|of the titles of this article is ambiguous. For further meanings see Hessen (term clarifying).|
|surface:||21.114, 72 km ² (7.)|
|Inhabitants:||6.097.800 (5.) (31. December 2004)|
|Population density:||288 Einwohner/km ² (7.)|
|System of government:|| democratic and|
|Debts:||4.959 € per inhabitant (at the end of of 2005)|
|debts entirely:||28.6 billion € (2004)|
|ISO 3166-2:|| |
|Prime Minister:||Roland cook (CDU)|
|a governing party:||CDU|
| allocation of seats in the federal state parliament|
| CDU 56|
|last election of the federal parliament:||2. February 2003|
|voices in the Upper House of Parliament:||5|
of neighboring countries
] in the center of Germany Hessen borders on the countries North Rhine-Westphalia (border length: 269,330 m), Lower Saxony (167,013 m), Thuringia (269,647 m), Bavaria (261,881 m), Baden-Wuerttemberg (176,540m) and Rhineland-Palatinate (266,325 m). From it a total border length of 1410,736 km results.
with the natural-space arrangement takes place a systematic geographical land survey. It presents itself thereby a surface covering stocktaking, on that Nature area refers and from large regions and/or. hands zones up to so-called flowing as basic unit, even ocean-spreading.
Hessen belongs in its entirety to the German low mountain range. Within this classification a further partitioning takes place into so-called regions. In Hessen are this the German layer stage board country, the lowlandses of the Upper Rhine, the Grundgebirgsschollenland and the hessian Bruchschollentafelland. Further subdivisions are to be found in the article nature area in Hessen.
low mountain range & mountains
of Hessen Landschaft consist of numerous low mountain ranges; after of them in each casehighest (hessian) mountains this is sorted: Rhön, Taunus, Upland, bird mountain, high Meissner, cellar forest, Westerwald, Kaufunger forest, Knüllgebirge, Habichtswald, desert forest, Stölzinger mountains, Spessart, Schlierbachswald, Seulingswald and pure hard forest. The highest place of the country is on the water crest (950.2 m and. NN) in the Rhön (to the hessian low mountain ranges and further mountains: List of the mountains in Hessen).
basins & valleys
the largestEven ones are the Rhine Main area, the lowlandses of the Upper Rhine and the Wetterau. Northward „the hessian basin landscapes in such a way specified follow “: Giessener basin, Amöneburger basin, Fritzlar - Waberner lowers and Kasseler basin. Apart of it the Limburger forms basins onthe western national border to Rhineland-Palatinate between Taunus and Westerwald a larger intramontanen lowering area within the Rheini slate mountains. These usually basins tectonically put on are however in the geomorpholgischen sense actually no basins separate partly spacious valleys, which flowed through from riversbecome. Release covers, which form the basis for a productive agriculture together with the climatic favour, are multiple here. The lowest place from Hessen is with Lorch on the Rhine (81 m and. NN) in the Rhine gau rope US circle.
under others flow through those completely or only partly rivers in the following specified the Land of the Federal Republic Hessen. While the river Rhine in the southwest of the country forms the border to Rhineland-Palatinate, the Neckar on small distance is more southernBorder river to Baden-Wuerttemberg and the Werra and/or. the Fulda forms in the east and/or. in North Hesse partly the border to Thuringia and Lower Saxony or cross these political borders; the longest and/or. most well-known running waters (with respective overall length) in Hessen are:
structure of state
is general according to its conditionMember of the German republic. The system of government is a democratic and parliamentary republic. In addition Hessen professes itself to peace, liberty and people communication. The war is outlawed. Actually still the death penalty is nevertheless permitted ref in the hessian< laws>Kind 21 conditionHessen< /ref>. There however Federals law (kind. 102 GG< ref>Kind. 102 GG< /ref>) priority before Landesgesetzen have, the death penalty in Hessen (as in the rest of federal territory) are not naturally imposed.
the legislation is exercised by the federal state parliament, so far itnot the people by popular vote is zugedacht. The federal state parliament consists of the delegates selected by the people. All voters, who completed the twenty-first Lebensjahr, have the passive right to vote. All parties with more than 5 per cent of the voices are in the federal state parliamentrepresented.
the executive is the hessian federal state government and it subordinated Landesverwaltung. The federal state government consists of the Prime Minister and the Ministers. The Prime Minister determines the guidelines of the government politics and is responsible to the federal state parliament for it.Within these guidelines each Minister leads it entrusted line of business independently and under own responsibility opposite the federal state parliament. The Prime Minister represents the country Hessen outward. The federal state parliament selects without discussion the Prime Minister with more than half of the legalNumber of its members. The Prime Minister appoints thereupon the Ministers. A characteristic is that member of the houses, which governed until 1918 in Germany or another country or in another country to govern, members of the federal state government to become not be able.
