Harsh ore of Dirksen

harsh ore of Dirksen (* 2. April 1882 in Berlin, † 19. December 1955 in Munich) was a German diplomat.


Table of contents

family and study and Prussian administration

Dirksen came of to a wealthy Prussian official family, those only 1887 of emperor Wilhelm I. into the nobility one raised. Its father Willibald of Dirksen was diplomat in the Foreign Office. After initial house instruction harsh ore of Dirksen made 1900 its Abitur on the royal William High School in Berlin; subsequently, it studied jurisprudence in Heidelberg and Berlin from 1900 to 1903 and attained a doctorate to the Dr. iur. in Rostock. After the one year's military service with the 3. Guard Ulanen regiment in potsdam followed interrupted from 1904 to 1910 the Referendariat in the Prussian government service, from a longer stay in London 1905 and a one year's voyage round the world 1907/08. After that 2. legal state examinations married he 1910 Hilda of Oelsen, whose family possessed extensive property possession in Vietnitz/Neumark.

Dirksen was from 1910 to 1914 as Regierungsassessor at the district administration office in Bonn. In this time its lifelong interest with regard to foreign policy and economic developed. He expressed this in form several historical-political articles, whose emphasis was the German imperialism, which he endorsed. With outbreak of the First World War it was drawn and served into the supply as well as in different military staffs. By Protektion it received a place in the civil administration in Belgium to 1915, where it was responsible among other things for the Deportation of Belgian workers into the German Reich. By its war experiences he regarded the war no longer than probates means for the penetration of politics and criticized under the alias Darius in several newspaper articles the German foreign policy and diplomacy.


Dirksen transferred and operated

beginnings in the Foreign Office defiance of its criticism 1917 one temporarily activity as an adviser to the English auxiliary place at the German legation to the Hague even its admission into the German diplomatic service. In the middle of 1918 he was taken over by the Foreign Office and sent as a director/conductor of the Referates press and propaganda to the imperial legation to Kiew. In the Ukraine occupied by German troops should it help to consolidate the country in the course the German war goal politics as independent state. With the end of the war and the penetrating of Soviet-Russian troops after Kiew the legation was closed; 1919 it returned to Berlin.

Dirksen wanted to actually withdraw itself with the end of the empire and the constitution of the democracy from the diplomatic service, since he was not convinced of this system of government. He did not ask nevertheless for his resignation, because in the long run he felt obligated as a loyaler civil servant the state, without consideration for the system of government. At the same time it engaged itself in the German national people's party (DNVP), which it had joined soon after establishment. In the Foreign Office it became 1919 directors/conductors of the Unterreferates the Baltic. Central task of its working was the arranged and rapid feedback of German troop units from the Baltic.

With the resumption from diplomatic relations to Poland in the year 1920 Dirksen was sent to Warsaw, in order to function up to advancing an envoy as representatives. When this withdrew after only four months term of office and the Foreign Office because of the difficult GermanPolish relations wanted to send no successor, Dirksen became again representative. Into the international preparations for the allocation of Upper Silesia it was not merged.

Again in the Foreign Office to Berlin zurückbeordert, Dirksen was confronted as directors/conductors of the Poland Referates starting from 1921 with the Upper Silesia question. Like a majority of the German population it felt the eastern transfers as a humiliating of the German nation and required a revision. Nevertheless he had to prepare the GermanPolish negotiations in addition.

1923 appointed the Consul General in Danzig, knew Dirksen, under which status of the free city, to which political and economic decisions influence, why it was shifted on the cultural policy, limited with whose assistance he the mental unit only from realm and city to receive wanted.

In the course of a restructuring in the Foreign Office Dirksen 1925 the position of a conductor was transferred in the east department in such a way specified with the subjects Eastern Europe, Scandinavia and Eastern Asia. If it was contentwise only small involved in the negotiations to the Locarno contracts as Protokollführer of the German delegation, came to it during the preparations of the economic and consular convention and citizen of Berlin of the contract with the Soviet Union a greater importance. Here it was center 1925 entrusted with the conduct of the negotiations partly.

1928 were promoted to Dirksen to the director/conductor of the east department in the Foreign Office. The work in the center contained too much bureaucratic routine task for its feeling. As lucky coincidence 1928 for it the controversy between realm president Paul von Hindenburg and Aussenminister Gustav Stresemann over the occupation of the Ambassador post in Moscow proved. After long arguments they agreed on harsh ore of Dirksen as compromise candidates.


