Hessen Nassau

the Prussian province Hessen Nassau existed from 1868 to 1944. The province covered the northern and western part of the today's Land of the Federal Republic Hessen, as well as parts of Rhineland-Palatinate and developed from the 1866 countries cure Hessen, Nassau and free city Frankfurt annektierten of Prussia.The largest cities were Frankfurt/Main, Kassel (province capital) and Wiesbaden. The province had a surface of 15.700 km ² and (1905) well two million inhabitant.

Table of contents

area and population

16,845 km ²; 2.688.922 inhabitants (May 1939)


Wappen Flagge

The colors of the flag of the province were, from top to bottom, red-white-blue, identically to the flag of the Netherlands. The duchy Nassauis the master country of the king house of the Netherlands.

The coat of arms is three-divided and shows the coats of arms of the three annektierten states: on the right of (seen from the carrier) the crowned, silver-red transversetouched lion of the cure principality Hessen, on the left of a crowned golden lion, like first in in the blue field,for Nassau, in the red point of the gold-reinforced silver eagles of the free city Frankfurt.

to establishment of the province

Hessen Nassau (1905)

after the German war 1866 the cure principality, the duchy Nassau (Residenzstadt Wiesbaden) arrived to Hessen (Residenzstadt Kassel), the free city Frankfurt andthe Bavarian offices Gersfeld and Orb under Prussian rule. Furthermore the Grand Duchy of Hessen the so-called had. Hessian hinterland as well as briefly before the acquired land county Hessen Homburg at Prussia transfer, it received however the before cure-hessian bath Nauheim.

Although, formerly free one lain in the middle in HessenRealm city Wetzlar had become already in the year 1815 Prussian and 1822 district town of the again created Prussian district Wetzlar, remained it far in the governmental district Koblenz of the Rhine province. Only at the 1. Octobers 1932 were integrated city and circle Wetzlar into the governmental district Wiesbaden of the province Hessen Nassau.

The new Prussian areas were combined first in the governmental districts Cassel and Wiesbaden under a provisional Prussian upper presidency in Cassel.

To 7. December 1868 developed from this the new Prussian province Hessen Nassau. It was divided - as usual in Prussia - into urban areas and districts.

administrative reforms

German empire

1886 the city Hanau became circle-free. The Main circle became to 31. March 1886 divided into the new districts Wiesbaden and most.

The district Frankfurt became at the 1. April 1910 dissolved, as all municipalities of the circleto Frankfurt/Main in in common December became.


led Weimar Republic city, district and governmental district Cassel since that. December 1926 their names with K at the beginning.

To the 1. The urban areas Wiesbaden and Frankfurt/Main became larger April 1928 by incorporations, among them underother one the large cities most at the Main and Biebrich. From the remainders of the districts most at the Main and Wiesbaden the new Main rope US circle developed. Most, now a quarter from Frankfurt, remained however until 1987 administrative seat of the new district.

The Free State forest-hit a corner became after onePopular vote at the 1. April 1929 into the State of Prussia integrated and the governmental district Kassel assigned. The cities Fulda and Marburg at the Lahn became simultaneous circle-free.

To the 1. October 1932 stepped the circle Wetzlar of the Rhine province, governmental district Koblenz, to the province Hessen Nassau andto the governmental district Wiesbaden, while the circle county foam castle, which earlier district Rinteln, from which province Hessen Nassau, was integrated governmental district Kassel, into the province Hanover and the governmental district Hanover. Thus two isolates convenient circles (Exklaven) into the surrounding itProvince integrated and from the time of the Viennese of congress coming anachronism eliminates.

Due to the defaults in the savings regulations of the realm president the circles Gersfeld, Homberg, Kirchhain, Westerburg and Usingen were dissolved and combined with the neighbouring circles.

national socialism

inthe city Frankfurt/Main the auxiliary designation city of the German handicraft was attached to the National Socialist time.

To the 1. The past districts of the Eder, the iron mountain and the Twiste the new district formed February 1942 forest-hit a corner with the seat in basket oh.

