Herat, Persian: هرات, in the antique Haraiva [TA], a city is in the western Afghanistan in the valley of the Hari Rud. It is the capital of the province Herat and the second largest citythe country to Kabul. Their number of inhabitants amounts to 254,800 (2003), mainly Tadschiken (self-designation Farsi).
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- northern ones of width: 34° 20 ' 42 ''
- eastern length: 62° 12 ' 0 ''
- height: 925 m
you is an old city with many historical buildings, although these suffered from the military arguments of the last decades. Most buildingsare delighted from loam bricks. The ruin of a citadel, which was established to the large one under Alexander, controls the opinion of the city, in 15. to 17. Century was called Herat also the Florenz Asia.
The Iranian trunk Aria, old Persian Haraiva [TA], created the today's Herat approx. 1200 v. Chr. under the name Artacoana. It was the capital of the region Aria and the Persian Satrapie of the same name.
- It gives alsoSpeculations over it that the Aria specified above was later ancestors of the inhabitants of today's Croatia and partially to Europe pulled ( the Croat calls itself Hrvat - see similarity vat for the old-Persian name of the city H (A) to r (ai) (A)).
Alexander the large one conquered the city 330 v. Chr. and it constructed again. In this time the famous citadel of the city developed. The region around Herat was conquered after the case of the Seleukiden by the native Parthern - from here beganthe establishment of the powerful part ago - Imperiums.
the Middle Ages
with the case of the Persian Sassaniden became Herat part of the Muslim Kalifats. The Samaniden appointed late Herat its capital and developed it to a center of the Persian art,Culture and literature.
Around 1000 n. Chr. conquered the Turkish Ghaznawiden the city and about 1100 the Seldschuken. Starting from 1175 the native Ghoriden prevailed in Herat for a short time, before it became part of the Khawarazm realm. In thisTime was Herat an important center of the production of metal goods, particularly bronze, which were often verziert with artful inserting work made of valuable metals.
Timur long destroyed Herat around 1381. Under its son Schah Rukh was again developed it and explained as the capital Khorassans and the Timuridenreiches. Schah Rukhs Mrs. Gauhar for example established harm the Musalla complex with his many Minaretten.
The Usbeken conquered Herat 1506; only few years later the city was taken by Ismail Safawi. Herat became again part of Persia and remained up to conquest by the Afghans one of the most important cities of the Safawiden in Khorassan.
early modern times
between 1718 and 1880 gave it many battles around Herat, until the city finally in the course of the Great Game, the political chess of two European colonial powers Russia and Great Britain, Afghanistan was awarded. Thus developed a buffer zone between Russia and British India, which insured the independence of Persia and Afghanistan at the same time.
already before the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan at the end of of 1979 gave it an extensive operational readiness levelof Soviet advisors with their families in Herat. Of 10. up to 20. March 1979 meuterte the army in the city under guidance of Ismail Khan and 350 Soviet citizens was killed. The Soviets bombarded the city, which to extensive destructionand to thousand dead, and conquered the city with tanks and paratroopers led back.
Ismail Khan became Mujahedin commander and after the departure the Soviets' governor von Herat. 1995 conquered the Taliban Herat, but to 12. November 2001 resulted itthe north alliance and Ismail Khan power came in the region.
In the year 2004 Hamid Karzai Ismail Khan set off and appointed Said Mohammad Kheir Khowa the new governor. After it the inhabitants Herats revolted briefly, there it with thatDecision Karzais did not agree.
Herat was long time a center of the Persian-Muslim culture world. Particularly is the city for its bedeutdende art and literature tradition admits. One of the bekannsten poets of Persia, Dschami, that at the same time as thatlast important Sufi masters of the Middle Ages applies, was from Herat. Also the Halveti - and the Cheschti Sufi medal was created in Herat. A further celebrity of the city was Ustad Kamal ud DIN Behzad, the most important representative of the Persian-Muslim miniature painting.
Herat is in addition for his handattached Perserteppiche admits. (After the city designated) the Herat style belongs to its kind to the most expensive and bekannsten.
Up to the decay of the Safawiden realm Herat, as bead of Persia, was at that time also well-known the second largest city of the kingdom andthe most important metropolis in the east of Persia.
important persons from and in Herat
- Gauhar harm, Persian aristocrat and wife of the timuridischen Sultans Schah Rukh
- Khwaja Abdullah Ansari, Persian Sufi poet
- Dschami, Persian Sufi master
- Ustad Kamal ud DIN Behzad, Persian miniature painter
- me Ali shear Nava'i, uighurischer poet, politician and owner
- me wais Sadik, Afghan politician
- Nadia Anjuman, Afghan Dichterin
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coordinates: 34° 20 ′ 42 " n. Break, 62°12 ′ 0 " o. L.