Herodot of Halikarnassos (griech. Ἡρόδοτος, Hēródotos, approx. * 484 v. Chr., † 425 v. Chr.) were a Greek historian, geographer and a Völkerkundler. It became from Cicero (De put. 1,5) at the same time as a “fatherthe historiography " (lat.more pater historiae) and than storytellers of “countless fairy tales” (lat. innumerabiles fabulae) designates.
Table of contents
Herodot (lat. Herodotus) was born in Halikarnassos in small Asia, today Bodrum/Turkey. It undertook according to own datalong journeys to Persia, Egypt, Babylonien and to the black sea. Occasionally it lived also in South Italies in Thurioi, in whose establishment it was involved. Approx. 447 v.Chr. he came to Athens, where he probably confine contactto large personalities of this time maintained. In addition Sophokles and Perikles belonged.
work and author
Herodot wrote a history of the argument between Greeks and Persern at the beginning 5. Century v. Chr. (Perserkriege), underthe title histories (equivalent to: Investigations, research) admits are. Originally Herodot spoke individual contentwise sections closed in itself (so mentioned logoi) a public. Its writings were recognized as a new form of the literature soon after their publication. Herodots Prosawerkbesides on a high literary level one wrote, so that its style should exert still lasting influence on the future historiography.
Herodot as theoreticians
in histories is the condition debate, in that the particulars Systems of government to be weighed out against each other. They have today an important until meaning in the democracy research (Herodot 3.80-84 ).
geographer and Völkerkundler
in the context of his papers become before the statement of the process of the Perserkriege as it were as stage of theHappening the panorama of the countries and peoples of the entire at that time well-known world stretched. Thus Herodot made early contributions to people customer. Herodot states, how a map of the world should look according to its opinion, and provides for us thus view of the world horizoneducated humans of its time. Its description belongs to the earliest beginnings of cartography.
philosopher and storyteller
before Herodot gave it only to chronicles and Epen as forms of the historical description. Herodot was however first, which notonly the past registered, but it additionally as philosophical problem or research project treated, which knowledge of the human behavior result in could. The composition of histories follows thereby usually less “scientific” criteria than rather artistic and philosophical considerations. Of parts of the researchHerodot is seen very critical in addition. Was accused to him between myths and historical events to have differentiated whereby as counter project the work of the Thukydides could be considered; over the question, which value histories have as source, is inthe research to today no agreement obtained (Lit.: see. Bichler/Rollinger, S. 161ff.).
Herodot differentiates the guidance conceptions of human self value search with respect to histories. Free, heedless acting, like in the Rhampsinit - history, in the two brothersinto the vault of the king break in and, in order to be discovered, who reduces the other one the head, after he had stepped into a trap from which it any longer release cannot places himself it consciousness for responsibility andGuilty knowledge (see.Gyges - history) opposite.
An important aspect in histories is also the Hybris. It is repaid with Nemesis, with barrier infringements, or Tisis, with injustice, - this warning of pride pulls itself through like a guidance motivethe entire work and probably addresses itself to the Athener, whose great power politics evaluate Herodot very critically. It wants to warn its readers obviously by the example of the failed attack of the Perser on Greece to commit a similar error.
Herodot personally historical
facts wants to arrange author and rationalist in histories, interprets, causally to connect and in the connection represent. This is an aspect of the contrast between the rational world view Herodots and for example Homers archaischer opinion.
Homer steps as a storyteller göttlichenNature opposite back and lets it report. Exemplary comparison of the introduction:
Proömium of Herodots histories
of Herodot from Halikarnass is this research report, so that neither what resulted from humans, becomes extinct by the time, still large and wunderliche acts, thoseby bright ones and barbarians were implemented, become fameless, and for what reason they fought against each other.
Proömium of Homers Ilias
the anger sings, goddess, the Peleus son Achilleus, the perishable, the ten thousand pain over the Achaier brought and many strong souls thatHades accused from heroes, it however to the booty created to the dogs and the birds to the meal, and it fulfilled itself the Zeus advice conclusion…
Proömium of Homers odyssey
the man calls me, MUSE, the much-turned,….
important quotationsfrom histories
- humans are ball of the göttlichen fate. (pan esti anthropos symphoré)
- humans are fate-arrested and mortal and have a consciousness for it.
- The Gods are completely envious and wankelmütig. (tons theion pan phthoneron width unit dock of tarachodes)
- Zeugt von einer anthropomorphen Göttervorstellung, die dem subjektiven Empfinden eines Geschädigten entspringt. Der Mensch wird durch göttliche Eingriffe in Grenzen verwiesen =>explanation searchhumans for each happening
- nobody will be so stupid that it selects war instead of the peace. (oudeis huto anoétos esti, ostis polemon per eirénés hairëetai)
- in peacetime sons bury their fathers. In the war of fathers their sons.
- the historical work of the Herodot of Halikarnassos. Island, Frankfurt 2001. ISBN 3-45834-443-8
- Herodot: Histories. Reclam, Ditzingen 2002. ISBN 3-15018-221-2
- Herodot: Histories. Total expenditure (book I-IX). H. W. House victory (Hrsg.). Kröner, Stuttgart 1971. ISBN 3520224046
- Herodot: Histories. Hrsg. and over. from Josef smirk. Library of the old persons world. Kind-badly & Winkler, Duesseldorf 2004 (dt.). ISBN 3-7608-4111-2
- Reinhold Bichler, Robert Rollinger: Herodot. Olms, Hildesheim and. A. 2000. (The present standard work) ISBN 3-487-10931-X
- H. Pea: Fiction and truth in the work Herodots. Vandenhoeck and Ruprecht, Goettingen 1991.
- James A. S. Evans: Herodotus, explorer OF the past. Three essay. Princeton 1991.
- Detlev Fehling: The source data with Herodot. Berlin, New York 1971. (Onejust as influential as disputed work, which represents the thesis, Herodot has the data reported fictitious and/or. invented and the alleged Forschungsreisen never undertaken.)
- John hard: Herodotus and Greek history. London 1993.
- Walter Marg (Hrsg.): Herodot. A selection from the newerResearch. Ways of the research. Bd 26. Darmstadt 1982 (3. Aufl.).
- Martin trousers: At the beginning was the lie? Herodot, the “father of the historiography”. in: Martin trousers (Hrsg.): Large texts of old cultures. Wiss. Buchges., Darmstadt 2004, S. 153-174. ISBN 3-534-17561-1
- Werner cellar: There however Herodot was astonished. Zurich 1972. ISBN 3-426-05571-6
- William K. Pritchett: The liar school OF Herodotos. Amsterdam 1993.
- Wolfgang Schadewaldt: The beginnings of the historiography with the Greeks. Bd 2. Frankfurt A. M. 1990 (3. Aufl.). (To the introduction) ISBN 3-518-27989-0
- Aubrey de Sélincourt: The world Herodots. Wiesbaden 1967.
Web on the left of
- Herodots historical work (English)
- entry (English) in the Encyclopædia Iranica (inclusive For literature data)
- Web portal to Herodot (English)
- German translation of histories of Friedrich be enough, 1885 (pdf, 21MT)
- Herodots book II (German)
|Wikisource: Herodot - source texts|
|Wikiquote: Herodot - quotations|
|NAME||Herodot of Halikarnassos|
|SHORT DESCRIPTION||Greek Weltreisender, Völkerkundler, geographer and historian|
|DATE OF BIRTH||485 v. Chr.?|
|PLACE OF BIRTH|
|DYING DATE||425 v. Chr.?|