To the 1. Avril 1944 were divided the province Hessen Nassau following the realm defense districts and the gaus of the NSDAP into the new provinces cure Hessen and Nassau. Cure Hessen, governmental district Kassel, the circle rule Schmalkalden to the governmental district Erfurt in Thuringia and the urban area Hanau changed from the provinceas well as the districts Hanau, gel living and Schlüchtern to the governmental district Wiesbaden in the new province Nassau.

To the upper president in Wiesbaden for the province Nassau of the realm governors and gau leader of the NSDAP Jakob sprinkler in Darmstadt were ordered. The party gau Hessen Nassau covered however still onlyFrankfurt, Nassau and Hessen darmstadt. The district Kassel formed the party gau cure Hessen.

The deputy perception of the business of the upper president in Kassel for the province cure Hessen the gau leader of the NSDAP Karl Gerland in Kassel was assigned.

post-war period

the largest part of the province Hessen Nassaubecame 1945 part of the American zone of occupation. The western part of the governmental district Wiesbaden fell however to the French zone of occupation, i.e. the circles upper and Unterwesterwald, Unterlahn and sank Goarshausen.

The American occupied regions became to 19. September 1945 with the republic Hessen to the country“Large Hessen “combines, that after the acceptance of the new condition at the 1. December 1946 in Hessen was renamed. Within the new country Hessen existed first the two - formerly Prussian - governmental districts Kassel and Wiesbaden further, furthermore the governmental district Darmstadt, that the rechtsrheinischen partthe “people state Hessen” covered.

French crew power combined the northern part of its area, under it the nassauischen districts mentioned, to the country Rhineland-Palatinate. There this area formed the governmental district Montabaur, which became 1968 part of the governmental district Koblenz.

Convenient district rule Schmalkalden isolates became that Soviet crew zone assigned and part of the new country became Thuringia.


upper president

the upper president were an administrative boss of a Prussian province. Like also the top officials of the governmental districts, the heads of the provincial government, they became by the Prussian federal state government and/or. of the kingappointed. The population of the province did not have influence on the choice of its upper president.

  • 1867-1871: Eduard von Moeller
  • 1872-1875: Ludwig Carl Christoph of Bodelschwingh
  • 1876-1881: Carl Ludwig August baron von Ende
  • of 1881-1892: Botho Wendt to owl castle, 1892-94 Prussian Prime Minister
  • 1892-1898: Eduard Ludwig Karl Magdeburg
  • 1898-1903: Robert count von Zedtlitz Trützschler, 1886-90 Oberpräs. of floats
  • 1903-1907: Stroke ore Ludwig von Windheim
  • 1907-1917: William Hengstenberg
  • 1917-1919: Dr. August von Trott to Solz
  • 1919-1930: Dr. Rudolf Schwander, strip packing
  • 1930-1932: August Haas, SPD
  • 1932-1933: Dr. Ernst von Hülsen
  • 1933-1943: Philipp of Hessen
  • 1943-1944: Ernst Beckmann


Provinziallandtag Wiesbaden Provinziallandtag Kassel
a party 1925 1929 1933 1925 1929 1933
SPD 30.6% - 16 seats 26.2% - of 14 seats 33.1% - 15 seats 32.8% - of 15 seats 21.2% - 9 seats
center 22.5% - of 12 seats 18.9% -10 seats 14.9% - 7 seats 13.0% - of 6 seats 10.9% - 5 seats
KPD 6.4% - of 4 seats 8.2% - 5 seats 6.7% - 3 seats 6.5% - 3 seats 7.0% - 3 seats
of strip packing 5.9% - 4 seats 4.6% - 3 seats 5.6%- 3 seats 4.7% - 2 seats
DVP 6.3% - 3 seats 9.7% - 5 seats 3.2% - of 2 seats
DNVP 5.4% - 3 seats 5.2% - 3 seats 7.5% - 3 seats
NSDAP 8.2% - of 4 seats 6.3% - 3 seats 52.6% - 23WP
5.1% - 3 seats 5.4% - sits 3 seats 5.5% - 3 seats
HNASL 14.1% - of 7 seats 33.5% - 15 seats 23.7% - 11 seats
CNBL 8.5% - 5 seats

at 100% missing = choice suggestions [work on]

of cities not represented in

the Provinziallandtag

The city of the province largest with distance was the former Federal Capital Frankfurt/Main. Although most other larger cities likewise in closely the settled, became Hessen Nassau of Kassel in the extreme north of the province were appropriate for Rhine Main area in the extreme south of the province, coined/shaped by trade and industryout governs.