the Judikative by the hessian high court of state and the further courts of the country are exercised. The high court of state consists those of eleven members, five judges and six members selected of the federal state parliament after the principles of the elections on the basis of proportional representation, not thatFederal state parliament to belong may do. The high court of state decides the injury of the fundamental rights, with contestation of the result of a popular vote, on the constitutionality of the laws, on condition disputes as well as in the cases planned in the condition and the laws.
with that Election of the federal parliament to 2. February 2003 received the CDU for the first time in Hessen the absolute majority in the parliament (56 seats). The next election of the federal parliament will presumably take place in the spring 2008.
a characteristic that hessian condition is the death penalty existente still. It is fixed in article 21 paragraph 1 sentence 2. Since the Basic Law determines however the abolishment of the death penalty and in the standard hierarchy over national conditions stands, it is not used. Thatappropriate articles in the hessian condition is probably to be changed with a future reform of the condition. Remarkable it is however that it despite several changes of the condition since the entry into force, which was last change 2002, still in this form exists. ThereConstitutional amendments in Hessen apart from the agreement of the parliament of a popular vote require, an agreement the hessian population as are not possibly regarded surely. In January 1970 the parliamentary group FDP placed a request to the change of the hessian condition, to that as the first pointthe cancellation of article 21 paragraph 1 sentence 2 planned - this request was withdrawn however after scarcely two months.
the Prime Ministers since 1945
- 16. October 1945 - 1946: Karl Geiler (large Hessen)
- 20. December 1946 - 1950: Christian stick, SPD
- 14. December 1950 - 1969: George August tin, SPD
- 3. October 1969 - 1976: Albert Osswald, SPD
- 12. October 1976 - 1987: Holger Börner, SPD
- 23. April 1987 - 1991: Walter barrier man, CDU
- 5. April 1991 - 1999: Hans Eichel, SPD
- since 7. April 1999: Roland cook, CDU
of members of the hessian federal state government.
coats of arms and flag
The coat of arms shows a rising lion, which is nine times silver and red divided on blue reason. The lion was used by the land count of Thuringia and is originally used today in Hessen Wappen, there the area of the today's Hessen until 1247to their rule area belonged.
The national flag is red white; the national service flag carries additionally Landeswappen.
Rhine and Main live Landeswappen national flag national service flag [work on] in the southern region along the areas around the rivers (see also Rhine Main area). A further population centre is the area around north Hessian Kassel. To population trend see population prognosis Hessen
About 43 per cent of the populationas well as belong to the Evangelist regional churches of Hessen and Nassau, of cure-Hessen-forest-hit a corner the Rhine country on. About 26 per cent are Roman-catholic confession; the Landesgebiet belongs to the Diözesen Fulda, Limburg and Mainz.
|governmental district|| governmental district|| governmental district|
- Darmstadt (THERE) (move - Bez. Darmstadt)
- Frankfurt/Main (F) (move - Bez. Darmstadt)
- Kassel (KS) (move - Bez. Kassel)
- open brook at the Main (OF) (move - Bez. Darmstadt)
- Wiesbaden (LIKE) (move - Bez. Darmstadt)
cities and municipalities
with Frankfurtat the Main one of the most important German cities is located in the Land of the Federal Republic Hessen. The actual city has 655,000 inhabitants, with the closer surrounding countryside is it scarcely 2 million. Generally speaking population centre Rhine Main lives most over half of the hessian population, alsoother large cities are here:Wiesbaden (272,000 inhabitants), Darmstadt (140.000), open brook at the Main (119.000), Hanau (89.000), Ruesselsheim (60.000) and bath Homburg before the height (52.000).
The largest city of the remaining regions is Kassel, the historical capital of north Hessen,with 199.000 inhabitants today the third biggest city of the country.Marburg (79,000 inhabitants), pouring (73.000) and Wetzlar (53.000) lie in central Hessen, Fulda (63.000) in east Hessen.
