of these articles treats the title of nobility duke. For well-known name carriers with the surname duke see duke (name).

Duke, of old high German: herizogo “before the army ", is a title of nobility pulls.

  • Dukes Germanic army leaders were original, forthe duration of a war course by master princes by choice or by lot were determined.

In this way on a master area the originally referred becameTitle of a “duke of Saxonia” after 1180 split up and regionally again assigned: The archbishop of Cologne received the title of a “duke from the German king from Westphalia “(one up to then to Saxonia region belonging to, quasi west Saxonia), while the prince house that Askanier the title of a “duke of Saxonia” for the East part of the past master duchy received (since 1356 as cure princes of Saxonia with seat in joke mountain). Through becoming extinct the Wittenberger Askanier 1423 went cure-prince and Saxonian duke titles to stillmuch far Wettiner sitting east, the Mark counts von Meissen over, whereby on the today's “Lower Saxony” duke title and national name originally centered into the today's “country the Saxonias” around Dresden and Meissen turned out, with whom it up to then nothing at all toodo had.

While Bavaria the masterreferred duke title was limited since 1180 to the Ländereien of the Wittelsbacher, which led it since that time, the title of a duke of Swabia came since becoming extinct the high baptism 1268 completely except use. The “duke ofFranconia " led a shade existence as honour title of the prince bishop von Würzburg to 1802/03.

However new dynasty-CH-territorially defined duchies stepped at the same time in addition in the late Middle Ages by Ranger elevations of different princes: The 1180 of the master duchies Saxonia and Bavaria occupied in former times by them made the beginningmerrily gone Welfen, in 13. Century for their hereditary possessions in Northern Germany the title of a “duke from Braunschweig “received. In 14. Century became also the slawischen princes of Mecklenburg, in 15. Century the count von Württemberg of Emperor to dukes “carries”. In the early modern times this form of the rank increase died down; instead of since that time its tried some dukes, the cure princes with high order - titles (with the right of the participation in the emperor choice) to attain, which the duke of Braunschweig Lueneburg 1692, only 1803 succeeded to the competitive duke of Württemberg.

With smashing the “holy Roman realm of German nation” between 1801 and 1806 and the rule Napoleon I. by Germany a further consequence was made from rank increases for adjustment-ready German princes: Past dukesbecame - as of Württemberg - only cure princes, then to kings carried, past princes - like the various lines of notion - ascended to dukes. After the victory over Napoleon the Viennese congress of winner powers led 1815to a further, last wave of such rank increases. Usually under relationship with powerful monarchs of Europe, in particular with the Russian emperor or the king of Prussia, some past dukes rose 1815 to “Grand Dukes” to in Germany (Saxonia Weimar iron oh, Oldenburg, Mecklenburg Schwerin and Mecklenburg Strelitz, Luxembourg).

Governing dukes in Germany (with the descriptor “sovereignty “) were between 1815 and 1918: the duke from Braunschweig (line Wolfenbüttel to 1886, line Hanover starting from 1913), the duke of notion (starting from 1863,before it several partial duchies), only the duke of Nassau, which inherited 1890 sovereigns the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, governing to 1866, the king of Denmark, governing until 1864 as a duke of Schleswig, Holstein and Lauenburg, (in these three states ofKing was replaced from Prussia, which Nassau annektierte at the same time) as well as the wettinischen dukes of Saxonia Coburg and Gotha, Saxonia Meiningen and Saxonia old person castle.

Governing monarchs of higher rank could raise also aristocrat into the duke conditions (Titularherzöge). While it occurred more frequently thatlower aristocracy was gegraft or gefürstet, is the most well-known collection to the duke that Otto von Bismarcks to the “duke of Lauenburg” by William II.; a title, which it did not lead however - from protest against the lender -.

Outside of Germanyexisted in Europe starting from 1815 sovereigns of duchies also in Italy - to Modena, Parma and Piacenza, Lucca, Guastalla, Massa and Carrara). All these states disappeared to 1859/60 in the course of the Italian agreement.

The 1815 in place of the formerAristocracy republic Genova created “duchy Genova” was a from the beginning dependent component of the Kingdom of Sardinien.

In many European monarchies became and/or. royal prince additionally historical duke titles is lent (with Ländereien and an income, but without rule rights). This applied to France up toEnd of the monarchy 1848/70 and for Italy according to until 1946, it today still applies to Spain, Sweden and Great Britain.

see also

Wiktionary: Duke - word origin, synonyms and translations

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