the Henschel works, briefly Henschel, were a machine and a vehicle factory in Kassel. Henschel built one of the first steam engines in Germany and was occasionally one of the most important manufacturers of locomotives in Europe. Since 1925 Henschel was active also in the production of trucks and buses. From 1933 to 1945 Henschel in Kassel the famous tigers - tanks and in Berlin also airplanes and military missiles produced.
Table of contents
establishment and development in 19. Century
1810 created George Christian Carl Henschel the Henschel works - first as foundry - in Kassel. 1816 began the production of steam engines. 1837 established his son Carl Anton Henschel a second work at the Dutch place (today location of the University of Kassel). To 29. July 1848 was delivered there the first steam engine produced of Henschel to the 1844 created Kurfürst Friedrich William Nordbahn. To 18. August 1848 was presented the Drache of the public fast up to 45 km/h.
enterprise history in the 1. Half 20. Century
1905 the first electrical locomotive was built and 1910 the first Henschel locomotive with carburetor engine. The Henschel works in Kassel belonged to at the beginning 20. Century apart from boron victory to the largest Lokomotivwerken Germany and were converted 1920 into a GmbH. The Henschel propulsion technology began 1918 the production of transmissions in the work centre zone. In the following years Henschel transferred the Lokomotivproduktionen of the R. Wolf AG (1928), left Hofmann works (1930 together with Krupp in equal parts), as well as those the Hanomag (1931). Under license the David Brown Ltd. 1933 the first worm gears was built.
Center of the 1930er years appeared as Firmenlogo a six-jagged, chromed star with centrically a large “H” platzierten therein than Firmenlogo, which should zieren to end of the 1960er years the commercial motor vehicles and also the industrial locomotives.
Already in the First World War Henschel manufactured armaments . The Henschel works were during the Second World War one of the most important German arms producers and concomitantly an important goal of bomb attacks. The works were nearly completely destroyed. By the bad reputation, which Henschel had as former arms rüstungsschmiede with the allied ones, the works got only 1946 permission for manufacturing smaller industrial locomotives as well as still existing damaged and/or. to add worn out trucks. Only starting from 1948 again larger locomotives were built. 1961 partly took over Henschel the diesel locomotive manufacturing of engine works Esslingen.
enterprise history in the 2. Half 20. Century
the past Henschel & son GmbH firmierte 1957 into Henschel works GmbH over, 1962 became Henschel a corporation. 1963 were given up the manufacturing by buses. 1964 took over the Rheini steel plants the shares of the Henschel works AG, which changed again starting from 1965 the name and now Rheinstahl Henschel AG was called.
1969 was transferred the diesel locomotive production of the Klöckner Humboldt Deutz AG (KHD) to Cologne Deutz and the truck manufacturing was united by Henschel with from Hanomag to Hanomag Henschel. Hanomag Henschel was sold later at Daimler Benz, which stopped the label name Hanomag Henschel 1974 (S. and).
The Rhine steel AG entered 1976 August Thyssen hut AG , now called itself the Lokomotiv work in Kassel Thyssen Henschel. The steeped in tradition name Henschel on the locomotives remained however. Together with ABB (in former times BBC, Mannheim) 1990 the ABB Henschel AG with seat in Mannheim developed. 1995 agreed upon ABB and Daimler Benz AG the world-wide union of their traffic engineering sections under the designation ABB Daimler Benz Transportation Adtranz. Thus disappeared at the 1. January 1996 the name Henschel as a vehicle producer finally. The seeming construction of vehicles kept running under the designation Adtranz , a 100%-ige daughter of the today's DaimlerChrysler - AG. 2001 Adtranz bombard Transportation on sold. This very day in Kassel electric locomotives and diesel locomotives are manufactured predominantly and modernized.
Parts of the former Henschel works in Kassel belong today to TKTR (Thyssen Krupp Transrapid) to GmbH, former Henschel military technology belonged since at the end of of 1999 to the Rheinmetall DeTec AG.
2003 found and are accessible the Henschel museum its place in the former work area in Kassel Rothenditmold in the Wolfhager road to the public.
the most important parts of the enterprise
Henschel as a locomotive manufacturer
the Henschel works were concerned already early with the development and the production of steam engines, been promoted already in 19. Century to one of the prominent German manufacturers and this remained for the end of the steam locomotive manufacturing. One already built the first electrical locomotive there for 1905. In the year 1910 with Henschel the 10,000 locomotive was built. Henschel was also over long time beside companies such as Siemens, AEG, Krauss Maffei and first still boron victory of one of the main suppliers of locomotives for the German National Railroad and later the German Federal Railroads. One of the most famous Federal Railroads locomotives, those starting from center of the 1960er years developed series E03 and/or. 103, one codeveloped considerably by Henschel and also one built.
Henschel as commercial motor vehicle manufacturers
before and during the Second World War
as itself in the middle of the 1920er years a break-down of the world economy to foresee left, considered one with Henschel the structure of a further line of business, in order not to be so dependent particularly on the Lokomotivbau any longer. Thus the resolution fell to enter into the already strongly expanding range of the commercial motor vehicle production. 1925 began the manufacturing of truck and buses, first already very progressive 3 - and 5-Tonner on basis of a license of the Swiss manufacturer FBW (approx. 300 vehicles).
