as hierarchy ([hirarˈçiː] or [hi̯erarˈçiː]) (Greek ιεραρχία, a Kompositum out ιερή, hieré - “holy” and αρχή, “arché” - rule, order, principle) a system of elements designates, those each other over and/or. are subordinated. In the closerSenses (mono hierarchy or tree structure) thereby each element at the most another element is directly superordinate, while with a Polyhierarchie also several übergerordnete elements are possible. Mathematically regarded a hierarchy requires an order relation, the one tree (mono hierarchy) or arrangedacyclic graph (Polyhierarchie) defines.
Organization (classification) or classification (classifying) of objects in hierarchy implied frequently priority, which is contained already in the ranking, according to which the objects are arranged. Therefore hierarchies becomefrequently as means for the practice of rule criticizes. They are however simpler fundamental to seize than complex network architecture.
a classical examplefor a hierarchy are military ranks. However in practice the ranks do not reflect necessarily the actual command string again. Also in enterprises there is a hierarchy of Vorgesetzen and department managers, it is fixed in which who whom instructions givescan. Also with it it concerns however, usually due to numerous committees and say, rarely a purely hierarchical decision structure.
The jurisdiction with its instances, which can waive judgements of the subordinated instance in each case, is more strictly arranged. To the order of informationclassifications are a usual means. Also the hierarchical order of files in a listing structure is usual.
Hierarchies in social systems
related to social systems are hierarchies often with conditions by rule and authority connected - for example in the line organization of an enterprise, an authority, in military affairs or in the church. Hierarchies also generally becomefor the order of objects for example in systematics uses. Figurativy hierarchies are compared frequently with a pyramid. The elements can be arranged usually in levels, whereby each element (up to the highest) only with (mono hierarchy) or several (Polyhierarchie)Is connected for elements of the next higher in each case level.
A structure like the network knows theoretically no hierarchy. Planned ones „networks “in the management economics with few rule elements take pretty often „rule liberty up “, are informally regularly not not hierarchy-free however.
- church hierarchy
- hierarchy (philosophy), to a line system, multi-line system, Dyarchie
- Gilles Deleuze, Peter principle
- hierarchical data base
- hierarchical search