Hermann of Helmholtz

Hermann of Helmholtz (haven-guesses/advises by Ludwig Knaus, 1881)

Hermann Ludwig Ferdinand of Helmholtz (* 31. August 1821 in potsdam; † 8. September 1894 in Charlottenburg) was a German physiologist and physicist. As a universal scholar it was one the most versatileScientist of his time and was called also realm chancellor of physics.

To Hermann of Helmholtz (photography)
helmet getting time statue before the Humboldt university in Berlin

table of contents


Helmholtz, son of a teacher, studied medicine to Medicinisch surgical Friedrich William institute in Berlin. Since the study at this Institut included the obligation to a following eight-year old military service, Helmholtz served starting from 1843 as an army surgeon in potsdam. 1848 it became on recommendation Alexander of Humboldts from the military service to dismiss prematurely and informed first anatomy at thatBerlin academy of arts.it received a call to 1849 as a professor of the physiology and pathology after king mountain. 1855 he transferred the chair for anatomy and physiology to Bonn, 1858 the chair for physiology to Heidelberg. 1870 became Helmholtz the member of the Prussian academy thatSciences appointed.

it went to 1871 as a professor for physics to Berlin. 1888 became Helmholtz the first president of the again-created physical-technical institute for realm in Charlottenburg. At the beginning to its scientific work Helmholtz arrived by investigations over fermentation, rot and the heat production of the organisms (which it mainly upMuscle work led back) for the formulation of the law of the conservation of energy. In its book concerning preservation Kraft (1847) he formulated the principle of conservation of energy more in detail than Julius Robert von Mayer it 1842 had done, and carried so substantially for acknowledgment this firstvery disputed principle. By application of the principle of conservation of energy to organisms Helmholtz contradicted the vitalists, which accepted a vital strength as basic strength of the life. Later Helmholtz specified the energy theorem for chemical procedures and introduced 1881 the term of the free energy for the distinction of bound energy .

Already 1842 know Helmholtz the origin of the nerve fibers from ganglion cells after. 1852 succeeded to it the measurement of the propagation rate of nerve excitations. Tying to these physiological research busy it itself with the physiology of hearing and seeing. It developed a mathematical theory for the explanation of the tone quality by overtones, the resonance theory of hearing and on it based the science of the clay/tone feelings as physiological basis for the theory of the music (1863). Helmholtz help the three-color theory of seeing set up by Thomas Young to the break-through, invented 1850 the Ophthalmoskop (ophthalmoscope) for the investigation of the eye background, 1851 the Ophthalmometer for the determination of the radii of curvature of the eye cornea/callosity as well as 1857 the Telestereoskop.

With the list eddy-corrode (1858 and 1868) over the behavior and the movement of eddies to frictionless liquids supplied with to Helmholtz important bases of hydrodynamics. In investigations to electrodynamicsHelmholtz looked for a compromise between the theories of Franz Ernst Neumann and James Clerk Maxwell. Mathematically prepared investigations on nature phenomena such as eddy towers, thunderstorms or glaciers made Helmholtz the founder of the scientific meteorology.

In epistemological discussions Helmholtz with problems of counting sat downand measuring as well as the general validity of the principle of the smallest effect apart. On the basis of its optical and acoustic investigations he modified the classical perception term, rejected contrary to Immanuel Kant the existence of firm opinion forms, and considered it therefore possible, non-Euclidean geometry descriptiveto make.

In the last volume its 1856-67 appeared work to manual of the physiological optics represented he, which role the unconscious conclusion for the perception plays.

Parents of Helmholtz: August Ferdinand Julius H. and. Caroline Penne (1797-1854). From two marriages [26. August. 1849 Olga of Velten(1827-1859) and. 16. May 1861 Anna von Mohl (1834-1899)] 5 children (3 sons went and. 2 daughters) out.


frequently used, simple geometry for the production of an generally accessible homogeneous magnetic field. The arrangement consists itself of two coaxially in the distance directlythat of their radius facing coils with same number of turns.

If the Einzelspulen are in the same direction currentflowed through (+), receive one a large range with constant field strength. If the coils are against-intimately flowed through (-), one receives on the inside constant field gradients.


to the sound analysis use acoustically Resonator (oscillationable system, which begins to swing when suggestion with the natural frequency) consists of an air-filled hollow ball with opening.

helmet getting time differential equation

as helmet getting time equation becomes the partial differential equation

< math> \ delta \ varphi + k^2 \ varphi = 0< /math>

designated. <math> \ delta </math> thereby the Laplace operator is.

It appears in physics, if one e.g. with the solution of the wave equation the separation of the variables makes and a harmonious time dependence accepts.

see also

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