Cities in Hessen Nassau
city conditions 1900 conditions 1910
Frankfurt 288,989 414,576
Kassel 106,034 153,196
Wiesbaden 86,111 109,002
Hanau 29,847 37,472
Fulda 22,487
Marburg at the Lahn 21,860
Biebrich 21,199
most at the Main 17,240
Homburg v. D. H. 14,334
Eschwege 12,542
Griesheim at the Main 11,514
Limburg at the Lahn 10,965
Schmalkalden 10,018

administrative arrangement of the province Hessen Nassau

the province was arranged following the borders of the 1866 okkupierten states, into two governmental districts. The governmental district Wiesbaden covered the past area of Nassau, Frankfurt and of theto the Grand Duchy of Hessen of belonging hessian hinterland (Lkr. Biedenkopf). The governmental district Kassel resumed the area of the cure principality Hessen, 1929 came the Free State forest-hits a corner in addition.

Administrative arrangement of Hessen Nassau
conditions 1900 conditions 1944

governmental district Wiesbaden (Nassau)

urban areas

  1. Frankfurt/Main
  2. Wiesbaden

urban areas

  1. Frankfurt/Main
  2. Wiesbaden


  1. Biedenkopf
  2. Dillkreis [seat: Dillenburg]
  3. Frankfurt
  4. most
  5. Limburg at the Lahn
  6. upper Lahn circle [seat: Because castle]
  7. Obertaunuskreis [seat: Bath Homburg v.d.Höhe]
  8. Oberwesterwaldkreis [seat: Marienberg]
  9. Rhine gau circle [seat: Rüdesheim A. RH.]
  10. Sank Goarshausen
  11. Unterlahnkreis [seat: Diez]
  12. Untertaunuskreis [seat: Bath Schwalbach]
  13. Unterwesterwaldkreis [seat: Montabaur]
  14. Usingen
  15. Westerburg
  16. Wetzlar
  17. Wiesbaden


  1. Biedenkopf
  2. Dillkreis [seat: Dillenburg]
  3. Limburg A. L.
  4. Main rope US circle [seat: Frankfurt most]
  5. upper Lahn circle [seat: Because castle]
  6. Obertaunuskreis [seat: Bath Homburg v.d.Höhe]
  7. Oberwesterwaldkreis [seat: Westerburg]
  8. Rhine gau circle [seat: Rüdesheim A. RH.]
  9. Sankt Goarshausen
  10. Unterlahnkreis [Sitz : Diez]
  11. Untertaunuskreis [seat: Bath Schwalbach]
  12. Unterwesterwaldkreis [seat: Montabaur]
  13. Wetzlar

governmental district Kassel (cure Hessen)

urban areas

  1. Hanau
  2. Kassel

of urban areas

  1. Fulda
  2. Hanau
  3. Kassel
  4. Marburg A.D. Lahn


  1. Eschwege
  2. Franconia mountain (Eder)
  3. Fritzlar
  4. Homberg
  5. Fulda
  6. gel living
  7. Gersfeld
  8. Hanau
  9. Schmalkalden
  10. Hersfeld
  11. Hofgeismar
  12. Homberg
  13. Hünfeld
  14. Kassel
  15. Kirchhain
  16. Marburg A. D. Lahn
  17. Melsungen
  18. Rinteln
  19. red castle A. D. Fulda
  20. Schlüchtern
  21. joke living
  22. Wolfhagen
  23. Ziegenhain

of districts

  1. Eschwege
  2. Franconia mountain (Eder)
  3. Fritzlar Homberg [seat: Fritzlar]
  4. Fulda
  5. gel living
  6. Hanau
  7. rule Schmalkalden [seat: Schmalkalden]
  8. Hersfeld
  9. Hofgeismar
  10. Hünfeld
  11. Kassel
  12. Marburg A. D. Lahn
  13. Melsungen
  14. red castle A. D. Fulda
  15. Schlüchtern
  16. forest-hit a corner [seat: Basket oh]
  17. to joke living
  18. Wolfhagen
  19. Ziegenhain

see also

resuming articles

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