was after-said. They brought common projects like the euro corps and the television station arte on the way. Also progress of the European agreement howthe contract of Maastricht and the introduction of the euro were attributed substantially to a close French-German co-operation later.

In the course of the repairing affair around illegal payments of the repairing company to German politicians Kohl became through wg. Kohl - entries in the guaranteed cash book loads. InCommittee of inquiry of the Bundestag and the Mainzer of federal state parliament said the untruth to Kohl regarding its knowledge of the purpose of the civic combination as donation procurement plant and escaped after an announcement of Otto Schily only scarcely a criminal procedure because of uneidlicher wrong statement. KohlParty friend Heiner Geissler defended it later with famous the comment become, it probably a “Blackout” had.

Opposite the Israelis it coined/shaped to 24. January 1984, speaking as first Federal Chancellors from the postwar generation before the Knesset, that of Günter of gaucoming sentence of the “grace of the late birth”. Source:[1]

To 5. May 1985 laid down Kohl together with US president Ronald Reagan in bit castle a wreath/ring on the there soldier cemetery. This became in parts of the German and American public violentlycriticized, because also member of the weapon SS there are buried.

With the election to the Bundestag 1987 Kohl in the office was confirmed. Rival candidate of the SPD was a North-Rhine/Westphalian Prime Minister Johannes Rau.

Helmut Kohl in Krzyzowa (circle-outer Schlesien), 1989

after itself the collapsethe GDR drew and the citizens of Berlin wall to 9. Were , put Helmut Kohl without previous arrangement with the coalition partner and the western allies please November 1989 to 28. November 1989 in the German Bundestag a “ten points program for the overcoming of the divisionGermany and Europe " forwards. Already to 18. May 1990 was signed the convention over the currency, economic and social union with the GDR. Against the resistance of President of the Federal Bank Karl Otto Pöhl Kohl had therein a conversion course of ostmark in D-mark of1:1 with wages, salaries, rents and pensions interspersed. This proved later than strong load for the enterprises of the new Lands of the Federal Republic. Together with minister of foreign affairs Hans Dietrich Genscher reached Kohl in discussions with the allied powers of the Second World War their agreement toReunification of Germany and its integration into NATO. The German unit affected extremely positively the later career Kohl than Federal Chancellor, who would have possibly not so long lasted without these. Kohl was it 1989 on the Party Congressin Bremen only laboriously successfully, a Putschversuch of its internal-party adversaries around Heiner Geissler to repel Rita Süssmuth and Lothar Späth.

To 17. January 1991 was again selected Kohl for the third time, after it itself with the election to the Bundestag 1990 against thatSaarland Prime Minister and SPD candidate for the chancellorship at that time Oskar Lafontaine had interspersed. Thus it became the first chancellor of reunited Germany.

Bundeskanzler Helmut Kohl und US-Verteidigungsminister William Cohen am 5. März 1997 in Bonn
Federal Chancellors Helmut Kohl and US-Verteidigungsminister William Cohen to 5. March 1997 in Bonn

after the scarcely won election to the Bundestag 1994 became Kohl againto the Federal Chancellor selected; this time it succeeded against the Rhineland-Palatinian Prime Minister Rudolf Scharping of the SPD. The following years were rather coined/shaped by successes with regard to foreign policy (Frankfurt/Main as seat for the again created EZB, euro - introduction).Relating to domestic affairs a certain stagnation appeared also because of the SPD dominated Upper House of Parliament and the capacity to act of the Federal Government limited thereby, which flowed into the defeat at the polls 1998.

The choice won the SPD, those with the Prime Minister of Lower Saxony at that time Gerhard Schröder asCandidate for the chancellorship had begun. Consequently the Christian liberal coalition government was replaced from Red-Greens a coalition, and Kohl became to 26. Octobers by Federal President Roman duke from the office dismisses. Kohl led up to 27.10.1998 only an acting Federal Government.

With that Election to the Bundestag 2002 did not apply Kohl any longer for a Bundestag mandate.

Important chancellor words

  • “of German soil must in the future always go out peace.” - Speech before the woman Mrs., Dresden, 19. December 1989
  • “a successful industrial nation, i.e. a nation with future, leavesas collective recreational park do not organize themselves. “- in a governmental declaration over work and vacation periods in Germany in March 1993
  • “the German unit and the European agreement are two sides the same medal.” - last in a speech on that15. Party Congress of the CDU, Frankfurt/Main, 17. June 2002.

