the witch hammer (lat. Malleus Maleficarum) is a book, that the Dominikaner Heinrich shopkeeper (lat. Henricus Institoris) after today's state of research in the year 1486 in Speyer published and to in 17. Century inside 29 editions received.
table of contents
the “witch hammer” must in close relationship with the so-called witch bull of the Pope Innozenz VIII.of 5. December 1484 to be seen.The papal bull Summis desiderantes marked not the beginning of witch pursuits in Europe, however it achieved a completely new dimension now with official authentication by the head of the Roman-catholic church.
Shopkeeper collects wide-spread opinions over the witches and Magier in his book . In the witch hammer the existing prejudices are clearly presented and justified with an allegedly scientific argumentation. A systematic pursuit and destruction of the witches are made possible by clear rules.
The witch hammer developed, when shopkeeper with a Inquisition in Innsbruck in the Diözese Brixen failed. As reactionon this defeat he wrote his treatise, in order to strengthen its position and to justify pursuit before the opponents. It was thereby at time pressure which due to numerous errors with the numberings of the chapters, questions and cross references becomes clear.
shopkeeperJustification and the opponents of the witch hammer
around its statements to justify, appointed themselves shopkeepers to recognized authorities. It placed from Pope the Innozenz VIII. to its work. apostolische bull Summis of desiderantes signed 1484 in front affectibus. In order to confirm the authenticity of the church document, it added 1487 a license to practise medicine of the notary's office of the university to Cologne in addition, which is however possibly falsified. In addition it quoted important personalities, for example Thomas's von Aquin with its Superstitionentheorie as well as Augustinus and Johannes down, the author of the writing Formicarius. It also often referred to those Bible. With several dozen of Exempla it illustrated its theses, in order to clarify, as common and working of the witches is dangerous. He wrote his work in Latin language. The large spreading of the witch hammer was made possible later by the invention of the printing.
Around the workmore authority to lend shopkeeper called also his Mitbruder Jakob sprinkler, which was active likewise than Inquisitor, than co-author. But this turned against shopkeepers. It wanted to strengthen the Gläubigen to kill instead of making it informers and accused of. Sprinkler was thus not Co-author of the witch hammer, although it is called there as a CO author. The fact that shopkeeper speaks in some places of two Inquisitoren or authors can be rated as collection attempt.
Nevertheless the witch hammer of late thanks of the early printing was ever continued to spread. With some authors movedclear resistance against this writing.1631 published one of of the most well-known opponents the witch process, which Jesuit Friedrich Spee of length field, anonymous the Cautio criminalis, in which he above all methods, which were used with these processes, criticized the legal everything in front the torture. Stillthe lawyer and reconnaissance aircraft Thomasius, which into its Dissertatio de crimine magiae of 1701 to missing proofs for the existence of witches and their pact with the devil, as the witch hammer had described him , were more influential, referred.
contents of the work
that Witch hammer is put on and into three parts arranged as scholastische paper. In the first part shopkeeper defines which by a witch to be understood is. Occasionally he speaks of male Zauberern, refers however mainly to the female sex. According to its opinion are women forthe black magic more susceptibly than men. They were disadvantaged already with the creation, because God created EH from Adam's rib. The equal rights of the sexes, which are described in the first part of the genesis, ignored shopkeepers, because it did not fit its argumentation. In addition it threwthe Mrs. Defizite in the faith forwards. This justified it with a self-willed Etymologie of latin of word femina (derived out lat. fides (faith) and minus (less)). It subordinated sexual Unersättlichkeit to the women. Therefore they would have also intimate contact with the Dämonen (Incubi). The devil pactform together with the bad assessment of the women and the göttlichen permission the basis for the feared phenomenon of the witch. The men fell the charm of the women to the victim.
Coincidentally the magic practices do not dominate themselves, on the sexual intercourse in the second part of the workand the male Impotenz (through way charms of the member) refer. The discrepancy of the sexes shows up also during the distribution of roles in the relationship of magic and science. The men would be in positions, which would take her due to their knowledge, while the women availed themselves of the magicand damage caused. Shopkeeper describes in the second part also as one before damage charms (maleficium) protects itself and/or. these to waive can do.
In the third part it presents from Spee criticized detailed rules for the witch processes and describes different cases.
influence of the“Witch hammer”
Thus shopkeeper gave the Inquisitoren a powerful instrument, with which witch pursuits were legitimized. Pursuits spread independently of the denominations differentiated by the reformation. During lifetimes of shopkeeper there were hundreds of executions. The witch hammer ranks among the most devastating books of the world literature andhad catastrophic consequences for the society in Europe; isolated to inside in 18. Century. A certain group was systematically pursued, since it had to pay for as a scapegoat all negative features. Thus quite parallels show themselves for the pursuit of the Jews, what also of Witch hammer coined/shaped term of the Hexensabbats clarifies (see also Sabbat), which became witch pursuit therefore also as “Holocaust against the women " designation; not only in view of the victim numbers of the Nazi Holocausts higher around a multiple this designation is however surely inappropriate, in addition became against the landläufigenOpinion also men and children as witches pursues and executed.
See also too: Witch theoretician.
- Heinrich shopkeeper (Institoris): The witch hammer. Malleus maleficarum. Commentated re-translation, given change and translates of Günter Jerouschek and Wolfgang Behringer, Munich, dtv. 3. revised edition March 2003, ISBN 3-423-30780-3
Web on the left of
- witch hammer, English, translate. Montague of buzzer 1928
- witch hammer - articles by Wolfgang Behringer