In Frankfurt surrounding countrysides lie nine further cities with more than 30,000 inhabitants (Rodgau, Oberursel, three-calibrate, Main valley, yard home at the Taunus, new Isenburg, being enough, the TZE brook and Mörfelden Walldorf). At the southhessian mountain route three further cities lie this order of magnitude (Bensheim, four-home and Lampertheim). Despite the small number of inhabitantsfrom only 33,000 Limburg at the Lahn has a certain center function for the thinly settled west of the country.
enclave and Exklave
|open brookat the Main||open brook at the Main (city)||117,535||119,616|
|Hanau||Main Kinzig circle||88,294||88,792|
|Wetzlar||Lahn Dill circle||52,608||52,460|
|bath Homburg v.d.Höhe||Hochtaunuskreis||52,838||52,081|
|Main valley||Main Kinzig circle||38,179||38,157|
|yard home at the Taunus||Main rope US circle||37,441||37,852|
|new Isenburg||open brook||35,524||35,392|
|being enough (Hessen)||open brook||35,208||35,189|
|Limburg a.d.Lahn||Limburg because castle||33,572||33,936|
|the TZE brook||Open brook||32,982||33,413|
|Mörfelden Walldorf||large Gerau||32,173||33,348|
|bath Hersfeld||Hersfeld Rotenburg||30,778||30,475|
a listing of all cities and municipalities of the country is in the list of the places in Hessen.
the Rhine Main areain south Hessen the largest industrial density in Germany possesses to the Ruhr district. Here reside chemical industry, construction of vehicles and machine and, particularly in Frankfurt/Main, service enterprise. Open brook was admits for its leather industry, Hanau as location of the material research and - processing, Ruesselsheim as location of the automobile industry and Wetzlar with the center optical and fine-mechanical industry as well as the heavy industry.
About 1/3 of the hessian surface are agriculturally used.
At the end of January 2005 countedHessen 278,508 unemployed persons, thus amounts to the unemployment ratio 9.3% (8.4% in the previous year month). With 7,2% the labour office district Frankfurt has the lowest ratio, while the labour office district Kassel with 13,3% exhibits the highest ratio country-wide.
the largestEmployer in Hessen
|1. German Lufthansa AG||34,500|
|2. German course AG||25,000|
|3. German post office AG||24,700|
|4. REWE central corporation||23,500|
|5. Adam OPEL AG||20,000|
|6. German Telekom AG||19,000|
|7. Alliance Group||17,400|
|8. Siemens AG||16.300|
|9. Fraport AG||15,900|
the name Hessen goes to that on the Germanic trunk of the Chatten, in the historical core area around the rivers Fulda and Eder and between thatUpper runs of the rivers Lahn and Werra, thus in the area Niederhessen and/or. North Hesse and upper Hessen and/or. Central Hessen settled, back, and designate originally those here resident descendant of the Germanic Chatten.
The Chatti (lat., speak [xatən] with CH as in oh) is the master fathers that Hessen, their meeting place was the Thingfeld between Fritzlar and Gudensberg, south of Kassel. Chatten (Chatti--> Hatti--> Hassi (around 700)--> Hessi (738)--> Hessen) and Friesen are by the way the only Germanic trunks, both their names andtheir settlement area into the present maintained.
In some parts of the modern Hessen originally also Celts settled. In the year 6. v.Chr. a battle took place around the Oppidum to you LG0 suppl., which was won by the Romans. After thatBattle took place the destruction of the Oppdiums by Roman troops and the influence of the Celts in the region decreased/went back. Around the turn of an era many Celts pulled away and the Celts left mixed themselves with the tightening Teutons. Up to the endthe 1. Century became then Roman the later south Hessen, during the north (down and upper Hessen) in the sphere of influence of the Chatten remained. By the later Hessen the upperGermanic Limes ran to see of particularly in the Taunus still numerous remaindersare (hall castle).
Already in the paleolithic age was among other things the centralhessian region settles. By the situation favoured by the climate there humans remained also in the worm ice age forwards about. 50,000 years. One finds here old grave fields. At least already inthe celtic La-Tène-time into and around Wetzlar from roll camps iron ore was won and smelted locally in running furnaces to wrought steels. In the Bronzezeit hill graves e.g. dominated, like one them. in Wetzlar (in the Finsterloh) finds. Insisted on this Gemarkungthree celtic settlements. The you LG0 suppl. lying in the proximity was a celtic escape castle, where before the turn of an era a battle between Romans and Celts took place probably briefly. Over the fate of the there Celts nothing is well-known. The Romans had in Dorlar a military camp, and in Waldgirmes, directly at the today's city boundary of Wetzlar, was a civilian settlement in the structure. The Romans withdrew themselves after the battle in the Teutoburger forest from this region into the southern Taunus. ThatPlace name etymon “- lar” refers to a settlement of celtic origin with a Gründungsdatum up to the 3. Jh. (see. also Goslar, Fritzlar, Dorlar etc.). A further interpretation of the place name ending “- lar”: - old-Frankish “hlar/hlari” and somewhat something similar means as “hurdle”or “stand/rack”.
