of these articles treats the sociological and the historicalscientific term rule; for other meanings see rule (term clarifying).

Rule is sociological after the German sociologist max of webers defines as follows: “Rule is is called the chance, for an instructiondetermined find contents with definable persons obedience “. In contrast to its definition of the power (which it calls sociologically amorphous, thus informally) rule presupposes a certain measure of durability; it is an institutionalized form of overand subordination (Subordination), which presupposes however no hierarchical structures.

Because weber presupposes a minimum of obedience, contradicts his definition from Karl Marx, whose rule term was based on power.

Oppenheimer means the relationship between two with ruleright-unequal social classes; it differentiates between rule as - it followed therein Otto von Gierke - vertical social relationship and the cooperative as horizontal relationship.[1]

Rule (historicalscientific): Practice of power over subordinate and dependent one by instruments of power. In the classicalSenses is legitimate rule only if over the ruler and the controlled one standing rights are kept for exercise of power. The origin of the rule is to be looked for in the Germanic house rule (force of the house gentleman over the fellow tenants), from this developed itself thoseBasic rule. The exercising of the rule was the aristocracy; the king rule, which represented its legitimacy by symbolic rituals (elections, Salbung, coronation/culmination) and by Herrschaftsinsignien, was only one special form of the aristocracy rule see. Leaning rule. In the age of the conditions is power of the Ruler by forced rule contracts limits. In the modern times the uniform government authority became generally accepted. The new rule forms are subject to a sequential process of the re-orientation of their legitimacy basis.

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[work on] types of the legitimate rule

after max of webers after weber as konstitutives element of the rule purely affektuell, in addition, idealistically (worth-rationally) or materially (purpose-rationally) justified to be.Purely idelle or purely material motives and/or. the obeying (z. B. the administrative staff) justify however an only unstable rule, to which a further, it is added stabilizing element: the legitimacy faith.

Weber differentiates three ideal types of legitimate rule according to the kindtheir authentication:

  • rational /legal rule, which rests on the faith of the orders set to the legality ( for example laws), example: Bureaucracy
  • traditionale rule, those on the everyday life faith in the holyness always valid traditions and the legitimacy by it of the appointing, example rests: Patriarchat, Feudalismus
  • charismatische rule, which rests on the except-everyday devotion to the holyness or hero strength or the exemplaryness of a person and the order created by it. It verse oh light itselfalways into a rational or traditionale rule, example:Prophet

the term of the rule is understood today in the meaning of the legitimized (personalen) balance of power implemented by weber.

rule forms

rule can be also differentiated according to it, which persons or groupsthey exercise, see list of the rule forms. Here the Pluralität of the term becomes clearly, which is used both positively and rule of the people in the democracy like also negatively, for example as LV rule. This is to define to the systems of government, thoseafterwards to be differentiated, who carrier of the government authority is, as well as the systems of government strictly speaking, which are differentiated to the position of the head of state.

see also



  • Giorgio Agamben: Homo Sacer, Torino, Giulio a AUDI, 1995 (dt.: Homo Sacer. The sovereigns power and the nakedLife. Frankfurt Main 2002)
  • Giorgio Agamben: (Homo Sacer II) Quel che resta di Auschwitz, Torino, Bollati Boringhieri, 1998 (dt.: Which by Auschwitz remains. Archives and the witness. Frankfurt/Main 2003)
  • Walter Benjamin: To the criticismthe force and other essays, 1965.
  • Stefan Breuer: Max weber rule sociology., 1991 ISBN 3593344580
  • Edith Hanke/Wolfgang J. Mommsen (Hrsg.): Max weber rule sociology. Studies to emergence and effect., Tübingen 2001 ISBN 3161476492
  • Werner Kruck: Rule or cooperative.Twodisjunctive fundamental ideas of the sociology and the criticism Franz Oppenheimers at max of webers.
  • Hans Haferkamp: Sociology of the rule. Analysis of structure, development and condition of rule connections., Opladen 1983. ISBN 353121635X
  • Andrea bricklayer: Rule sociology. An introduction, Frankfurt/Main, New York 2004. ISBN 3-593-37240-1
  • Petra new house: Max webers and Michel Foucault. Over power and rule in the modern trend. ISBN 3890858201
  • Popitz, Heinrich: Processes of power, 2. erw. Aufl., Tübingen 1992. ISBN 3-16-145897-4
  • Klaus Türk, “the organization of the world”. Rule by organization inthe modern society, Opladen: Westdt. Verl., 1995
  • Klaus Türk/Thomas Lemke/Michael break, organization in the modern society. A historical introduction, 2. Edition 2006, VS publishing house for social sciences ISBN 3-531-33752-1
  • Patrick Wagner, Bauern, Junker and an official.The change of local rule and participation in the Ostelbien 19. Century, Goettingen: Barrier stone, 2005

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Wiktionary: Rule - word origin, synonyms and translations

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