Herakleios (* around 575; † 11. February 641), lat. Flavius Heraclius, was of 5. October 610 up to the 11. February 641 eastRoman and/or. Byzantine emperor. It was one thatand can be considered to most important Byzantine ruler at the same time as the last ruler of late ancient times and the first emperor of the centralByzantine realm. The dynasty justified by it should govern 711 up to the year.
Table of contents
origin and accession
Herakleios were probably Armenian descent. Its nut/mother was called Epiphania, its father, Herakleios the older one , emperor Maurikios was general under, before he was appointed the Exarchen of Karthago (in principle a governor with extensive military and civilian powers). The younger Herakleios might have spoken also still latin, but its native language will have been probably Greek. (However improbably) is possiblealso a descent of the Arsakiden, which had governed to 226 in Persia and to 428 in Armenia (Lit.: see. Kaegi, Heraclius, S. 21, notes. 4 with further reference works).
after the seizure of power of the Phokas, in its processalso the former emperor Maurikios including its family was murdered, obviously came it due to the discontent with its government to the establishment of contact between these simmering ducks into Konstantinopel and Herakleios' father. At the end marched an army under the guidance of the Niketas, cousins Herakleios', into Egypt,while Herakleios, which went in place of its father, segelte 610 with the fleet after Konstantinopel. Phokas was entmachtet at the beginning of of Octobers of the same yearly and killed in cruel kind. Since the sources only from the perspective of the winner report, it is conceivable in addition, that it itselfwith the revolt against Phokas in the long run only around a Putsch to have acted could. Because at least at first the policy of the new emperor hardly differed from that of his predecessor. The resistance against the attacking Perser, which attacked since 603 eastRoman territory (see below), seem even firstto have decreased, which is to be explained however partly by the fact that Herakleios had first difficulties to consolidate its rule. One will generally be able to hold however at least that the government of the Phokas in parts of the population encountered resistance.
The first war years: the loss of Syria and Egypt
since the time of the Maurikios peace had held the Sassaniden, the ore enemies of east Rome. Its joggle and murder used the Persian large king Chosrau II.now however as pretext, in order to break in into Roman area and back-conquer lost areas;Chosrau obviously aimed at also a re-establishment „of the old borders “of the Perserreiches. For this purpose it presented an alleged son of the Maurikios, which had survived the blood bath arranged by Phokas. First east Rome under Herakleios had to deplore to date largest losses in history(Armenia fell however already under Phokas, likewise the important fortress Dara). Nevertheless it would be to be maintained wrongly, Herakleios had not undertaken anything, in order to stop or at least slow the Persian invasion down. Further it must be also considered that Herakleios first on the inside still alsothe consolidation of his rule was busy: Thus it among other things still came to fights with Phokas faithful troops, whose leader was a brother of the Phokas. In the year 611 the resistance of the Phokas troops had broken down anyhow, and Roman troops carried the Persern out resistance with Emesa, became howeverstruck. Persian troops partly penetrated to small Asia and plünderten Kappadokien. the Roman general Philippikos however an invasion of Armenia undertook and penetrated 613 deeply into Persian area. The Perser was forced to withdraw troops in order to become finished with this development. Meanwhile could itselfHerakleios with his brother Theodoros and its cousin Niketas in Syria combine. There however the Roman troops were struck; they had to withdraw themselves eiligst to small Asia. In the same year Damascus was lost .
Subsequently, the Perser turned after the south and conquered 614 Jerusalem, includingthe holy cross, which was handed over allegedly to the Christian wife Chosraus, Schirin. The Persian general Shahrabaraz had obviously requested the Jews to the fight against the Christians; it probably came to some heavy atrocities, which were not forgotten later on Christian side, although thosePerser their support of the Jews soon adjusted and now the monophysitischen Christians favored, who lay since long time in the controversy with the orthodox emperors. The Perser occurred to 616 finally in Egypt , where Niketas was able to offer only delaying resistance. The country became finally to it integrates 619 conquered and into the Sassanidenreich with which also the grain chamber of the eastRoman realm was in Persian hand.