Party PEND affair and its time after the chancellor shank

in the CDU donation affair after the lost election to the Bundestag 1998 concealed to Kohl the origin of an amount at a value of one and a half to two million DM, althoughit in accordance with the party law, which it had signed as a Federal Chancellor, and which in it embodied publication obligation to the information was obligated. Until today it does not take a position to this topic. His argumentation, it received the money from donors, to thoseit with word of honour promised to conceal their names stands contrary to the valid legal situation and the constitutionally fixed independence of the parties and encountered at that time violent public criticism. For those the CDU by the following blockage of the election campaign reimbursement of costs developedfinancial losses arose Kohl with funds from a private donation action.

The committee of inquiry of the federal daily was concerned from December 1999 to June 2002 with the CDU donation affair. The work of the committee was accompanied by violent party-political arguments. To 18. January2000 had to do to Kohl because of its role in the CDU financial affair without the honorary chairmanship of the CDU. Because of the suspicion of the unfaithfulness for the disadvantage of its party the Bonn public prosecutor's office opened 2000 a preliminary investigation against Kohl, the 2001 against payment of a fine inHeight of 300.000 DM was stopped because of small debt in accordance with § 153 A StPO.

Im Rahmen von Presseveröffentlichungen zum Insolvenzverfahren von KirchMedia ab 2002 wurde bekannt, dass Kohl zu den Politikern zählte, die Leo Kirchdurch umstrittene Beraterverträge an seinEnterprise had bound. Kohl had received long in each case 600,000 DM after its chancellor shank three years. Critics like the corruption expert Hans harsh ore of Arnim pointed out that Kirchs Medienimperium had profited during the chancellor shank Kohl from particularly Kirch friendly media guidelines.Concrete suspicious factors could be however never confirmed.

Around the intended publication of of Kohl state security service documents it came in the years 2000 to 2004 to an extensive administrativejudicial argument (case Kohl). In the result it did not have the publication of sensitive informationbear.

In the election campaign to the parliamentary elections in Italy 2006 Kohl exerted himself expressly for the challenger and former EU-commission president Romano Prodi and called it with an election campaign appearance a “large European”. There both the CDU and the Forza Italiathe EVP belong, rather a commitment for Silvio Berlusconi to be expected had.

Honours

common 1988 Kohl for its earnings/services around the French-German friendship and for the future of Europe kept with François Mitterrand to the Aachener Karl price. 1996 became Kohlin Leuven honour doctor of the catholic University of lion. It received at the beginning of of 1996 from the world largest Jewish organization, B'nai B'rith, a medal for humanitarian earnings/services. The European union appointed Kohl at the 11. December 1998 to the honour citizen of Europe, a title,that before only Jean Monnet lent was. In January 2004 the international Adalbert price in Warsaw was presented to him by the Polish president. It is beside Konrad Adenauer the second carrier of the large cross in special execution of the earnings/service medal of the Federal RepublicGermany.

In addition Helmut Kohl is honour citizen of the cities Frankfurt/Main and Berlin. To 2. September 2005 he became honour citizen of its hometown Ludwigshafen. The Laudatio held of Luxembourg prime minister Jean-Claude Juncker. Those received Kohl from different universitiesat home and abroad.

Together with George H. W. Bush and Mikhail Gorbatschow received Kohl, before 10.000 spectators, to 17. June 2005, „the POINT alpha price for earnings/services to the unit of Germany and Europe in peace and liberty “.

InIt received the Franz Josef bunch price of the Hanns Seidel donation to September 2005. The Laudatio held the former CSU chairman Theodor Waigel, which was in the cabinet of Helmut Kohl Federal Minister of Finance.

At the 3. October 2005 was distinguished the politician with the Quadriga, alsothat the association workshop Germany outstanding Europeans of postwar history honours. The old chancellor was appreciated of the European unit thereby not only because of its earnings/services around the unit of Germany but also around his effort. The Laudatio held the former Soviet president Mikhail Gorbatschow.

To 17. February 2006 was distinguished Helmut Kohl with the special price of the “Konrad Adenauer price for local government policy” of the local-political combination of the CDU and CSU in Germany (KPV).