Ambassador in Moscow, Tokyo and London

under difficult conditions tried Dirksen in vain to cause as Ambassadors in Moscow an improvement of the GermanSoviet relationship by wanting to support the political relations by economical and military. Due to several diplomatic errors it aroused the impression in Germany equal to beginning of its Ambassador time from incompetence. 1929 gave its fundamental false estimate of the Chinese-Soviet conflict as well as the situation to the realm German in the USSR for it cause. In the following years it did not succeed to Dirksen to improve the GermanSoviet relationship lastingly. Political provocations on both sides, Soviet obligation collectivizations, the nonaggression treaty politics of Moscow and also the realm tag fire were reasons for it. In the autumn 1933 the Foreign Office finally obtained its transfer to the German message in Tokyo.

When Dirksen at the end of of 1933 in Tokyo arrived, he announced immediately an attendance of the Mandschukuos standing under Japanese control . Since this would have equaled an unwanted acknowledgment by Germany, it forbade the Foreign Office to him. To this instruction it felt however not bound, since it believed to act on behalf Hitler, who had laid on it to improve the GermanJapanese relations. Despite Dirksens of intensive efforts toward a better bilateral relationship it was not included 1936 into the negotiations to the Antikominternpakt. This happened not because of personal or vocational inadequacies Dirksens, but was expression of Hitler's distrust opposite its diplomats. Therefore the negotiations without participation of the Foreign Office had taken place. In the Chinese-Japanese conflict 1937 it expressed itself after longer hesitating for a German switching, which failed however to at the beginning of of 1938. Exclusively for health reasons it was recalled on own desire after approximately five years in Eastern Asia from Tokyo.

Up to the dissolution of the party in the year 1933 Dirksen remained member of the DNVP. Only in the summer 1936 Dirksen occurred its admission the NSDAP, but retarded by March 1937. A convinced national socialist he never became.

On its return journey to Germany Dirksen received the offer from minister of foreign affairs Ribbentrop to take over a new diplomatic mission. Although it had at this time still the intention to terminate its vocational career it became a 1938 Ambassador in London. Its continual efforts toward better British-German relations failed just like its employment for the receipt of the peace in Europe. The fact that it was not successful is to be due also to Ribbentrops habit, its Ambassadors frequent to quote and on long time to consultations to Berlin. Thus Dirksens presence was limited London to altogether few months. In addition Hitler led his foreign policy independently of the Foreign Office, so that Dirksens estimate did not have any meaning for him and an influencing control was thus not possible.

second world war, Entnazifizierung and post-war period

with beginning of the Second World War its active time ended as a diplomat for Dirksen. On its rule Gröditzberg in Schlesien he dedicated himself from now on again to his journalistic activity. In German and occupied Europe he held historical-political lectures beyond that before soldiers and party comrades, in which he justified the war and Hitler's politics generally.

From Schlesien Dirksen on express instruction was frightened by minister of foreign affairs Joachim of Ribbentrop by means of a special command of the armed forces. Probably thereby documents of the property and private archives stayed and fell into the hands of the Soviet troops (see Soviet publication of 1949: Archives Dirksens). The documents arrived later into central archives of the GDR to potsdam. Its it lived last years in mountains/Upper Bavaria, where it had to undergo the Entnazifizierung; 1947 gradated it the arbitration board in trusting stone as relieve. Up to its death he wrote various critical essays to the east politics Adenauer and to the Schlesien problem. After long and serious illness harsh ore of Dirksen deceased to 19. December 1955 at the age of 73 years in Munich.

literature

  • harsh ore of Dirksen: “Moscow, Tokyo, London. Memories and views to 20 years of German foreign policy.“Stuttgart, 1949.
  • Documents and materials from the prehistory of the Second World War. Volume 2: Archives Dirksens (1938-39). Given change of the Ministry for foreign affairs of the USSR. Moscow, 1949.
  • Gerald mouth: “Harsh ore of Dirksen (1882-1955). A German diplomat in empire, Weimar Republic and third realm. A Biografie.“dissertation.de publishing house in the Internet, Berlin, 2003.
  • Carolin Reimers: “Dr. Harsh ore of Dirksen: A German Ambassador as collecting tanks of East Asian art “. East Asian magazine 1, 2001, S.22-32.


 

  > German to English > de.wikipedia.org (Machine translated into English)