At the same time it came on the Balkans to fights with the Awaren, those with its slawischen “subjects” repeats the eastRoman areas into Greece and on the Balkansattacked, while the Westgoten conquered the last region in southern Spain, held by the east Romans. Also in financial regard difficulties resulted, since a majority of the tax receipts broke in; this problem was at least partly solved by a financial reform. Besides it came repeated to epidemic outbreaks, which thatorganized resistance of the Roman troops additionally made more difficult.
the Gegenoffensive of the Herakleios
It had finally despaired to 526-600 the situation of the emperor in such a way to withdraw itself that he was to have considered for a while allegedly to give the capital up and into the safe Karthago.Only on urge of the Patriarchen Sergios it is to have remained in the east and have seized now a bold plan: It wanted to go into the offensive and to strike the enemy in its own country. This actually very courageous step shows however finally only the difficultSituation, in which east Rome was at that time. Herakleios acquired from the Awarenkhagan a short peace, collected the remaining troops and left to 5. April 622 the capital. It probably went with the army by the sea route to small Asia, where it thoseRoman troops first drillte. Probably the fleet segelte after Tarsos, of where from the emperors landinward marched; the exact route of the army is not well-known just like the exact strength, it is to have been however considerable (Lit.: see. in addition Greatrex/Lieu, S. 199).The measures of the emperor obviously showed effect: Probably in Kappadokien Herakleios 622 ( according to other specifications 623 ) could strike the Persian general Shahrabaraz, afterwards the army wintered to Armenia, whereby Herakleios to Konstantinopel returned, in order about the threat by the Awaren to worry, thosebut by further tribute payments to be first immobilized could. It is also noteworthy in this connection that Herakleios the first emperor since Theodosius I., that was at the point of an army in war pulled themselves (one sees off from some operations under Maurikios) - particularly Herakleiosnow, since it went into the offensive, when a outstanding strategist proved.
Herakleios altogether probably led three campaigns against the Sassaniden (in the research this question is contentious, since also the source situation is not concerning the campaign very productive and partly contradictory; see in addition Theophanes and George von Pisidien), whereby it returned in the meantime to Konstantinopel (like 623) or longer time pausierte. Finally it went into the Caucasus, where it received reinforcement from the there Christian inhabitants. The special at the campaign against the Sassaniden was that Herakleiosit obviously as a kind crusade against „the Feueranbeter “understood: Pictures were set up by Christ in the army camp, and from revenge for devastation Jerusalems and the taking along of the holy cross were destroyed several fire temples; if one follows George von Pisidien, one developedalmost mystizistische tendency at the eastRoman troops. The situation remained nevertheless with difficulty; only one defeat of the emperor would probably have meant the end of the realm.
In the years 624 and 625 particularly in the Caucasus region one fought (Lit.: see. to the following Kaegi, Heraclius, S. 122ff.). Herakleios, which left 624 Konstantinopel in March, where he some time had be, invaded now over Theodosiopolis in Armenia. The imperial troops conquered a whole number of cities, whereby the Armenian city Dvin was even destroyed. Subsequently, a course followedafter Azerbaijan, center fire cult, where the emperor let the city Ganzaka, in which Chosrau had be still briefly before, storm and devastate; also the famous there fire temple was destroyed. Herakleios did not pursue Chosrau however, because found at this timetwo larger Persian armies in its moving and made themselves now hunt for him - Chosrau, which was now obviously seriously anxious, had set all available troops in march. Herakleios had itself first set off, could in the future however several small Persian federations ream. AlsoShahrabaraz was struck end of 624, but remained its army intact, so that Herakleios had to set off first, particularly since its Caucasian auxiliary troops probably partly left the emperor in the pass.
In the summer 626 it came to the heaviest crisis of the war: Konstantinopel was besieged together by Awaren and Persern,nevertheless the city thanks of the fleet could hold itself, particularly since neither translating succeeded to the Persern nor the Awaren and Slawen in each case at that different banks. The east Romans certainly attributed the abolition of the FE storage to the support of the God nut/mother, with which this victory a religiousDimension received. To meet during the view of the Persian strategy - which obviously copied the strategy of the Herakleios, the enemy in its heartland - that the Perser broke in in small Asia plündernd, control of the entire territory is noticeable however never attained.