See also

publications

  • the political development in the Pfalz and the repurchasing of the parties after 1945. Thesis, University of Heidelberg 1958
  • between ideology and Pragmatismus. Aspectsand opinions to basic questions of the policy. Publishing house Bonn current, Stuttgart 1973, ISBN 3-87959-014-1
  • Konrad Adenauer 1876/1976. Belser, Stuttgart 1976, ISBN 3-763-01163-3
  • speeches and reports of the Federal Government. Pressing and office for information of the Federal Government, Bonn (numerous single publications)
  • thoseGerman unit. Speeches and discussions. Lübbe, Bergisch Gladbach 1992, ISBN 3-7857-0665-0
  • the course of the CDU. Speeches and contributions of the Federal leader 1973-1993. Hrsg. by Peter Hintze and Gerd Langguth. DVA, Stuttgart 1993, ISBN 3-421-06659-0
  • I wanted of Germany unit.Worked on by dock Diekmann and Ralf George Reuth. Ullstein, Berlin 1998, ISBN 3-548-33241-2
  • my diary 1998-2000. Droemer Knaur, Munich 2000, ISBN 3-426-27241-5
  • memories. 1930-1982. Droemer Knaur, Munich 2004, ISBN 3-426-27218-0
  • memories. 1982-1990. Droemer Knaur, Munich 2005, ISBN 3-426-27320-9

as publishers:

  • New realism - foreign policy to Iran and Afghanistan. Duesseldorf, 1980 ISBN 3-884-58017-5

literature

  • tungsten Bickerich: Helmut Kohl. Chancellor of the unit. (New edition of the book of the grandchildren). Econ paperback, Duesseldorf 1996 ISBN 3-612-26363-3
  • Jürgen shrubs: Helmut Kohl. Anatomy of a success. Berlin publishing house, Berlin 1998 ISBN 3-8270-0282-6
  • Patricia Clough: Helmut Kohl. Haven-guesses/advises power. Munich, dtv 1998 ISBN 3-423-24122-5
  • Klaus turner: Helmut Kohl. Life with power. DVA, Stuttgart 1998 ISBN 3-421-05122-4
  • Klaus turner: Kohl and the accounts. A black financial history. DVA, Stuttgart 2002 ISBN 3-421-05441-X
  • Bernt angel man: Black book Helmut Kohl or: As everything began. Steidl, Goettingen 2000 ISBN 3-88243-728-6
  • Werner Filmer, Heribert swan: Helmut Kohl. 4. Edition.Econ, Duesseldorf and. A. 1990 ISBN 3-430-12746-7
  • Alexander gau country: Helmut Kohl. A principle. Rowohlt, Berlin 1994 ISBN 3-87134-206-8
  • hitting a corner hard Henscheid: Helmut Kohl. Biography of a youth. Haffmans, Zurich 1985 ISBN 3-251-00061-6 (sow-Irish biography)
  • Klaus Hofmann: Helmut Kohl. Onepolitical biography. (New edition by Helmut Kohl supplemented. Chancellor of the confidence). MVG, Stuttgart and others 1991 ISBN 3-87959-443-0
  • Hans's small: It began in the Caucasus. The crucial step into the unit of Germany. 2. Edition. Ullstein, Berlin and Frankfurt toMain 1991 ISBN 3-550-07806-4
  • Peter Knorr, Hans Traxler: Pear. The book to the chancellor. A booklet for the young vegetable and the clean Früchtchen in this our country. Two thousand-unity, Frankfurt/Main 1983 (satire)
  • Christian count von Krockow: Haven advice of famous German men - of Martin Luther up to the present, Munich 2001 (cunning publishing house), S. 427-478 (ISBN 3-548-60447-1)
  • Jürgen line man: Helmut Kohl. A man remains himself faithfully. (New edition by Helmut Kohl extended. The production of a career).Structure, Berlin 2001 ISBN 3-7466-7038-1
  • Werner maser: Helmut Kohl. The German chancellor. Extended new edition. Ullstein, Frankfurt/Main and Berlin 1993 ISBN 3-548-35275-8 (biography)
  • Konrad R. Mueller (photo): Helmut Kohl. Lübbe, Bergisch Gladbach 1991 ISBN 3-404-61215-9 (book of pictures alsoan essay by Peter Scholl Latour)
  • Klaus Rathje, Jürgen Sacht: The small Helmut Kohl encyclopedia. The universe Helmut Kohl. Political friends and enemies, childhood and youth, asparagus meal and sow stomach, the mechanisms of power, the system of the black cashes. Encyclopedia, Berlin 2002 ISBN 3-89602-293-8
  • Bernhard Vogel (Hrsg.): The phenomenon. Helmut Kohl in the judgement of the press 1960-1990. DVA, Stuttgart 1990 ISBN 3-421-06567-5 (international press comments)

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