Henry Kissinger

Henry Kissinger

Henry Alfred Kissinger, actually Heinz Alfred Kissinger (* 27. May 1923 in Fürth) is an US-American politics policy and politician of German origin.

Table of contents

lives and work

training and scientific career

Henry Kissinger one bore as Heinz Alfred Kissinger, his father was a teacher. Due to their its parents with him fled Jewish origin 1938 from the National Socialist German one Reich into the USA. It went into New York town center on the George Washington High School. To 19. June 1943 received the nationality of the USA to Kissinger and becamein the same year to the military service at the ground forces drawn in. The 2. World war brought it to Germany. After whose end it remained in Germany and worked in the American zone of occupation at the counter-espionage service.

In the year 1947 it turned into thoseBack and college studied the USA at the Harvard, where it received 1950 its Bachelor. 1952 it locked its master and two years later its graduation, both to the Harvard University. Its graduation writing became later under the title „AWorld Restored: Metternich, Castlereagh and the of problem of OF Peace 1812-1822 “ published and became a successful standard work of the historiography. From 1954 to 1971 it was member of the training body of the Harvard University as well as coworkers in the department OF Government. it worked on 1954the question about the military challenge of the USA by the Soviet Union for its work „Nuclear Weapons and Foreign Policy “. From 1957 to 1960 Kissinger director of the Harvard center was international for Affairs and from 1958 to 1969 director of the Harvard Defense Studies Program. It in addition advisor of the authority for weapon development were from 1950 to 1960 at the united general staff and from 1961 to 1968 advisors of the US agency for weapon control and disarmament questions. In the year 1977, after its separating from thatPolitics, he accepted a Professur for international diplomacy to the Georgetown University in Washington (D.C.) .

political career

first political experience collected Henry Kissinger as an advisor of the governor Nelson A. Rockefeller starting from 1957. In the consequence becameit also of the US presidents John F. Kennedy, Lyndon B. Johnson and Richard Nixon estimated. With the choice of Richard Nixon to the president 1968 Kissinger of official advisors for outside and security politics became (national Security Advisor). The USA had to thatTime particularly due to the Viet Nam war within the range with regard to foreign policy clear problems, had at the same time won the Soviet Union in the Near East the political upper hand.

In July and November 1971 he undertook two secret journeys into the People's Republic of China, over in discussionsto prepare with the prime minister at that time Zhou En-Lai the way for Nixons attendance and a normalization of the relations between China and the USA. These negotiations led to the fact that Kissinger nowadays of prominent Chinese politicians frequently as „the old friend of theChinese people “ one designates.

In the same year it also the Soviet Union bereiste, where it prepared the first agreement in Moscow for arms limitation between the USA and the Soviet Union. It established a policy of the relaxation between both states and was thatAmerican negotiators in the strategic arms limitation discussions, which culminated in the SALT I contract, as well as for the ABM contract for the delimitation of strategic rockets (A nti B allistic M of issiles).

Also with the nordvietnamesischen Lê Ðức Thọ it met in the secret one andprepared with it peace discussions, which led 1973 to a peace treaty in the Viet Nam war. The war however still went until 1975, since Lê Ðức Thọ answered the further interference and weapon supply of the USA to the südvietnamesischen troops with further war actions.Nevertheless both politicians 1973 received the Nobel peace prize for the peace treaty, which Lê Ðức Thọ rejected contrary to Kissinger however, since the war still persisted at this time.

In September 1973 he transferred the office of the minister of foreign affairs under Richard Nixon, which it held also in the cabinet from Gerald Ford to January 1977.

From 1973 to 1974 Kissinger played a large role in the peace efforts between Israel and the Arab countries, above all Syria. It acted the end of the Jom Kippur war out, that with Egypt and Syria attempt of the back conquest of the Sinai lost in the six-day war at Israel and/or. the annektierten Golanhöhen had begun. Gravel winner intensive travel activity between the conflict parties led at that time much to the emergence of the used term pendulum diplomacy (Shuttle Diplomacy).

Due to its politics in relation to smaller third world states Kissinger belongs nevertheless to the most disputed external politicians of the era of the cold war. Thus supported it and the CIA 1973 the bloody Putsch of the general Augusto Pinochet against the democratically selected president Salvador all end in Chile, since its socialist adjustment was understood as threat of the US-American interests in Latin America (the domino theory). Because of the involving Kissingers into this case as well as its assumed participation in the operation CONDOR in the middle of the 1970er yearswere issued to today several judicial citations in different countries, which Kissinger however never followed. 2001 cancelled the Brazilian government the invitation for a speech in São Paulo , because she could not guarantee the immunity Kissingers.

Secret documents revealed meanwhileoccupy likewise that Kissinger as well as the US president at that time Gerald Ford authorized the Indonesian invasion contrary to international law Osttimors, those by December 1975 until February 1976 approx. 60,000 victims cost. Kissinger denied at all from the plans for the invasion to have known,until in the meantime approved documents the opposite proved.