the Middle Ages
in 6. Century turned out for Hessen under Frankish influence. Bonifatius, the “Apostel of the Germans”, missionierte there and in Thuringia for instance starting from 720. 723 it fällte the Donareiche with Fritzlar and ledthus the Christianisierung of the Chatten and neighbouring trunks.724 it created the monastery Fritzlar and the neighbouring diocese Büraburg, 744 the monastery Fulda. Since that 8. Century developed in the later southeast region the via Regia,those the Frankish master duchy around Mainz with the Königspfalz Frankfurt, which Fulda and Hersfeld as well as the handels and mission base Erfurt connected abbeys.
By king Konrad II. a count family receives Werner von Grüningen made of Swabia influence in the realm. Starting from 1027they are owners of the hessian county larvae and win other counties at the Lahn in addition. Count Werner I. 1040 fall in Böhmen; Werner II. 1053 in Civitate during the Normannenschlacht; in the annals lamp RTS von Hersfeld is called it, Werner III.is more powerful with archbishop Adalbert of Bremen than Heinrich IV. been. In addition they receive the monasteries Hasungen and purchases as well as from Werner IV. 1113 created monastery Breitenau, which 1121 die. Thus they were partly nearly as powerful as those Konradiner in Hessen.
By inheritance and marriage the hessian counties in the Fulda Eder area of 1122 fell - 1247 under the rule of the Ludowinger, which were starting from 1130 also land counts of Thuringia. After becoming extinct the Ludowinger firstrode in the hessian-Thuringian succession war(1247 - 1264) the land count daughter Sophie, married duchess of Brabant, for its son Heinrich I. by Hessen, also Heinrich the child , again mentioned the independence of Hessen from the Thuringian inheritance of the Ludowinger, which fell to the Saxonian Wettiner.
1292 are confirmed as realm principality the new land county Hessen, capital Kassel, by the emperor. In the HRR ranked starting from the late Middle Ages dukes, land, Mark and Pfalzgrafen among the prince conditions and were on an equal footing thereby the dukes. The house Hessen governs in Hessen Kasseluntil 1866 (German war), b.z.w. in Hessen darmstadt until 1918 (November revolution).
Philipp the largecourageous made Hessen in the reformation time a power substantially affecting German history. At this time the territory hadHessen already by inheritance, above all the county Katzenelnbogen, considerable extensions in the Rhine Main area experience.
After the death of Philipp I., the largecourageous Hessen was divided 1567 according to ancient hereditary rules in the four-brother comparison so mentioned into four states: William IV. half of the country received, Ludwig IV. with Hessen Kassel. received Hessen Marburg, Philipp II. Hessen Rhine rock and George I. Hessen darmstadt. Hessen Rhine rock changed 1583 into the hereditary course into the possession of Hessen Kassel and Hessen darmstadt, Hessen Marburg fell 1604 on same wayat Hessen Kassel and Hessen darmstadt. Later occasionally the land county Hessen red castle split itself off Hessen Kassel, Hessen Homburg Hessen darmstadt.
From 1689 to 1806 became the realm Court of Appeal, which shifts highest court of the holy Roman realm of German nation, after Wetzlar. Cause of the transferthe devastation of the former seat of the court, Speyer, was during the Pfälzi succession war.
1803 experienced the land county Hessen Kassel by the realm deputation main conclusion the revaluation to the cure principality Hessen (cure Hessen), Kassel was further residence and capital. 1816 are received former prince the diocese Fulda as Grand Duchy of Fulda into the cure-hessian state. The land county Hessen darmstadt became 1806 against position of high military contingents at France the Grand Duchy of Hessen in the Rhine federation.
In the GermanAustrian war of 1866 the hessian stoodCure prince on the side of Austria. After the victory of Prussia the cure prince was banished, and Prussia incorporated the cure principality. Similarly it was issued Nassau; the last nassauische duke Adolf became 1890 Grand Duke of Luxembourg. Confine connections toRussian Zarenhaus protected the Darmstädter Grand Duke and its country also allied with Austria a same fate - Prussia did not want to provoke confrontation with Russia. But also the Grand Duchy of Hessen darmstadt had to accept some (relatively moderate) area losses to favour of Prussia andoccur a close alliance with Prussia.1868 developed for the land county Hessen Homburg, the duchy Nassau, the free city Frankfurt/Main from the occupied cure principality Hessen , unite regions of the Grand Duchy of Hessen darmstadt (so-called. “Hinterland “with Biedenkopf, Vöhl to the Eder) and two small Bavarian border areas the Prussian province Hessen Nassau.