Herakleios hadmeanwhile its troops divided: A part it sent after Konstantinopel for reinforcement (where they arrived before Shahrabaraz, which kommandierte the Persian troops during the FE storage,), another part invaded under its brother Theodoros in Mesopotamien , where they could strike the Persian general Schahin, to thatthird part remained with the emperor in Armenia.
the campaign after Ktesiphon and the battle of Ninive
the missed FE storage of Konstantinopel marked the turning point of the war: The Perser was pushed into the defensive, the Awarenreich on the Balkans disintegrated due to internal unrests,while the Romans continued to go into the offensive. Herakleios collected far troops in Lazika at the black sea and took up with the Chasaren contact, which likewise placed troops to him. This was the beginning of a co-operation, those to an important factor in the eastRoman (and/or. thenByzantine) east politics became. In the summer 627 also further troops from small Asia arrived. With chazarischer support a Persian federation under Sharaplakan was destroyed, the Persian general fell in the battle. Shahrabaraz, despite some defeats the best general Chosraus, had withdrawn itself to Egypt and should in the future also undertake nothing else against Herakleios; Chosrau had obviously lost and planned the confidence into its general its murder. Herakleios, which controlled now the southern Caucasus area, marched in September 627 of low-reads out to the south, whereby him its chazarischen auxiliary troops however soonleft. In December 627 Herakleios in the battle struck the Perser with Ninive crucially, however Ktesiphons did and occupied without the FE storage instead the favourite residence Chosraus, Dastagird; the city was geplündert a little later and destroyed.
Chosrau II., the Herakleios before in letting down kind andWay as its miserable servant and slaves had tituliert, unklugerweise not with Herakleios' peace offers had dealt and the debt for the heavy defeats to its generals had not pushed over and it thereby actually to the rebellion had not encouraged. Its behavior after the battle with Ninive became it as cowardicelaid out: It fled after Ktesiphon. There it was entmachtet and killed short time later, in February 628, by its son Siroe. The Perser, with which the invasion of the Herakleios probably left a clear traumatic effect, had in a peace treaty 628 all occupied areas and the crossChristi return (the feedback of the cross is until today a high holiday of the orthodox church). The wording of the letter of Kavadh II. Siroe at Herakleios, in which the new large king asks for peace, is delivered to us by the Osterchronik in such a way specified (Chronicon Paschale).
Herakleios, which the war by no means when a destruction, probably however as a revenge war had led, stood outwardly on the high point of its power, particularly since also the Awarenreich had finally broken down, even if the majority of the Balkans areas for Byzanz still long time were lost. But was thisa deceitful victory: East Rome was by the long war expenditure-bleeds, while the Sassanidenreich collapsed actually and itself only under Yazdegerd III. again to consolidate began.
the break-down of the Arabs and the loss of the Roman Orientprovinzen
so are it alsounderstandably that the Arabs with the weakening had easy play. 634 broke in it in Syria . In the autumn 636 it came to the battle at the Jarmuk. Herakleios, which had not quite seriously taken the attacks first, sent now a in terms of figures very strong army. But thoseRoman generals co-operated from jealousy badly, and the Arab auxiliary troops of the emperor turned into to the enemy: The battle ended with a catastrophic defeat for the east Romans, who lost thereby also Syria. Herakleios was probably aware of the consequence, because he was alleged with thatWords from Antiochia left: Living well-being Syria. (To 651) the Arabs a little later conquered the Sassanidenreich.
In the result east Rome to 642 did not only go to Syria and Palestine, but also Egypt lost. Byzanz was now on the city, small Asia, the Ägäis, Karthago (that only 697 fell) and some coastal regions in Greece (also the Bulgaren and Slawen large areas had run over there there) together-shrunk. It was this the beginning of a century-long test of strength, which should have to deliver Byzanz up to its conquest by the Turks 1453.
TooTo details see Islamic expansion.
relating to domestic affairs had to fight to Herakleios heavily with the unresolved problem of the Monophysitismus, whereby it was endeavored to unite the church in the realm: The compromise settlement of the Ekthesis (see also Monotheletismus) failed however, there the majorityon both sides remained unyielding and this draft rejected. In certain way the problem of the religious unit was then solved from the outside, when the Arabs conquered those provinces, which the Orthodoxie does not anhingen. 622 or 623 Herakleios had besides, after the death of its first wife Fabia and during a stay in Konstantinopel, its niece Martina married, the daughter of his sister Maria. This marriage should have serious consequences, since the emperor thereby had exposed himself to the suspicion of the Inzests and thus for parts of the church was discredited. In addition Herakleios arrangedthe obligation baptism from Jews (something similar happened however also for example in the merowingischen Franconia realm). The emperor will have also distrusted to the Jews, which resulted from their behavior during the Persian invasion (see above). The Jews had themselves obviously political and religious autonomy of the Persernexpected, the this however probably just as little to grant wanted like the Romans.