By the US-American star journalist Seymour Hersh becomes Kissinger among other things 1983 in its book “The Price OF power: Kissinger into the Nixon White House " substantial attacked. Hersh commentates Kissingers responsibility for the bombardment ofCivilians in Viet Nam and Kambodscha as follows: “When the remainder of OF US can't sleep incoming goods COUNT sheep, and this guy [Kissinger] has tons of COUNTs burned and maimed Cambodian and Vietnamese babies until the end to OF his would run.” (Over.: If the remainderof us not to fall asleep can, counts we sheep, and this type [Kissinger] must up to the end of its days burned and mutilated kambodschanische and vietnamesische babies to count.)

with the taking office of the US president Jimmy Carter separated Henry Kissinger from the office andwithdrew itself as far as possible from political working. It supported the presidency candidacy of Ronald Reagan 1981 and after its choice also to its advisor staff was taken up. Likewise it stepped in the apron of the US president shank elections of 2000 as a supporter of the candidate George W.Bush in the public up.

other

1987 it received the Karl price of the city Aachen. 2005 were placed so far a citizen request not granted of Aachener to social and political forces more supported and, Kissinger because of its relevant participation onTo deny war crime the Karl price. Kissinger is since 1998 honour citizens of its hometown Fürth. Its life long it is faithful trailer of the football club SpVgg Greuther Fürth, it can whose play results be conveyed. It stayed last 2004 in Fürth. Since 1996Kissinger is member of the scientific adviser of the federaldirect petrol of Bismarck donation.

Kissinger created it like no US Secretary of State before it or after it to attain star status. One saw it on many social events with Showstars such as Frank Sinatra, in addition became hima relationship with the US actress Jill pc. John after-said, which it never disclaimed. Kissinger was promoted to the medium star, by maintaining skillful handling journalists. When Nixon came by the Watergate affair under pressure and withdrew themselves more strongly from the public, occupiedKissinger the freed empty space and is promoted to a kind spare president. For its modesty well-known Ford again it permitted - not least by the Nobelpreis - become prominent the Kissinger to further-pass on its star role even if it it finally of the postthe security advisor relieved.

honors and honours

of works

  • nuclear weapons and foreign policy. Oldenbourg, Munich1959.
  • The decision pushes. Basic questions of western foreign policy. Econ, Duesseldorf 1961.
  • Great power diplomacy. Of the statesmanship Castlereaghs and Metternichs. Econ, Duesseldorf 1962.
  • American foreign policy. Econ, Duesseldorf 1962.
  • What becomes from the western alliance?. Econ, Duesseldorf 1965.
  • Memoirs 1968-1973. C. Bertelsmann, Munich 1979.ISBN 3-57003-138-1
  • memoirs 1973-1974. C. Bertelsmann, Munich 1982. ISBN 3-57000-710-3
  • the world-political situation. Speeches and essays. C. Bertelsmann, Munich 1983. ISBN 3-57006-890-0
  • world politics for mornings. Speeches and essays 1982-1985. C. Bertelsmann, Munich1985.ISBN 3-57006-694-0
  • the equilibrium of the great powers. One-eat, Zurich 1986. ISBN 3-71758-062-0
  • the six columns of the world order. Settler, Berlin 1992. ISBN 3-88680-358-9
  • the reason of the nations. Over the nature of the foreign policy. Settler, Berlin 1994. ISBN 3-88680-486-0
  • yearsthe renewal. Memories. C. Bertelsmann, Munich 1999. ISBN 3-570-00291-8
  • the challenge America. World politics in 21. Century. Propyläen, Munich 2002. ISBN 3-549-07152-3

literature

  • Ralph Berger: The normalization of the diplomatic relations between the USA and the VRChina, 1969-1979. The secret negotiations of Henry A. Kissinger with Mao Zedong, Zhou En-Lai and Deng Xiaoping. Frankfurt/Main and others: Long 2003. (= studies to the international policy; 4) ISBN 3-631-50283-4
  • Edith J. Fresco Kautsky: Henry A. Kissinger. Historian and statesman.Cologne and others: Böhlau 1983. (= theses to newer history; 13) ISBN 3-412-02183-0
  • Larry Berman: NO peace, NO honor. Nixon, Kissinger, and Betrayal in Viet Nam. New York, NY among other things: Free press 2001. ISBN 0-684-84968-2
  • Stephan fox: “Triangle conditions are always complicated”. Kissinger,Bahr and the east politics. Hamburg: European Verl. - Anst. 1999. ISBN 3-434-52007-4
  • Jussi Hanhimäki: The flawed architect. Henry Kissinger and American foreign policy. Oxford among other things: Oxford University press 2004. ISBN 0-19-517221-3
  • Seymour Hersh, The Price OF power: Kissinger into the Nixon WhiteHouse, 1983
  • Christopher Hitchens: The document Kissinger. Stuttgart and others: Dt. Verl. - Anst. 2001. ISBN 3-421-05177-1. Original: The Trial OF Henry Kissinger, Verso, 2001, ISBN 1-859-84398-0
  • walter Isaacson: Kissinger. A biography. Berlin: OD. q 1993. ISBN 3-86124-144-7
  • Eugene Jarecki: The Trials OF Henry Kissinger (DVD), 2002
  • Robert D. Schulzinger: Henry Kissinger. Doctor OF diplomacy. New York: Columbia Univ. Pr. 1989. ISBN 0-231-06952-9
  • William Shawcross: Shade war. Kissinger, Nixon and the destruction Kambodschas. Berlin and others: Ullstein 1980. ISBN 3-550-07912-5

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