20. To century
also in the Weimar Republic further Hessen Nassau existed as Prussian province and Hessen (- Darmstadt) as republic Hessen. 1929 became thatFree State forest-hit a corner and 1932 the circle Wetzlar from the Rhine province into the province Hessen Nassau integrated. 1944 were divided the province Hessen Nassau following the realm defense districts into the provinces cure Hessen and Nassau. The province Nassau covered now in addition, thatonce cure-hessian Main Kinzig area (Hanau, gel living, Schlüchtern).
After the Second World War the country Hessen in the area of the American zone of occupation was manufactured. The American military government combined to 19. September 1945 by the proclamation No. 2 the former Prussian provinces cure Hessen and Nassau and the republic Hessen to the country “large Hessen”. However those areas, the part of the French zone of occupation were not included had become. This were the nassauischen circles sank Goarshausen, Unterlahn, upper and Unterwesterwald and the linksrheinischen partsthe former republic Hessen (the former province Rhinehesse, of which only some rechtsrheinische Mainzer remained hessian suburbs). These French occupied areas fell 1946 as governmental districts Montabaur (formerly nassauische circles) and Rhinehesse at Rhineland-Palatinate.
The hessian condition became ofthe condition-advisory state meeting in Wiesbaden to 29. October 1946 decided, stepped at the 1. December 1946 by popular vote into force and was thereby the first postwar condition of Germany. Thus also the name of the country was changed by “large Hessen” in “Hessen”. Capital is the former nassauische residence Wiesbaden. The country Hessen was considered long years as particularly progressive and trailblazing (“Hessen in front”).
are not dialects the hessian (the northern dialects of the Rhine-Frankish are called). The different in Hessenstill spoken dialects belong to the Central German group of dialects and exhibit in the different regions strong differences. This is spoken north the line Wiesbaden - Aschaffenburg and is enough to inclusively victories and Kassel in the north. In the western part is enough in the LimburgerBasin and the Westerwald particularly in the formerly Kurtrieri places the moselfränkische linguistic area to Hessen inside. South of it the southern dialects of the Rhine-Frankish (Rhine Frankish i.e.S.) are spoken. In the densely populated areas however dialects are to be heard very rarely, it prevailthe high German forwards. In the northwest of Hessen (area forest-hit a corner) become besides dialects of the of Lower Saxony one (so-called. Flat-German) spoken.
In broadcast and television more frequently used and misleading than hessian the designated Rhine Main German differs in principle from the dialects of the historical hessian core range,as they occur today partially still in down , upper or east Hessen. Also the southhessian dialect exhibits clearly differences of the dialect publicised in radio and television and like all hessian dialects is today strongly pressed.
general literature to Hessen
- Eckhart G. Franz: The chronicle of Hessen, chronicle publishing house, Dortmund 1991, ISBN 3-611-00192-9
- Karl E. Demandt: History of the country Hessen, 2. Aufl., Kassel 1972
- Bernd heath realm and hit a corner-hard G. Franz (Hrsg.): The Hessen and its history, Wiesbaden 1999, ISBN 3-927127-32-9
literature to the history of art of Hessen
- Renate love wine, Stefan Rothe: Imperial palace and Wolkenkratzer. (1200 years) art in Hessen, king stone i. Ts. 2000, ISBN 3-7845-4612-9
Literature to nature in Hessen
- Hermann Josef Rapp (Hrsg.): Pure hard forest. A culture history. Euregio, Kassel 2002, ISBN 3-933617-12-X
- Hans Joachim merry: Ways to old trees. Volume 1 - Hessen. WDV restaurant economics, Frankfurt/Main 1990, ISBN 3-926181-06-0
- William they verse (Hrsg.): Geographical reports from Hessen, pouring 1900-1911
- William they verse: For the knowledge of the Taunus, Stuttgart 1891
Web on the left of
|Wikinews: Portal: Hessen - current messages|
|Wiktionary: Hessen - word origin, synonymsand translations|
- environmental Atlas Hessen - official information offer with numerous maps and data to natural-space and geographical bases (geology, landscape, water, traffic, population, land use, planning…)
- Hessen in the German city plan service
- further one left to the topic „Hessen “ in the open directory Project