Whether Herakleios is responsible already for the establishment of the topic condition in such a way specified, is very disputed in the modern research. George Ostrogorsky to the well-known historian ( the author of the earlier standard work history of the Byzantine appliedState of, 3. Edition, Munich 1963) this still as safe, is taken into most modern representation of this thesis for good reason distance.
On the inside Herakleios promoted however the Gräzisierung of the state: Thus he did without latin Titulatur Imperator (and/or. their Greek form Autokrator) and accepted the Greek title Basileus , which appears in official context in March 629 for the first time instead of its. Because already since longer latin was only the language of the military and the administration, not however the people. This was in small Asia, Syria andEgypt since the time Alexanders slowly, although usually only superficially, hellenisiert and was rather Greek coined/shaped thereby. With Justinian I. 565 the last Roman emperor had already died, whose native language had been still latin.
Economically devastations of the asiatic provinces proved throughthe Sassaniden as a serious problem. Also for this reason it came soon to 628 to a disarmament of the expensive armed forces, which proved due to the Arab invasion however as fatal. However Herakleios a quite successful financial reform succeeded, during literature and art again onecertain bloom experienced, before among its successors the culture of late ancient times was less and less maintained also in the east.
For the end of its life again problems resulted in the follow-up question, since Martina wanted to secure the throne for its son. But both sons (Heraklonas finally became and Konstantin III.) raised to emperors, as Herakleios at the 11. February 641 in Konstantinopel died.
Herakleios accomplished extensive reforms inside the realm, those for the Byzantine realm up to its fall to be coining/shaping should and the end that lateantique phase of the realm marked. Under Herakleios the eastRoman lost and/or. earlyByzantine realm by the Gräzisierung of the state to a large extent its lateRoman character.
Herakleios was undoubted large military. Its Tragik lies in it justified that he could save the realm from the Sassaniden, notmore however before the attack of the Arabs, who perhaps of large parts of the semitischen population, which besides by the majority the Monophysitismus anhing, used with them, in Syria were welcomed. With the loss of the most important provinces and the restriction on small Asia and the Balkans that endedeastRoman realm, and the Byzantine realm of the Middle Ages took its beginning.
the historical work
of the Sebeos and the Theophanes represents literature [work on ] to sources important one sources as well as the poems of George von Pisidien; to details see. the entry inthe Prosopography OF the Later novel Empire. The source situation is however very problematic, straight which attempts of a characterisation of the Herakleios concerns, see. in addition the biography of Kaegi.
- Geoffrey B. Greatrex and Samuel N.C. Lieu: The novel Eastern Frontier and the Persian Wars. Part IIAD 363-630. A narrative sourcebook, London and New York 2002, particularly S. 182ff. Translated and scarcely commentated source excerpts.
- John Haldon: Byzantium into the Seventh Century. The transformation OF A Culture, Cambridge 1990.
- James Howard Johnston: Heraclius' Persian Campaigns and theRevival OF the East novel Empire 622-630, in: S. was in History 6 (1999). 1–44.
- Walter E. Kaegi: Heraclius - Emperor OF Byzantium, Cambridge 2003. Fundamental work.
- Ralph Johannes lily: Byzanz - second Rome, Berlin 2003, S. 80ff. Knappe, but high-informative summaryon the newest state of research.
- John Martindale: The Prosopography OF the Later novel Empire IIIa, Cambridge 1992, S. 586f.
- Gerrit J. Pure Inc. (Hrsg.): The Reign OF Heraclius (610-641). Crisis and Confrontation, Leuven 2002.
- Andreas's N. Stratos: Byzantium into the Seventh Century, Bd. 1,Amsterdam 1968.
Web on the left of
|Commons: Herakleios - pictures, videos and/or audio files|
- entry (inclusive Literature data) in the biographic-bibliographic church encyclopedia (BBKL)
- specializedscientific Kurzbiografie (English) from De Imperatoribus Rome anise (inclusive Literature data)
- excerpt from Warren Treadgold, A History OF the Byzantine State and Society
- the campaigns of the Herakleiosafter the chronicle of the Theophanes (English)
- the historical work of the Sebeos (English)
- Elizabeth Campagner: A Jewish Apokalypse 7. Century? Emperor Heraklius as an anti-Christian? (Internet magazine for culture sciences, pdf)
|This article became into the list that Article worth reading taken up.|
|ALTERNATIVE NAME||Flavius Heraclius|
|SHORT DESCRIPTION||of Byzantine emperors|
|DATE OF BIRTH||around 575|
|PLACE OF BIRTH|
|DYING DATE||11. February 641|