In the following years Henschel developed own trucks and buses with gasoline and Diesel drive as well as own engines. End of the 20's one experimented also with steam-driven trucks as well as vehicles, also buses with wood-distilling apparatuses, both remained however with very small numbers of items. Beginning of the 1930er years were commercial motor vehicles from 2 to 12 tons of pay load in the offer. 1932 appeared the first Henschel Lanova diesel engines in a procedure of the technician Dr. h.c. Engineer. Franz long, which made a softer burn possible opposite the past diesel engines. These engines found partly also in the Lokomotiv and building of buses use. The Lanova procedure remained the Henschel trucks to beginning of the 60's. Into the 1930er years made itself Henschel within the commercial motor vehicle range above all a name as a manufacturer of heavy bus and truck chassis.
Beside the tank car already above discussed also the heavy trucks were used in the Second World War often. The factories were destroyed in the war strongly, the truck manufacturing came to succumbing.
after the Second World War
1946 the plants were so far again repaired that first with permission of the allied ones a repair shop for the still existing, strongly worn out and partly war-damaged trucks could be taken up again. Later in larger number gasoline-claimant American military trucks were equipped before with Henschel diesel engines. Too strongly with arms production in the Second World War name loaded Henschel remained first closed by the allied ones, so that the work übergangsweise under the name Hessia firmierte (a derivative of Hessen, because the seat from Henschel were in the hessian Kassel). The designation Henschel returned only 1948 .
After this 1946 one had permitted, also already again urgently needed overhead line buses in considerable number developed. Into the 1950er years was Henschel the largest German offerer of Oberleitungsbussen. As in this time usual, derived bus chassis also with Henschel in the consequence from the truck, which were karossiert frequently from outside firms to travel cars still, appeared.
only 1950, thus far after the most important competitors, were offered again own trucks. This was not however critical for the enterprise, since all available vehicles were needed anyway urgently for the reconstruction and immediately removed therefore from the market. First the heavy type appeared Henschel HS 140 for 6,5 tons of pay load. The designation of the truck implemented first as hood cars was due to engine performance to 140 HP, the model was accordingly equipped with long narrow hood and free standing headlights the time. Higher performance sister models appeared later, under it considerably the HS 170 with 170 HP. Starting from 1953 also Frontlenker with roundish cab Design were in the offer on technically to a large extent identical basis. The basic patterns of the hood cars like the Frontlenker remained until 1961 in the program.
In the year 1951 the truck program with the introduction of the type HS 100 was supplemented downward. This short hood model was starting point of a whole model family, which held itself when constant advancement, however for nearly unchanged Design to end of the 1960er years in the program. Engine performance began with 100 HP and increased up to the production end on up to 140 HP.
1955 appeared to HS 160 USL with the type a completely new type of bus, a Frontlenker with self-supporting structure in shell construction. This model available as Diesel as well as Oberleitungsbus was both and solo line car like also and Gelenkbus first a considerable sales impact. It was already in modular construction designed and had a car body from aluminum. Unprofitable the manufacturing become was stopped nevertheless 1963.
Henschel Frontlenker (angular cab with serrated front as starting from 1961, label name however already Hanomag Henschel)
Henschel Frontlenker F161S (angular cab with smoothed front and narrow radiator grille as starting from 1969, label name however already Hanomag Henschel)
starting from 1961 was revised the complete heavy truck program. Modern, angular Frontlenker replaced the roundish types of the 50's. Also new, the Frontlenkern in Design and technology very similar heavy hood vehicles, which replaced and meanwhile the old Hauber no longer nearly unchanged in the Design for 10 years up-to-date, appeared simultaneous. The new Hauber and Frontlenker existed already to the majority from identical parts, which made a very rational manufacturing and spare part supply possible. New direct injecting he engines appeared contemporaneous and replaced the last aggregates working in the Lanova procedure. This vehicle generation was revised in the 60's still several times, also optically, the Frontlenker got starting from 1965 tiltably implemented driving cabs, remained however in fundamentals up to the end of the Henschel manufacturing in production. When last fundamental innovation appeared 1969 a new, smooth middle class front steering wheel driving cab, whatever partly in the heavy building vehicles use found.
the end of the truck production
to 1969 already fused within the Rhine steel concern the commercial motor vehicle section that since 1952 to Rhine steel belonging company Hanomag and the commercial motor vehicle section from Henschel to the Hanomag Henschel of vehicle works GmbH. Company headquarters of the new enterprise became the past seat of the Hanomag works: Hanover. Daimler Benz took over first half of this enterprise, 1970 also the remaining portions. Since this time gradually noticing the diesel engines (BR 8) were built into the Hanomag Henschel vehicles. The vehicles still carried as far as 1974 the label name Hanomag Henschel, until this mark was adjusted by Daimler Benz against different phrased promises.
At the beginning of the 80's the production of vehicles ran out in the former truck work in Kassel. Since then axles for Daimler Benz commercial motor vehicles, Trailer and transporters as well as commercial motor vehicle drive shafts and differentials for passenger car are manufactured there.
Henschel as an airplane manufacturer
The most important Henschel airplanes were:
- the Hs 123, a dive bomber
- the Hs 126, a close-reconnaissance aircraft
- the Hs 129, a twin-engine battle airplane
also today still exist to enterprises, which carry the name Henschel. After the assumption of the ranges mixing technology, handling technique and propulsion technology of the ThyssenKrupp AG by the KERO 2003 three independent societies developed, which let the name Henschel and the star live on.
- The Henschel propulsion technology produces in long tradition transmission and gear wheels. To call here extrusion is -, Lokachs, snail as well as special transmissions.
- The offer spectrum of the Reimelt Henschel of mixing systems covers the know-how of the mixing processes beside various mixer types also particularly.
- The Andromat, a handling manipulator, is the central product of the Henschel industrial technology of handling system.